Ethylene glycol final content: references
ACC (American Chemistry Council). 2005. Ethylene glycol: 12-month dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats. Study ID: 031079.
Aéroports de Montréal. 1998. Évaluation des opérations de dégivrage, saison 1997-1998, Aéroports Internationaux de Montréal -- Dorval et Mirabel. Prepared by the Direction Environnement Aéroports de Montréal.
Aéroports de Montréal. 1999. Évaluation des opérations de dégivrage, saison 1998-1999, Aéroports Internationaux de Montréal -- Dorval et Mirabel. Prepared by the Direction Environnement Aéroports de Montréal.
Amstrup, S.C., Gardner, C., Meyers, K.C. and Oehme, F.W. 1989. Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) poisoning in a free-ranging polar bear. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 31(4): 317-319.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2007. Draft Toxicological Profile for Ethylene Glycol. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia: 179-181.
Beasley, V.R. 1985. Diagnosis and management of ethylene glycol (anti-freeze) poisoning. Feline Pract. 15(1): 41-46.
Beasley, V.R. and Buck, W.B. 1980. Acute ethylene glycol toxicosis: a review. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 22(4): 255-263.
Black, P.R. 1983. Ethylene glycol intoxication in cats. Mod. Vet. Pract. 64: 733-734.
Booth, E.D., Dofferhoff, O., Boogaard, P.J. and Watson, W.P. 2004. Comparison of the metabolism of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid in vitro by precision-cut tissue slices from female rat, rabbit and human liver. Xenobiotica 34(1): 31-48.
Budavari S., O’Neil, M.J., Smith, A. and Heckelman, P.E. 1989. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 11th ed. Merck and Co., Rahway, New Jersey.
CA/ICCA International Council of Chemical Associations). SIAM 18. April 2004. SIDS initial assessment profile on glycols.
CAA (Calgary Airport Authority). 1999. 1998/99 water quality monitoring program. Calgary, Alberta.
Canada. Environmental Protection Service. 1985. Enviro TIPS (Technical Information for Problem Spills). Volume 19 - Ethylene glycol. Environmental Protection Service, Technical Services Branch, Ottawa, Ontario. (Catalogue No. EN48-10/47-1985E).
Canada. 1994. Order in Council, Department of the Environment. Glycol guidelines. P.C. 1994-106, January 20, 1994. Canada Gazette, Part I, February 5, 1994. (accessed November 14, 2007).
Canada. 1999. Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999. S.C., 1999, c. 33. Part III. vol. 22, no. 3. in PDF Format, 1649 KB, page 3 (accessed August 3, 2007).
Canada. 2000. Government notices, Department of the Environment and Department of Health. Notice of suspension of five-year period for ethylene glycol, a substance specified on the priority substances list (Subsection 78(2) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 in PDF Format, 1043 KB, page 4. Available at Canada Gazette (Part I) 134 (49) (December 2, 2000). (accessed November 14, 2007).
Caravati, E.M., Erdman, A.R., Christianson, G., Manoguerra, A.S., Booze, L.L., Woolf, A.D., Olson, K.R., Chyka, P.A., Scharman, E.J., Wax, P.M., Keyes, D.C. and Troutman, W.G. 2005. Ethylene glycol exposure: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management. Clin. Toxicol. 43(5): 327-345.
Carney, E.W., Freshour, N.L., Dittenber, D.L. and Dryzga, M.D. 1999. Ethylene glycol developmental toxicity: unravelling the roles of glycolic acid and metabolic acidosis. Toxicol. Sci. 50(1): 117-126.
Carney, E.W., Liberacki, A.B., Tornesi, B. and Markham, D.A. 2001. Dose-rate is a critical determinant of ethylene glycol developmental toxicity in rats. Teratology 63(6): 263 (abstract).
Carney, E.W., Liberacki, A.B., Tornesi, B., Weitz, K.K., Luders, T.L. and Corely, R.A. 2002. Ethylene glycol kinetics in pregnant rats: differences between slow and fast dose-rate exposures. Toxicologist 66(1-S): 139.
Carstens, J., Csanady, G.A., Faller, T.H. and Filser, J.G. 2003. Human inhalation exposure to ethylene glycol. Arch. Toxicol. 77(8): 425-432.
Carstens, J., Csanady G.A. and Filser J.G. 2002. Human inhalation exposure to 13C2-ethylene glycol vapours. Reprod. Toxicol. 16(4): 436-437.
