Employment Insurance Monitoring and Assessment Report for the fiscal year beginning April 1, 2017 and ending March 31, 2018
Annex 1: Key labour market statistics

  • Annex 1.1 Key labour market statistics – Concepts and definitions

    Chapter I and Annex 1 provide information on the labour force, employment, unemployment, participation rate, employment rate, unemployment rate, job vacancies and job vacancy rate. These concepts are defined below.

    Concept Definition
    Labour force The labour force is comprised of those members of the civilian non-institutional population 15 years of age and over who were employed or unemployed during the Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey reference week.

    Persons who are not in the labour force include those who were either unable to work or unavailable for work. They also include persons who were without work and who had neither actively looked for work in the past four weeks nor had a job to start within four weeks of the reference week.
    Employment Employed persons are those who, during the Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey reference week:

    a) did any work at all at a job or business, that is, paid work in the context of an employer-employee relationship, or self-employment (it also includes persons who did unpaid family work, which is defined as unpaid work contributing directly to the operation of a farm, business or professional practice owned and operated by a related member of the same household); or

    b) had a job but were not at work due to factors such as their own illness or disability, personal or family disabilities, vacation or a labour dispute (this excludes persons not at work because they were on layoff or between casual jobs, and those who did not then have a job even if they had a job to start at a future date).
    Unemployment Unemployed persons are those who, during the Statistics Canada’s Labour Force Survey reference week:

    a) were without work but had looked for work in the past four weeks (ending with the reference week) and were available for work;

    b) were on temporary layoff due to business conditions, with an expectation of recall (either because they have a definite date to return to work or because they have an indication from their employer that they will be recalled in the future) and were available for work; or

    c) had not actively looked for work in the past four weeks but had a job to start within four weeks from the reference week and were available for work.
    Participation rate The participation rate is defined as the labour force expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over.

    The participation rate for a particular group (province, gender, age, etc.) is the labour force in that group expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over for that group.
    Employment rate The employment rate is defined as the number of employed persons expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over.

    The employment rate for a particular group (province, gender, age, etc.) is the number employed in that group expressed as a percentage of the population 15 years of age and over for that group.
    Unemployment rate The unemployment rate is defined as the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force.

    The unemployment rate for a particular group (province, gender, age, etc.) is the number unemployed in that group expressed as a percentage of the labour force for that group.
    Job vacancies A job is vacant if it meets the following conditions:

    a) it is vacant on the reference date (first day of the month) or will become vacant during the month;

    b) there are tasks to be carried out during the month for the job in question; and

    c) the employer is actively seeking a worker outside the organization to fill the job.

    The job could be full-time, part-time, permanent, temporary, casual, or seasonal. Jobs reserved for subcontractors, external consultants, or other workers who are not considered employees, are excluded.
    Job vacancy rate The number of job vacancies expressed as a percentage of labour demand; e.g., all occupied and vacant jobs.

    Sources: Statistics Canada, "Guide to the Labour Force Survey", catalogue no. 71-543-G, Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Labour Statistics Division, 2018. Statistics Canada, "Labour Force Information: September 7, 2018", Catalogue no. 71-001-X, Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Labour Statistics Division, 2018. Statistics Canada, "Guide to the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey, July 12, 2018", Catalogue no. 75-514-G, Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Labour Statistics Division, 2018.

