- Ages 15 and over. (See also working-age adults, seniors)
- Age of onset:
- The age at which the disability first occurred.
- Age standardization: Footnote 37
- When the age distributions of two separate populations are very different, age standardization can be used to adjust the statistics for one population (e.g. people with disabilities) so that they are more comparable with the statistics for the other population (e.g. people without disabilities). For example, people with disabilities tend to be older, so their labour force characteristics will be different from those of people without disabilities. By age-standardizing the population of people with disabilities to the age structure of the population of people without disabilities, the actual difference between the two groups can be captured rather than the difference in their age structures. This is done within the context of the labour force. Labour force participation rates, employment rates and unemployment rates listed in the 2010 Federal Disability Report are age-standardized.
- Availability rate:
- The rate at which qualified designated group members are available in the labour market.
- Canada Pension Plan Disability program: Footnote 38
- The part of the Canada Pension Plan designed to replace a portion of income for Canada Pension Plan contributors who cannot work because of a disability that is both severe and prolonged (as defined by the Canada Pension Plan legislation). It is the largest long-term disability insurance program in Canada.
- Ages 14 and under. (See also younger children, older children)
- Designated groups:
- The four designated groups outlined by the Employment Equity Act: women, visible minorities, people with disabilities and Aboriginal peoples.
- Disability: Footnote 39
- An activity limitation or participation restriction associated with a physical or emotional condition or a health problem. The World Health Organization’s framework of disability provided by the International Classification of Functioning defines disability as the relationship between daily activities and social participation, while recognizing the role of environmental factors.
- Disability type: Footnote 40
- For the purposes of this report, there are ten types of disabilities: hearing, seeing, mobility, agility, communication, memory, learning, developmental, psychological and pain. The following are some examples of each disability type:
- Hearing: Difficulty hearing what is being said in a conversation with one other person.
- Seeing: Difficulty seeing ordinary newsprint or clearly seeing someone’s face from four metres away.
- Mobility: Difficulty walking half a kilometre or standing for long periods of time.
- Agility: Difficulty bending, dressing, getting into or out of bed, or grasping tiny objects.
- Communication: Difficulty speaking or being understood.
- Memory: Difficulty remembering details or things to do.
- Learning: Difficulty learning or paying attention, dyslexia, or hyperactivity.
- Developmental: Cognitive limitations due to an intellectual or developmental disability such as Down’s syndrome or autism.
- Psychological: Limited in the activities one may choose to do due to emotional, psychological or psychiatric conditions like phobias, depression, schizophrenia, or drinking or drug problems.
- Pain: Limited in the activities one may choose to do because of long-term pain that reoccurs from time to time.
- Employment income: Footnote 41
- Total income received by adults during calendar year 2005 as wages and salaries, net income from a non-farm unincorporated business and/or professional practice, and/or net farm self-employment income.
- Employment rate:
- The number of people who are employed expressed as a percentage of the total population ages 15 and over.
Text Description of the Employment rate equation
Equation representing the employment rate. The employment rate equals the number of employed individuals divided by the population ages 15 and over, and multiplied by 100.
- Guaranteed Income Supplement: Footnote 42
- A monthly benefit paid to residents of Canada who are eligible to receive an Old Age Security pension and have little or no other income.
- Household income: Footnote 43
- The sum of the total incomes of all members of a household.
- Labour force: Footnote 44
- Members of the civilian non-institutional population ages 15 and over who, during the reference week, were employed or unemployed.
Employed people are those who:
- did any work at all; or
- had a job but were not at work.
Unemployed people are those who:
- were without work, had actively searched for work in the past four weeks (ending with the reference period), and were available for work;
- had not actively looked for work in the past four weeks but were on temporary lay-off and were available for work; or
- had not actively looked for work in the past four weeks but had a new job to start in four weeks or less from the reference week and were available for work.
- Employed people are those who:
- Labour force participation rate: Footnote 45
- The labour force (employed and unemployed) expressed as a percentage of the population ages 15 and over.
Text Description of the equation of the Labour force participation rate
Equation representing the participation rate. The participation rate equals the labour force (employed plus unemployed) divided by the population ages 15 and over, and multiplied by 100.
- Low income cut-offs (LICO): Footnote 46
- This report uses after-tax low income cut-offs, which are an estimate of the threshold at which families are expected to spend 20 percentage points more of their after-tax income than the average family on food, shelter and clothing. To reflect the fact that the cost of necessities varies among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven categories of family size. After-tax LICOs are used because they take into account the reduction in families’ spending power due to income taxes paid.
- Not in the labour force: Footnote 47
- Members of the civilian non-institutional population ages 15 and over who, during the reference week, were neither employed nor unemployed.
- Occupation: Footnote 48
- The kind of work a person was doing during the reference week, as determined by the description of the main activities in his or her job. For people with two or more jobs, the information pertains to the job at which they worked the most hours. This report analyzes data covering ten broad occupational categories.
- Old Age Security: Footnote 49
- A program that provides income support for seniors. Benefits include the Old Age Security pension, the Guaranteed Income Supplement, the Allowance and the Allowance for the Survivor.
- Older children:
- Ages 5 to 14; also sometimes referred to as “school-age children.” (See also children, younger children)
- Older working-age adults:
- Ages 55 to 64. (See also working-age adults, youth / young adults, younger working-age adults)
- Out-of-pocket costs:
- Expenses that a person must pay personally for things like drugs, visits to health professionals, aids and devices, or medical treatment. Includes amounts not covered by insurance, such as exclusions, deductibles, copayments and expenses over coverage limits. Excludes amounts that have been or will be reimbursed by any insurance or government program.
- Quebec Pension Plan disability program:
- The province of Quebec delivers its own pension plan disability program. As with the Canada Pension Plan Disability program, the Quebec program’s primary role is to replace income for contributors who cannot work because of a disability that is both severe and permanent.
- Representation rate:
- The percentage of the workforce occupied by people with disabilities. This rate is the basic measure of equity.
- Ages 65 and over. (See also adults, working-age adults)
- Severity of disability: Footnote 50
- The disability severity scale is divided into four classes: mild, moderate, severep and very severe. If sample sizes are too small, restricting data disclosure, severity classes are combined to create two severity classes: mild to moderate and severe to very severe. For example, a person who has trouble climbing stairs or standing for long periods of time but has no problem walking can be classified as having a mild or moderate disability. A person who requires a wheelchair to move would have his or her mobility more severely limited, and a person who is bedridden for a long period of time would have a very severe mobility-related disability.
- Standard of living: Footnote 51
- Standard of living is a multi-dimensional concept that takes into account the necessities, material comforts and luxuries enjoyed or aspired to by an individual or group. This includes not only private consumer goods and services, but also collective consumer goods and services provided by the government, such as public utilities, access to safe drinking water or political freedoms.
- Unemployment rate:
- The number of people who are unemployed expressed as a percentage of the labour force.
Text Description of the Unemployment rate equation
Equation representing the unemployment rate. The unemployment rate equals the number of unemployed divided by the labour force, and multiplied by 100.
- Vulnerable groups:
- Groups at risk. This includes people with disabilities, seniors, racial and ethnic minorities, single parents, immigrants, those with low income, and the homeless, among others.
- Working-age adults:
- Ages 15 to 64. (See also adults, seniors, youth / young adults, younger working-age adults, older working-age adults)
- Younger children:
- Ages 0 to 5. (See also children, older children)
- Younger working-age adults:
- Ages 25 to 54. (See also working-age adults, youth / young adults, older working-age adults)
- Youth / young adults:
- Ages 15 to 24. (See also working-age adults, younger working-age adults, older working-age adults)
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