CCSPA (Canadian Consumer Specialty Products Association) 2002. Letter to Chemicals Control Division, Environment Canada, dated Dec. 23, 2002, regarding ethylene glycol in consumer tub and tile cleaners.
CCSPA (Canadian Consumer Specialty Products Association) 2007. E-mail to Toxic Substances Section, Health Canada, dated November 1, 2007, regarding ethylene glycol in floor finish/floor sealer products.
Chang, J.C.S. 2001. Capstone Report on the Development of a Standar Test Method for VOC Emissions from Interior Latex and Alkyd Paints [Internet]. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/pubs/600r01093/600R01093.pdf
Chang, J.C.S., Tichenor, B.A., Guo, Z. and Krebs, K.A. 1997. Substrate effects on VOC emissions form a latex paint. Indoor Air. 7: 241-247.
Chaulk, J. 2003. Model study of ethylene glycol use at select Canadian airports and effects on dissolved oxygen under various ice cover and no-ice cover conditions. Environment Canada unpublished draft report.
Chinn, H. 2007. CEH marketing research report: Ethylene glycols [Internet]. Menlo Park (CA): SRI Consulting (SRIC). Available from:
http://www.sriconsulting.com/CEH/Public/Reports/index.html [restricted access]
CIS (Camford Information Services). 2003. Ethylene glycols profile. 4 p.
Corley, R.A., Bartels, M.J., Carney, E.W., Weitz, K.K., Soelbergy, J.J., Gies, R.A. and Thrall, K.D. 2005a. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for ethylene glycol and its metabolite, glycolic acid, in rats and humans. Toxicol. Sci. 85(1): 476-490.
Corley, R.A., Meek, M.E. and Carney, E.W. 2005b. Mode of action: oxalate crystal-induced renal tubule degeneration and glycolic acid-induced dysmorphogenesis--renal and developmental effects of ethylene glycol. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 35(8-9): 691-702.
Corley, R.A., Wilson, D.M., Hard G.C., Stebbins, K.E., Bartels, M.J., Soelberg, J.J., Dryzga, M.D., Gingell, R., McMartin, K.E. and Snellings, W.M. 2008. Dosimetry considerations in the enhanced sensitivity of male Wistar rats to chronic ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 228(2): 165-178.
Corsi, S.R., Harwell, G.R., Geis, S.W. and Bergman, D. 2006a. Impacts of deicer and anti-icer runoff on receiving waters from Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Texas, USA. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25(11): 2890-2900.
Corsi, S.R., Geis, S.W., Loyo-Rosales, J.E., Rice, C.P., Sheesley, R.J., Failey, G.G. and Cancilla, D.A.. 2006b. Characterization of aircraft deicer and anti-icer components and toxicity in airport snowbanks and snowmelt runoff. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40(10): 3195-3202.
CPCA (Canadian Paint and Coatings Association) 2008. Comments on the government proposal that ethylene glycol (CAS # 107-21-1) used in latex paints meets the criteria for addition as a toxic substance to Schedule 1 under section 64, CEPA 1999.
Cruzan, G., Corley, R.A., Hard, G.C., Mertens, J.J., McMartin, K.E., Snellings, W.M., Gingell, R. and Deyo, J.A. 2004. Subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol in Wistar and F-344 rats related to metabolism and clearance of metabolites. Toxicol. Sci. 81(2): 502-511.
DePass, L.R., Garman, R.H., Woodside, M.D., Ellis Giddens, W., Maronpot, R.R. and Weil, C.S. 1986. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity studies of ethylene glycol in rats and mice. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 7: 547-565.
Dinwoodie, G. 1996. Personal communication regarding summary of data on ethylene glycol concentrations in soil. Contaminated Sites and Decommissioning Branch, Alberta Environmental Protection. (From the SoS Report, 2000.)
EHD (Environmental Health Directorate). 1998. Draft internal report on exposure factors for assessing total daily intake of Priority Substances by the general population of Canada. December, 18, 1998. Bureau of Chemical Hazards, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (unpublished).
Environment Canada. 1997. Results of the CEPA Section 16 Notice respecting the second Priority Substances List and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Use Patterns Section, Commercial Chemicals Evaluation Branch, Hull, Quebec.
Environment Canada and Health Canada. 2000. Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999: Priority Substances List State of the Science Report for Ethylene Glycol. Available upon request
Gaunt, I.F., Hardy, J., Gangolli, S.D., Butterworth, K.R. and Lloyd, A.G. 1974. Short-term toxicity of monoethylene glycol in the rat. BIBRA International, Carshalton, Surrey, U.K. pp. 1-31. (Research Report 4/1974).