  • Annex 1.2 Key labour market statistics
    Key labour market statistics1
    Labour market characteristics (levels in thousands)2
    Statistics FY8788 FY9798 FY0708 FY1617 FY1718 Change (%) FY1617 to FY1718
    Population3 20,413.8 23,317.5 26,548.9 29,662.1 29,991.2 +1.1
    Labour force 13,597.0 15,140.3 17,923.4 19,491.9 19,692.5 +1.0
    Employment 12,455.8 13,797.7 16,852.5 18,153.4 18,487.7 +1.8
    Unemployment 1,141.2 1,342.7 1,071.0 1,338.5 1,204.8 -10.0
    Labour market characteristics (rates in %)
    Statistics FY8788 FY9798 FY0708 FY1617 FY1718 Change (p.p) FY1617 to FY1718
    Unemployment rate 8.4 8.9 6.0 6.9 6.1 -0.8
    Participation rate 66.6 64.9 67.5 65.7 65.7 0.0
    Employment rate 61.0 59.2 63.5 61.2 61.6 +0.4
    • Note: Data may not add up to the total due to rounding. Fiscal year data in this annex are the annual average of unadjusted monthly estimates produced by Statistics Canada.
    • 1 Statistics exclude the territories.
    • 2 The years reviewed in this annex prior to FY1718 correspond to the immediate previous year and in decrements of ten years in the past, in order to compare changes in these indicators over a longer period of time.
    • 3 Number of working-age persons, 15 years of age and older.
    • Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Table 14-10-0287-01.
  • Annex 1.3 Employment by province or territory, gender, age, educational attainment, industry, employment type, class of workers and job permanency
    Employment1 by province or territory, gender, age, educational attainment, industry, employment type, class of workers and job permanency (levels in thousands)
    Characteristics2 FY8788 FY9798 FY0708 FY1617 FY1718 Change (%) FY1617 to FY1718
    Province or territory
    Newfoundland and Labrador 192.8 190.1 218.6 231.3r 223.6 -3.3
    Prince Edward Island 53.5 58.8 68.5 71.9 74.3 +3.3
    Nova Scotia 363.2 386.1 447.7 447.1 450.6 +0.8
    New Brunswick 283.5 311.1 359.4 352.8 353.1 +0.1
    Quebec 3,044.2 3,188.0 3,862.7 4,156.8 4,242.5 +2.1
    Ontario 4,953.9 5,338.2 6,569.4 7,024.5 7,155.6 +1.9
    Manitoba 506.2 527.2 594.9 635.2 645.0 +1.5
    Saskatchewan 462.5 468.3 506.8 569.0 567.2 -0.3
    Alberta 1,198.2 1,468.6 2,007.1 2,263.3 2,298.4 +1.6
    British Columbia 1,398.0 1,861.3 2,217.3 2,401.5r 2,477.6 +3.2
    Yukon N/A3 15.2 17.5 20.7 21.2 +2.4
    Northwest Territories N/A N/A 23.0 22.3 21.2 -4.9
    Nunavut N/A N/A 10.1 13.5 13.4 -0.7
    Gender
    Men 7,084.2 7,523.7 8,887.0 9,496.2 9,676.0 +1.9
    Women 5,371.7 6,274.0 7,965.4 8,657.1 8,811.7 +1.8
    Age category
    15 to 24 years 2,585.2 2,028.2 2,614.3 2,430.8 2,463.8 +1.4
    25 to 54 years 8,615.9 10,413.9 11,690.3 11,946.0 12,091.7 +1.2
    55 years and older 1,254.8 1,355.6 2,547.9 3,776.7 3,932.1 +4.1
    Educational attainment
    Less than high school4 N/A 2,521.4 2,180.7 1,592.4 1,571.9 -1.3
    High school diploma5 N/A 4,149.2 4,834.0 4,631.2 4,713.4 +1.8
    Post-secondary certificate or diploma6 N/A 4,549.2 5,911.2 6,488.2 6,538.9 +0.8
    University degree7 N/A 2,577.9 3,926.6 5,441.5 5,663.5 +4.1
    Industry
    Goods-producing industries 3,671.1 3,601.0 3,964.2 3,823.1 3,904.0 +2.1
    Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 566.0 526.2 418.4 350.2 344.4 -1.7
    Mining and oil and gas extraction 187.4 186.2 258.9 260.1 266.2 +2.3
    Utilities 116.8 113.1 141.2 137.0 132.4 -3.4
    Construction 742.3 727.3 1,152.7 1,389.9 1,420.0 +2.2
    Manufacturing 2,058.7 2,048.0 1,993.0 1,685.9 1,741.0 +3.3
    Services-producing industries 8,784.8 10,196.7 12,888.3 14,330.3 14,583.6 +1.8
    Wholesale trade 420.6 456.3 626.0 687.4 665.4 -3.2
    Retail trade 1,589.0 1,661.8 2,052.1 2,068.8 2,153.9 +4.1
    Transportation and warehousing 641.1 703.4 830.6 913.1 955.6 +4.7
    Finance and insurance 543.0 622.0 747.7 821.2 823.8 +0.3
    Real estate and rental and leasing 231.8 237.8 304.2 320.2 348.3 +8.8
    Professional, scientific and technical services 501.8 795.9 1,143.0 1,398.8 1,454.6 +4.0
    Business, building and other support services8 271.3 448.6 701.1 767.0 756.2 -1.4