Gerin, M., Patrice S., Begin D., Goldberg M.S., Vyskocil A., Adib G., Drolet D. and Viau C. 1997. A study of ethylene glycol exposure and kidney function of aircraft de-icing workers. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. 69: 255-265.
Grauer, G.F. and Thrall, M. 1986. Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze) poisoning. In: R.W. Kirk (ed.), Current Veterinary Therapy IX. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. pp. 206-212.
Green, M.L., Hatch, M and Freel, R.W. 2005. Ethylene glycol induces hyperoxaluria without metabolic acidosis in rats. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 289(3): F536-F543.
GTAA (Greater Toronto Airport Authority). 2005. Sustainability Report, 2005.
Guo, C. and McMartin, K.E. 2005. The cytotoxicity of oxalate, metabolite of ethylene glycol, is due to calcium oxalate monohydrate formation. Toxicology 208(3): 347-355.
Guo, C., Li, Y., Crenshaw, B. and McMartin K. (2005). Effects of ethylene glycol metabolites on various cytotoxicity parameters in human proximal tubule cells. The Toxicologist 84(s-1): 433.
Hess, R., Bartels, M.J. and Pottenger, L.H. 2004. Ethylene glycol: an estimate of tolerable levels of exposure based on a review of animal and human data. Arch. Toxicol. 78(12): 671-680.
Hine, J. and Mookerjee, P.K. 1975. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of organic compounds. Correlations in terms of structural contributions. J. Org. Chem. 40(3): 292-298 [cited in Mackay et al., 1995].
Hirose, M., Tozawa, K., Okada, A., Hamamoto, S., Shimizu, H., Kubota, Y., Itoh, Y., Yasui, T. and Kohri, K. 2008. Glyoxylate induces renal tubular cell injury and microstructural changes in experimental mice. Urol. Res. 36:139-147.
Hodgson, A.T., Rudd, A.F., Beal, D. and Chandra, S. 2000. Volatile organic compound concentrations and emission rates in new manufactured and site-built houses. Indoor Air, 10(3): 178-192.
Howard, P.H. (ed.). 1990. Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals.Vol. II. Solvents. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan.
Howe, 1995. THRESH: A omputer program to compute a reference dose from quantal animal toxicity data using the benchmark dose method. ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Ruston, LA.
Huang, H.S., Ma, M.C., Chen, J. and Chen, C.F. 2003. Changes in renal hemodynamics and urodynamics in rats with chronic hyperoxaluria and after acute oxalate infusion: role of free radicals. Neurourol. Urodyn. 22(2):176-182.
Huang, H.S., Ma, M.C., Chen, J. and Chen, C.F. 2002. Changes in the oxidant-antioxidant balance in the kidney of rats with nephrolithiasis induced by ethylene glycol. J. Urol. 167(6):2584-2593.
Huang, H.S., Chen, C.F., Chien, C.T. and Chen, J. 2000. Possible biphasic changes of free radicals in ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rats. BJU Int. 85(9): 1143-1149.
Huttner, H.B., Berger, C. and Schwab, S. 2005. Severe ethylene glycol intoxication mimicking acute basilar artery occlusion. Neurocrit. Care 3(2): 171-173.
ICI Canada. 2007. Letter from ICI Canada to Existing Substances Division RE: Canada Gazette, Part I December 1, 2007 - Publication after assessment of a substance ethylene glycol (CAS No. 107-21-1). Dated January 28, 2008.
ICH (International Conference on Harmonization). 1997. ICH Topic Q3C Impurities: Residual Solvents. Step 4, Consensus Guideline, 17 July 1997. Note for Guidance on Impurities: Residual Solvents. Available at http://www.tga.gov.au/docs/pdf/euguide/ich/028395en.pdf (accessed October 2007).
Jovanovic, M.L. 2008. In vitro percutaneous absorption of neat and formulated 14C-ethylene glycol (14C-EG) through human skin using the Bronaugh Diffusion Cells. An unpublished report of Dow Corning Corporation.
Kersting, E.J. and Nielsen, S.W. 1965. Ethylene glycol poisoning in small animals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 146: 113-118.
Khan, S.R., Johnson, J.M., Peck, A.B., Cornelius, J.G. and Glenton, P.A. 2002. Expression of osteopontin in rat kidneys: induction during ethylene glycol induced calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. J. Urol. 168(3): 1173-1181.