    Educational services 791.3 918.0 1,172.0 1,274.8r 1,289.9 +1.2
    Health care and social assistance 1,168.8 1,388.3 1,849.3 2,346.7 2,389.2 +1.8
    Information, culture and recreation9 510.5 609.1 775.3 788.6 789.8 +0.2
    Accommodation and food services 719.1 880.3 1,070.2 1,218.5 1,212.2 -0.5
    Other services (except public administration) 626.8 683.6 733.5 781.7 786.0 +0.6
    Public administration 769.7 791.6 883.4 943.4 958.9 +1.6
    Employment type
    Full-time employment10 10,379.8 11,191.0 13,772.5 14,660.7 14,981.0 +2.2
    Part-time employment11 2,076.0 2,606.7 3,080.0 3,492.7 3,506.7 +0.4
    Class of worker
    Employees 10,737.4 11,425.9 14,238.6 15,393.0 15,653.1 +1.7
    Public sector employees 2,646.9 2,645.4 3,314.7 3,641.1r 3,735.0 +2.6
    Private sector employees 8,090.5 8,780.5 10,924.0 11,751.9 11,918.1 +1.4
    Self-employed 1,718.5 2,371.8 2,613.8 2,760.3 2,834.6 +2.7
    Job permanency
    Employees N/A 11,425.9 14,238.6 15,393.0 15,653.1 +1.7
    Permanent employees12 N/A 10,109.5 12,419.3 13,342.2 13,515.5 +1.3
    Temporary employees13 N/A 1,316.4 1,819.3 2,050.9 2,137.6 +4.2
    Canada 12,455.9 13,797.7 16,852.5 18,153.4 18,487.7 +1.8
    • Note: Data may not add up to the total due to rounding. Fiscal year data in this annex are the annual average of unadjusted monthly estimates produced by Statistics Canada.
    • r Revised data.
    • 1 The years reviewed in this annex prior to FY1718 correspond to the immediate previous year and in decrements of ten years in the past, in order to compare changes in these indicators over a longer period of time.
    • 2 Data specific to territories are not included in the official total for Canada. Data in other categories (i.e. data by gender, age, educational attainment, industry, employment type, class of workers and job permanency) also excludes territorial data.
    • 3 All years and groupings in these annexes where the use of N/A appears refers to data not being available or applicable for the year referenced, as this data was not reported for the year, group or EI benefit referenced.
    • 4 Includes zero to eight years of education and some high school.
    • 5 Includes high school graduates and some post-secondary education (not completed).
    • 6 Includes certificates (including trade certificates) or diplomas from an educational institution beyond the secondary level, which comprise certificates from a vocational school, apprenticeship training, community college, collège d'enseignement général et professionnel (cégep) and school of nursing. Also included are certificates below a bachelor's degree obtained at a university.
    • 7 Includes at least a university bachelor's degree.
    • 8 This industry combines codes 55 (management of companies and enterprises) and 56 (administrative and support, waste management and remediation services) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • 9 This industry combines codes 51 (information and cultural industries) and 71 (arts, entertainment and recreation) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • 10 Full-time employment consists of persons who usually work 30 hours or more per week at their main or only job.
    • 11 Part-time employment consists of persons who usually work less than 30 hours per week at their main or only job.
    • 12 A permanent job is one that is expected to last as long as the employee wants it, if business conditions permit—that is, there is no predetermined end date.
    • 13 A temporary job has a predetermined end date or will end as soon as a specified project is completed. This category includes seasonal jobs; temporary, term or contract jobs, including work done through a temporary help agency; casual jobs; and other temporary work.
    • Sources: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Tables 14-10-0019-01 (for data by educational attainment), 14-10-0022-01 (for data by industry), 14-10-0026-01 (for data by class of workers), 14-10-0071-01 (for data by job permanency), 14-10-0287-01 (for data specific to provinces, by gender, age and employment type), and 14-10-0292-01 (for data specific to territories).
  • Annex 1.4 Job vacancies by province or territory, educational level sought, industry, job type, job permanency and vacancy duration
    Job vacancies by province or territory, educational level sought, industry, job type, job permanency and vacancy duration (levels in thousands)
    Characteristics FY1516 FY1617 FY1718 Change (%) FY1617 to FY1718
    Province or territory
    Newfoundland and Labrador 4.6 3.5r 3.5 -2.5
    Prince Edward Island 1.5 1.3 1.7 +31.9
    Nova Scotia 9.9 8.4 9.9 +17.7
    New Brunswick 7.3 6.4r 7.7 +19.7
    Quebec 59.2 66.2r 89.2 +34.6
    Ontario 156.1r 168.2r 185.4 +10.2
    Manitoba 12.3 11.2 14.0 +25.6
    Saskatchewan 11.9 9.0 10.1 +11.4
    Alberta 56.8r 43.0 51.7 +20.4
    British Columbia 66.1r 72.5r 89.9 +24.0
    Yukon 0.6 0.6 0.7 +28.7
    Northwest Territories 0.8 0.6 0.6 +14.7
    Nunavut 0.4 0.3 0.4 +23.8
    Minimum level of education sought
    No minimum level of education sought 138.7r 130.6r 162.5 +24.4
    High school diploma or equivalent 107.1r 112.5r 133.5 +18.7
    Apprenticeship or trade certificate or diploma 32.2r 32.0r 38.1 +19.0
    College or non-university certificate or diploma1 65.1r 68.3r 77.1 +12.8
    University degree2 44.2r 47.8r 53.7 +12.3
    Industry
    Goods-producing industries 69.7 71.3r 90.5 +26.9
    Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 10.3 10.2 12.1 +18.8
    Mining and oil and gas extraction 2.2 2.7 5.4 +97.1
    Utilities 1.2 1.1 1.4 +20.3
    Construction 25.6 25.5 30.9 +21.5
    Manufacturing 30.5 31.8 40.7 +28.0
    Services-producing industries 317.6r 319.9r 374.4 +17.0
    Wholesale trade 15.6r 15.6r 20.5 +31.3
    Retail trade 60.5r 55.0 56.4 +2.6
    Transportation and warehousing 17.3r 18.4r 26.9 +46.0
    Finance and insurance 17.8r 20.6 23.1 +12.2
    Real estate and rental and leasing 5.1 5.5 7.4 +34.1
    Professional, scientific and technical services 24.1r 26.2r 29.6 +12.8
    Business, building and other support services3 32.2r 33.9r 37.3 +10.0
    Educational services 9.5 10.2 12.6 +23.2
    Health care and social assistance 35.6r 39.1 47.4 +21.2
    Information, culture and recreation4 19.3 17.4r 22.6 +29.9
    Accommodation and food services 56.5r 53.3r 62.5 +17.2
    Other services (except public administration) 16.8 17.3r 19.8 +14.8
    Public administration 7.3 7.4 8.4 +12.9
    Job vacancy type
    Full-time positions5 262.5r 267.4r 328.4 +22.8
    Part-time positions6 124.8r 123.9r 136.5 +10.2
    Job permanency
    Permanent positions7 288.0r 293.5r 361.0 +23.0
    Temporary positions8 99.3r 97.8r 103.8 +6.1
    Seasonal positions9 67.5r 67.8r 74.5 +9.9
    Job vacancy duration
    Constantly recruiting 80.6 75.2r 95.6 +27.1
    Less than 15 days 111.3r 105.8r 112.7 +6.5
    15 to 29 days 84.2r 85.3r 94.0 +10.1
    30 to 59 days 57.9r 62.7r 79.3 +26.4
    60 to 89 days 20.5r 23.3 30.0 +29.0
    90 days or more 32.9r 38.8r 53.2 +37.0
    Canada 387.3 391.3 464.8 +18.8
    • Note: Data may not add up to the total due to rounding. Percentage change is based on unrounded numbers. Fiscal year data in this annex are the annual average of unadjusted quarterly estimates produced by Statistics Canada.
    • r Revised data.
    • 1 Includes certificates or diplomas from an educational institution beyond the secondary level, which comprise certificates from a community college, collège d'enseignement général et professionnel (cégep) and school of nursing. Also included are certificates below a bachelor's degree obtained at a university. Apprenticeship or trades certificates are excluded from this category.
    • 2 Bachelor's degree or above.
    • 3 This industry combines codes 55 (management of companies and enterprises) and 56 (administrative and support, waste management and remediation services) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • 4 This industry combines codes 51 (information and cultural industries) and 71 (arts, entertainment and recreation) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • 5 A full-time vacant position consists of position which requires 30 or more hours of work per week.
    • 6 A part-time vacant position consists of position which requires less than 30 hours of work per week.
    • 7 A permanent position consists of a position which is expected to last as long as the employee wants it, given that business conditions permit. That is, there is no pre-determined termination date.
    • 8 A temporary position consists of a position which has a predetermined end date, or will end as soon as a specified project is completed.
    • 9 A seasonal position is a temporary position which is linked to a recurring event (e.g., public holidays) or time of the year (e.g., summertime).
    • Sources: Statistics Canada, Job Vacancy and Wage Survey, Tables 14-10-0326-01 (for data by industry and province or territory) and 14-10-0328-01 (for data by level of education sought, job vacancy type, job permanency and job vacancy duration).
  • Annex 1.5 Job vacancy rates by province or territory and industry
    Job vacancy rates by province or territory and industry (%)
    Characteristics FY1516 FY1617 FY1718 Change (% Points) FY1617 to FY1718
    Province or territory
    Newfoundland and Labrador 2.2 1.7 1.7 0.0
    Prince Edward Island 2.4 2.1r 2.7 +0.5
    Nova Scotia 2.5 2.2r 2.5 +0.4
    New Brunswick 2.5 2.2 2.6 +0.4
    Quebec 1.8 1.9 2.5 +0.6
    Ontario 2.6 2.7r 3.0 +0.3
    Manitoba 2.1 1.9 2.4 +0.5
    Saskatchewan 2.5 1.9 2.2 +0.2
    Alberta 2.8 2.2 2.6 +0.4
    British Columbia 3.2 3.4 4.1 +0.7
    Yukon 3.8 3.2 4.0 +0.8
    Northwest Territories 3.4r 2.5 2.8 +0.3
    Nunavut 3.4r 2.7 3.1 +0.4
    Industry
    Goods-producing industries 2.3 2.3 2.9 +0.6
    Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 4.8 4.6r 5.4 +0.8
    Mining and oil and gas extraction 1.0 1.4 2.6 +1.2
    Utilities 1.0 1.0r 1.1 +0.2
    Construction 2.6 2.6 3.0 +0.4
    Manufacturing 2.0 2.1 2.6 +0.5
    Services-producing industries 2.6 2.5r 2.9 +0.4
    Wholesale trade 2.0 2.0 2.6 +0.6
    Retail trade 3.0 2.7 2.8 +0.1
    Transportation and warehousing 2.4 2.5 3.5 +1.0
    Finance and insurance 2.4 2.8 3.1 +0.3
    Real estate and rental and leasing 1.8r 1.9r 2.4 +0.6
    Professional, scientific and technical services 2.7 3.0r 3.2 +0.2
    Business, building and other support services1 3.5 3.7 4.0 +0.3
    Educational services 0.8 0.8 1.0 +0.2
    Health care and social assistance 1.9 2.0 2.4 +0.4
    Information, culture and recreation2 3.1 2.7 3.4 +0.7
    Accommodation and food services 4.4 4.0 4.6 +0.5
    Other services (except public administration) 3.0 3.1 3.5 +0.4
    Public administration 1.5 1.5 1.7 +0.2
    Canada 2.5 2.5 2.9 +0.4
    • Note: Fiscal year data in this annex are the annual average of unadjusted quarterly estimates produced by Statistics Canada.
    • 1 This industry combines codes 55 (management of companies and enterprises) and 56 (administrative and support, waste management and remediation services) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • 2 This industry combines codes 51 (information and cultural industries) and 71 (arts, entertainment and recreation) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • Source: Statistics Canada, Job Vacancy and Wage Survey, Table 14-10-0326-01.
  • Annex 1.6 Unemployment by province or territory, gender, age, educational attainment, industry, reasons for unemployment and unemployment duration
    Unemployment1 by province or territory, gender, age, educational attainment, industry, reasons for unemployment and unemployment duration (levels in thousands)
    Characteristics2 FY8788 FY9798 FY0708 FY1617 FY1718 Change (%) FY1617 to FY1718
    Province or territory
    Newfoundland and Labrador 40.6 41.0 32.8 36.6 38.3 +4.6
    Prince Edward Island 7.7 10.2 7.7 8.4 8.2 -2.4
    Nova Scotia 46.4 50.3 38.7 39.6 40.7 +2.8
    New Brunswick 41.8 45.0 30.2 35.8 30.7 -14.2
    Quebec 327.8 399.0 294.6 302.7 263.1 -13.1
    Ontario 303.4 468.6 445.1 483.5 437.2 -9.6
    Manitoba 40.6 34.2 27.0 41.1 37.3 -9.2
    Saskatchewan 36.9 28.3 22.4 38.7 36.9 -4.7
    Alberta 118.4 87.6 73.3 206.3 182.6 -11.5
    British Columbia 177.7 178.4 99.1 145.9 129.8 -11.0
    Yukon N/A 2.3 0.9 1.2 0.7 -41.7
    Northwest Territories N/A N/A 1.5 1.7 1.7 0.0
    Nunavut N/A N/A 1.1 2.3 2.2 -4.3
    Gender
    Men 620.4 739.9 598.8 767.9 672.3 -12.4
    Women 520.8 602.8 472.2 570.7 532.5 -6.7
    Age category
    15 to 24 years 367.4 391.3 327.8 364.2 311.5 -14.5
    25 to 54 years 688.5 854.3 616.0 733.2 667.1 -9.0
    55 years and older 85.4 97.1 127.2 241.1 226.2 -6.2
    Educational attainment
    Less than high school3 N/A 458.0 297.2 255.1r 215.7 -15.4
    High school diploma4 N/A 410.2 323.2 409.3 367.8 -10.1
    Post-secondary certificate or diploma5 N/A 349.6 300.0 396.4 368.1 -7.1
    University degree6 N/A 124.9 150.6 277.7 253.2 -8.8
    Industry7
    Goods-producing industries 315.2 283.3 249.5 263.6 217.4 -17.5
    Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 49.4 49.8 32.3 27.7 23.6 -14.8
    Mining and oil and gas extraction 14.1 10.7E 11.0E 23.4 13.9 -40.6
    Utilities8 3.0F 3.7F 2.5F 3.0r,F 3.3F +10.0
    Construction 102.9 98.1 80.7 127.2 113.5 -10.8
    Manufacturing 146.0 121.2 123.3 82.7 63.5 -23.2
    Services-producing industries 555.9 550.1 498.8 562.8 502.2 -10.8
    Wholesale trade 22.0 23.2 21.0 27.8 22.0 -20.9
    Retail trade 109.1 98.9 94.3 90.0 88.2 -2.0
    Transportation and warehousing 39.3 37.9 28.7 36.2 29.8 -17.7
    Finance and insurance 16.5 13.8 12.4 18.7 18.9 +1.1
    Real estate and rental and leasing 12.2 11.0E 8.8E 9.9E 7.2E -27.3
    Professional, scientific and technical services 24.0 32.2 31.7 46.9 38.5 -17.9
    Business, building and other support services9 37.5 50.9 59.1 63.3 52.4 -17.2
    Educational services 32.5 36.5 44.1 45.5 46.2 +1.5
    Health care and social assistance 46.1 45.5 33.0 42.1 38.9 -7.6
    Information, culture and recreation10 34.0 42.6 39.1 44.3 44.6 +0.7
    Accommodation and food services 89.3 81.7 79.0 82.5 72.0 -12.7
    Other services (except public administration) 47.4 41.4 27.1 33.4 26.0 -22.2
    Public administration 45.9 34.7 20.5 22.1 17.5 -20.8
    Unclassified industries11 270.2 509.2 322.7 512.0 485.3 -5.2
    Reason for unemployment
    People who have left their job 275.2 237.0 258.9 239.9 220.0 -8.3
    People who have lost their job 595.9 596.4 489.3 586.6 499.5 -14.8
    People who have not worked in the last year or who have never worked 270.2 509.2 322.7 512.0 485.3 -5.2
    Duration of unemployment12
    1 to 4 weeks 331.8 425.3 431.1 446.9 422.7 -5.4
    5 to 13 weeks 306.9 335.6 292.3 359.8 313.6 -12.8
    14 to 26 weeks 218.4 213.9 149.7 214.1 186.3 -13.0
    27 to 51 weeks 142.1 123.9 67.2 109.1 97.7 -10.4
    52 weeks or more 113.0 201.6 75.0 156.0 133.3 -14.6
    Duration unknown13 29.0 42.4 55.6 52.5 51.2 -2.5
    Canada 1,141.2 1,342.7 1,071.0 1,338.5 1,204.8 -10.0%
    • Note: Data may not add up to the total due to rounding. Fiscal year data in this annex are the annual average of unadjusted monthly estimates produced by Statistics Canada.
    • r Revised data.
    • E Use with caution.
    • F The user is advised that those results do not meet Statistics Canada’s quality standards for this statistical program. Conclusions based on these data will be unreliable and most likely invalid.
    • 1 The years reviewed in this annex prior to FY1718 correspond to the immediate previous year and in decrements of ten years in the past, in order to compare changes in these indicators over a longer period of time.
    • 2 Data specific to territories are not included in the official total for Canada. Data in other categories (i.e. data by gender, age, educational attainment, industry, reason for unemployment and duration of unemployment) also excludes territorial data.
    • 3 Includes zero to eight years of education and some high school.
    • 4 Includes high school graduates and some post-secondary education (not completed).
    • 5 Includes certificates (including trade certificates) or diplomas from an educational institution beyond the secondary level, which comprise certificates from a vocational school, apprenticeship training, community college, collège d'enseignement général et professionnel (cégep) and school of nursing. Also included are certificates below a bachelor's degree obtained at a university.
    • 6 Includes at least a university bachelor's degree.
    • 7 Information is provided for the last job held, providing the person worked within the previous twelve months.
    • 8 Monthly data that are confidential under the Statistics Act are excluded from the calculation of the annual average.
    • 9 This industry combines codes 55 (management of companies and enterprises) and 56 (administrative and support, waste management and remediation services) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • 10 This industry combines codes 51 (information and cultural industries) and 71 (arts, entertainment and recreation) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • 11 People who have not worked in the last year or who have never worked are not classified as belonging to any industry.
    • 12 Duration of unemployment is the number of continuous weeks during which a person has been without work and is looking for work, or is on temporary layoff.
    • 13 Duration of unemployment is not reported for unemployed people who reported having a job to start in the next four weeks under the Labour Force Survey.
    • Sources: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Tables 14-10-0019-01 (for data by educational attainment), 14-10-0022-01 (for data by industry), 14-10-0056-01 (for data by duration of unemployment), 14-10-0125-01 (for data by reason for unemployment), 14-10-0287-01 (for data specific to provinces, by gender and age) and 14-10-0292-01 (for data specific to territories).
  • Annex 1.7 Unemployment rate by province or territory, gender, age, educational attainment and industry
    Unemployment rate1 by province or territory, gender, age, educational attainment and industry(%)
    Characteristics2 FY8788 FY9798 FY0708 FY1617 FY1718 Change (% Points) FY1617 to FY1718
    Province or territory
    Newfoundland and Labrador 17.5 17.8 13.1 13.7 14.7 +1.0
    Prince Edward Island 12.7 14.9 10.1 10.6 9.9 -0.7
    Nova Scotia 11.3 11.5 8.0 8.1 8.3 +0.2
    New Brunswick 12.9 12.7 7.8 9.2 8.0 -1.2
    Quebec 9.7 11.1 7.1 6.8 5.9 -0.9
    Ontario 5.8 8.1 6.3 6.4 5.8 -0.6
    Manitoba 7.4 6.1 4.3 6.1 5.5 -0.6
    Saskatchewan 7.4 5.7 4.2 6.4 6.1 -0.3
    Alberta 9.0 5.6 3.5 8.4r 7.4 -1.0
    British Columbia 11.3 8.8 4.3 5.7 5.0 -0.7
    Yukon N/A 13.0 4.9 5.3 3.2 -2.1
    Northwest Territories N/A N/A 6.1 7.1 7.3 +0.2
    Nunavut N/A N/A 9.4 14.3 14.0 -0.3
    Gender
    Men 8.1 9.0 6.3 7.5 6.5 -1.0
    Women 8.8 8.8 5.6 6.2 5.7 -0.5
    Age category
    15 to 24 years 12.5 16.2 11.2 13.0 11.2 -1.8
    25 to 54 years 7.4 7.6 5.0 5.8 5.2 -0.6
    55 years and older 6.4 6.7 4.8 6.0 5.5 -0.5
    Educational attainment
    Less than high school3 N/A 15.4 12.0 13.8 12.1 -1.7
    High school diploma4 N/A 9.0 6.3 8.1 7.2 -0.9
    Post-secondary certificate or diploma5 N/A 7.1 4.8 5.8 5.3 -0.4
    University degree6 N/A 4.6 3.7 4.9 4.3 -0.6
    Industry
    Goods-producing industries 8.0 7.3 6.0 6.5 5.3 -1.2
    Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 8.0 8.6 7.2 7.3 6.4 -0.9
    Mining and oil and gas extraction 7.0 5.5 4.1 8.2 5.0 -3.2
    Utilities7 2.5 3.1 1.8 2.2r 2.4 +0.2
    Construction 12.3 12.0 6.6 8.4 7.4 -1.0
    Manufacturing 6.6 5.6 5.8 4.7 3.5 -1.2
    Services-producing industries 6.0 5.1 3.7 3.8 3.3 -0.5
    Wholesale trade 5.0 4.8 3.2 3.9 3.2 -0.7
    Retail trade 6.4 5.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 -0.2
    Transportation and warehousing 5.8 5.1 3.3 3.8 3.0 -0.8
    Finance and insurance 3.0 2.2 1.6 2.2 2.2 0.0
    Real estate and rental and leasing 5.0 4.4 2.8 3.0 2.0 -1.0
    Professional, scientific and technical services 4.6 3.9 2.7 3.3 2.6 -0.7
    Business, building and other support services8 12.1 10.2 7.8 7.6 6.5 -1.1
    Educational services 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.7 +0.1
    Health care and social assistance 3.8 3.2 1.7 1.8 1.6 -0.2
    Information, culture and recreation9 6.2 6.5 4.8 5.4 5.4 0.0
    Accommodation and food services 11.0 8.5 6.9 6.3 5.6 -0.7
    Other services (except public administration) 7.0 5.7 3.6 4.1 3.2 -0.9