Klug, S., Merker, H.J. and Jackh, R. 2001. Effects of ethylene glycol and metabolites on in vitro development of rat embryos during organogenesis. Toxicol. in Vitro, 15(6): 635-642.
Krenova, M. and Pelclova, D. 2005. Course of intoxications due to concurrent ethylene glycol and ethanol ingestion. Przegl. Lek. 62(6): 508-510.
Laitinen, J., Liesivuori, J. and Savolainen, H. 1995. Exposure to glycols and their renal effects in motor servicing workers. Occup. Med. 45: 259-262.
Leth, P.M. and Gregersen, M. 2005. Ethylene glycol poisoning. Forensic Sci. Int. 155(2-3): 179-184.
Lewis, R.J. 2007. Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 15th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
McMartin, K.E. and Wallace, K.B. 2005. Calcium oxalate monohydrate, a metabolite of ethylene glycol, is toxic for rat renal mitochondrial function. Toxicol. Sci. 84(1): 195-200.
McMartin, K.E. and Guo, C. 2007. Binding and internalization of oxalate crystals by proximal tubule cells from humans and rats is related to oxalate cytotoxicity. The Toxicologist 96(S-1): 264-265.
Mohanasundari, M., Sabesan, M. and Sethupathy, S. 2005. Renoprotective effect of grape seeds extract in ethylene glycol induced nephrotoxic mice. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 43(4): 356-359.
Morfin, J. and Chin, A. 2005. Images in clinical medicine. Urinary calcium oxalate crystals in ethylene glycol intoxication. N. Engl. J. Med. 353(24): e21.
Nielsen, R., Malcolm, H.M. and Dobson, S. 1993. Environmental hazard assessment: Ethylene glycol. Toxic Substances Division, Department of the Environment, Building Research Establishment, Garston, Watford, U.K.
Neeper-Bradley, T.L., Tyl, R.W., Fisher, L.C., Kubena, M.F., Vrbanic, M.A. and Losco, P.E. 1995. Determination of a no-observed-effect level for developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol administered by gavage to CD rats and CD-1 mice. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 27(1):121-130.
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2009. Household Products Database. (searched February 20, 2009).
NPRI (National Pollutant Release Inventory). 2005. NPRI Online Data Search.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). 2004. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of ethylene glycol. NIH Publication No. 04-4481. Available at: http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/chemicals/egpg/ethylene/EG_Monograph.pdf (accessed September 19, 2008).
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development). 2009. SIDS Initial Assessment Report for SIAM 18. Ethylene Glycol Category. Available at: http://cs3-hq.oecd.org/scripts/hpv/
Oehme, F.W. 1983. Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze) poisoning. In: R.W. Kirk (ed.), Current Veterinary Therapy. VIII. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. pp. 114-116.
OMEE (Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy). 1994. Windsor Air Quality Study: TAGA 6000 Survey Results. Queen’s Printer for Ontario. 63 p.
O’Neil MJ (editor). 2006. The Merck Index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Whitehorse Station, New Jersey.
Osweiler, G.D., Carson, T.L. and Buck, W.B. 1985. Clinical and Diagnostic Veterinary Toxicology. 3rd ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 494 p.
Parker, W. 1999. A probabilistic application of the Streeter-Phelps model for evaluation of stream water quality impacts from aircraft deicing operations in Canada. Unpublished report prepared for Environment Canada. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario.
Penumarthy, L. and Oehme, F.W. 1975. Treatment of ethylene glycol toxicosis in cats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 36(2): 209-212.
Pillard, D.A. 1995. Comparative toxicity of formulated glycol deicers and pure ethylene and propylene glycol to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 14: 311-315.
PMRA (Pest Management and Regulatory Agency). 2009. E-mail sent to Risk Assessment Bureau, Health Canada regarding ethylene glycol use in pesticide products.
Poldelski, V., Johnson, A., Wright, S., Rosa, V.D. and Zager, R.A. 2001. Ethylene glycol-mediated tubular injury: identification of critical metabolites and injury pathways. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 38(2): 339-348.
Pottenger, L.H., Carney, E.W. and Bartels, M.J. 2001. Dose-dependent nonlinear pharmacokinetics of ethylene glycol metabolites in pregnant (GD 10) and nonpregnant Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of ethylene glycol. Toxicol. Sci. 62(1): 10-19.
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS). KW2975000. Ethylene Glycol. Update May 2009. National Institute for Occupational safety and Health.
Riddell, C., Nielsen, S.W. and Kersting, E.J. 1967. Ethylene glycol poisoning in poultry. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 150(12): 1531-1535.