    Public administration 5.6 4.2 2.3 2.3 1.8 -0.5
    Canada 8.4 8.9 6.0 6.9 6.1 -0.8
    • Note: Fiscal year data in this annex are the annual average of unadjusted monthly estimates produced by Statistics Canada.
    • r Revised data.
    • 1 The years reviewed in this annex prior to FY1718 correspond to the immediate previous year and in decrements of ten years in the past, in order to compare changes in these indicators over a longer period of time.
    • 2 Data specific to territories are not included in the official total for Canada. Data in other categories (i.e. data by gender, age, educational attainment and industry) also excludes territorial data.
    • 3 Includes zero to eight years of education and some high school.
    • 4 Includes high school graduates and some post-secondary education (not completed).
    • 5 Includes certificates (including trade certificates) or diplomas from an educational institution beyond the secondary level, which comprise certificates from a vocational school, apprenticeship training, community college, collège d'enseignement général et professionnel (cégep) and school of nursing. Also included are certificates below a bachelor's degree obtained at a university.
    • 6 Includes at least a university bachelor's degree.
    • 7 Monthly data that are confidential under the Statistics Act are excluded from the calculation of the annual average.
    • 8 This industry combines codes 55 (management of companies and enterprises) and 56 (administrative and support, waste management and remediation services) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • 9 This industry combines codes 51 (information and cultural industries) and 71 (arts, entertainment and recreation) from the North American Industry Classification System.
    • Sources: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Tables 14-10-0019-01 (for data by educational attainment), 14-10-0022-01 (for data by industry), and 14-10-0287-01 (for data specific to provinces, by gender, age and employment type), and 14-10-0292-01 (for data specific to territories).
  • Annex 1.8 Average duration of unemployment by province, gender and age
    Average duration of unemployment1,2 by province, gender and age (number of weeks)
    Characteristics FY0809 FY0910 FY1011 FY1112 FY1213 FY1314 FY1415 FY1516 FY1617 FY1718 Change FY1617 to FY1718 (weeks)
    Province
    Newfoundland and Labrador 17.3 17.3 16.8 17.6 16.9 16.8 17.2 17.6 17.9 18.7 +0.8
    Prince Edward Island 14.0 14.7 14.4 12.5 13.7 15.9 16.2 15.6 14.0 16.1 +2.1
    Nova Scotia 13.8 16.5 19.2 17.3 17.2 19.9 19.3 19.0 18.3 17.7 -0.6
    New Brunswick 15.1 14.9 18.0 17.2 16.5 19.5 19.6 18.5 19.5 18.4 -1.1
    Quebec 18.1 19.4 20.8 22.8 23.3 23.9 23.5 23.5 21.8 18.6 -3.2
    Ontario 14.9 20.1 22.5 22.6 22.0 22.0 21.6 20.0 20.2 18.6 -1.6
    Manitoba 11.3 12.7 14.9 15.0 16.3 17.2 16.2 17.0 18.1r 15.9 -2.2
    Saskatchewan 9.7 12.1 15.8 15.5 15.2 14.3 13.3 13.2 17.8 18.7 +0.9
    Alberta 8.5 14.9 17.9 15.8 13.1 14.3 14.1 15.5 21.9 22.7 +0.8
    British Columbia 12.2 16.7 18.7 21.7 19.4 20.7 19.8 18.9 18.4 18.3 -0.1
    Gender
    Men 15.9 19.3 21.6 22.7 21.2 21.9 21.5 20.8 21.6 20.0 -1.6
    Women 13.6 17.0r 19.0r 19.2 19.9 20.3 19.5 18.5 18.5 17.9 -0.6
    Age category
    15 to 24 years old 7.9 10.4 11.0 11.3 11.4 12.1 12.1 11.2 11.4 10.8 -0.6
    25 to 54 years old 16.9 20.0 22.7 22.9 23.2 23.1 22.6 21.5 21.5 19.8 -1.7
    55 years old and over 23.1 29.6 30.6 34.2 29.9 31.0 29.9 28.8 30.3 28.3 -2.0
    Canada 14.9 18.4 20.4r 21.1 20.6 21.1 20.7r 19.8 20.3 19.1 -1.2
    • Note: Fiscal year data in this annex are the annual average of unadjusted monthly estimates produced by Statistics Canada.
    • r Revised data.
    • 1 Duration of unemployment is the number of continuous weeks during which a person has been without work and is looking for work, or is on temporary layoff.
    • 2 Average weeks of unemployment is calculated with no upper limit to length of unemployment.
    • Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Table 14-10-0056-01.
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