RIVM (National Institute for PublicSchuler, R.L., Hardin, B.D., Niemeier, R.W., Booth, G., Hazelden, K., Piccirillo, V. and Smith, K. 1984. Results of testing fifteen glycol ethers in a short-term in vivo reproductive toxicity assay (PDF Format, 1012 KB). Environ. Health and the Environment). 2006. ConsExpo version 4.1. Developed by The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM - Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu). The Netherlands. Perspect. 57: 141-146. (accessed November 15, 2007).
Rumack, B.H. POISINDEX® Information System. Microdex, Inc., Englewood, CO, 2003; CCIS Volume 116, edition exp May 2003. Hall, A.H. & Rumack, B.H. (Eds): TOMES® Information System
Sciences International, Inc. 2003. Assessment of estimated human exposure to ethylene glycol in the vicinity of an ethylene glycol manufacturing facility - prepared for Ethylene glycol panel, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA.
Stead, M.A., Baltz, D.M., Chesney, E.J., Tarr, M.A., Kolok, A.S. and Marx, B.D. 2005. Swimming performance of Juvenile Florida Pompano after sub lethal exposure to ethylene glycol and methanol: synergistic effects. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134(6): 1438-1447.
Stowe, C.M., Barnes, D.M. and Arendt, T.D. 1981. Ethylene glycol intoxication in ducks. Avian Dis. 25(2): 538-541.
Streeter, H.W. and E.B. Phelps. 1925. A study of the pollution and natural purification of the Ohio River. III. Factors concerned in the phenomena of oxidation and reaeration. U.S. Public Health Service. 75 pp. (Public Health Bulletin No. 146, February 1925).
Transport Canada. 1987. Assessment of ground water quality impairment by glycol-based aircraft deicing fluids at Ottawa International Airport. Prepared for Professional and Technical Services, Facilities and Environment Management, Airports Authority Group, Ottawa, Ontario, by Gartner Lee Ltd., Markham, Ontario (AK-75-09-168).
Tyl R.W., Ballantyne, B., Fisher, L.C., Fait, D.L., Dodd, D.E., Klonne, D.R., Prits, I.M. and Losco, P.E. 1995. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol aerosol in CD-1 mice by nose-only exposure. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 27(1): 49-62.
Upadhyay, S., Carstens,J., Klein,D., Faller,T.H., Halbach,S., Kirchinger,W., Kessler,W., Csanady,G.A. and Filser,J.G. 2008. Inhalation and epidermal exposure of volunteers to ethylene glycol: kinetics of absorption, urinary excretion, and metabolism to glycolate and oxalate. Toxicol. Lett. 178(2): 131-141.
US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 1986. Standard Scenarios for Estimating Exposure to Chemical Substances During Use of Consumer Products. Vols. I and II. Prepared by Versar Inc. for Exposure Evaluation Division, Office of Toxic Substances, Washington, D.C. (EPA contact No. 68-02-3968).
US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. Wall Paint Exposure Model (WPEM): Version 3.2 User’s Guide. Developed by GEOMET Technologies, Inc for USEPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics and National Paint and Coatings Association, Washington, D.C.
USPC (United States Pharmacopeial Convention). 2007. United States Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary (USP-30-NF-25). General Chapters: 467 Residual Solvents. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., Rockville, Maryland.
Verschueren, K. 1983. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, N.Y. 1310 p.
Wilke, O., Jann, O. and Brödner, D. 2002. VOC- and SVOC-Emissions from Adhesives, Floor Coverings and Complete Floor Structures. Proceedings: 9th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - June 30-July 5, 2002, v. 1. pp. 962-967. Available at http://www.chps.net/info/iaq_papers/PaperIII.1.pdf (accessed November 15, 2007).
Wills, J.H., Coulston, F., Harris E.S., McChesney, E.W., Russell, J.C. and Serrone D. M. 1974. Inhalation of aerosolized ethylene glycol by man. Clin. Toxicol. 7: 463-476.
Zhu, J., Feng, Y. and Aikawa, B. 2004. A positive chemical ionization GC/MS method for the determination of airborne ethylene glycol and propylene glycols in non-occupational environments. J. Environ. Monit. 6(11): 881-887.
Zorzano, A. and Herrera, E.. 1990. Differences in kinetic characteristics and in sensitivity to inhibitors between human and rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Gen. Pharmacol. 21(5): 697-702.
Report a problem or mistake on this page
- Date modified: