Goal 15: Protect and recover species, conserve Canadian biodiversity

Why this goal is important

As the second-largest country in the world, Canada is one of the few countries that still has relatively large, healthy natural ecosystems.

Read more on why this goal is important

This Goal's focus on protecting and recovering species and conserving Canadian biodiversity directly supports SDG Global Indicator Framework targets:

  • 15.1: By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services
  • 15.2: By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
  • 15.3: By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world
  • 15.5: Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
  • 15.8: By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species

Canada's forests, wetlands, prairies and tundra provide habitat that all organisms, including humans, need to thrive. Many of these ecosystems are under pressure due to human activities and climate change. For example, wetlands cover about 13% of the land area of Canada. They were once abundantly distributed throughout the country. Recently, however, wetlands have become an increasingly scarce resource in settled areas of the country. Throughout Canada, wetlands have been adversely affected by land use practices that have resulted in vegetation destruction, nutrient and toxic loading, sedimentation, and altered flow regimes. In southern Ontario, 68% of the original wetlands have been converted from their natural state to support alternative uses such as agriculture and housing. Only about 25% of the original wetlands of the "pothole" region of southwestern Manitoba remain in existence.

Conserving these natural spaces helps promote biodiversity and maintain the ecosystem services that we rely on for our well-being, such as pollinating crops and vegetation, controlling floods, and filtering air and water. Managing for resilient forests, grasslands, and other ecosystems also helps to mitigate climate change by sequestering and storing carbon. Improved land use can increase carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Natural spaces also support adaptation to climate changes like extreme heat by providing shade, which can reduce temperatures.

Canada's lands and fresh water are an integral part of Canadians' natural and cultural heritage. In particular, many natural areas hold cultural, spiritual, and socioeconomic significance for Indigenous Peoples and support life-sustaining activities such as hunting, fishing and gathering. Nature provides physical and mental health and other well-being benefits for all Canadians.

Healthy ecosystems also contribute to our economy, including through nature-based tourism. Canada's national parks and national historic sites generate millions of dollars annually and provide thousands of jobs for local communities. Recreational fisheries, many of which are in inland lakes, rivers and streams, also contribute several billion dollars to Canada's economy.

Canada has a strong commitment to sustainable forest management. Forests play a central role—culturally, spiritually and economically—in the lives of many Indigenous communities across Canada. According to the 2016 census, 12,000 Indigenous people work in the forest sector, representing about 6% of the sector's workforce.

How the Government of Canada contributes

Budget 2021 committed to invest $2.3 billion over 5 years for Canada's Enhanced Nature Legacy to continue supporting nature conservation measures across the country, including Indigenous leadership in conservation.

Read more on how the government of Canada contributes

Taken together with $1.3 billion for the Nature Legacy Initiative announced in 2018, this represents the largest investment in nature conservation in Canada's history.

Canada plays an active role in international efforts for biodiversity, including protection of wetlands, mitigating the risk of international trade in endangered species, and collaborating for Arctic flora and fauna conservation. In particular, Canada is working with other Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity to develop a Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework that is expected to be adopted in December 2022. Following the adoption of a new Framework, Canada will develop a domestic implementation plan in collaboration with provincial, territorial, and Indigenous governments, and stakeholders.

15th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15)

Canada will welcome the world to Montréal in December 2022 for the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15), which will focus on protecting nature and halting biodiversity loss around the world. This important international conference will be a landmark event for Canada, with thousands of delegates from around the world gathered in Montréal to take action on protecting nature.

The government is committed to creating new national parks, national wildlife areas, freshwater national marine conservation areas, national urban parks, ecological corridors and to co-designate Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas. Collaborating and partnering with provinces, territories, Indigenous Peoples, local jurisdictions, and the private and non-profit sectors is an essential element of this work.

To help protect and restore migratory birds and promote compliance with the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994, the government has amended the Migratory Birds Regulations (MBR), which were first enacted in 1918, through collaboration and consultation with Indigenous peoples, provinces and territories, partners, hunters, and other stakeholders. The amended MBR ensure that Indigenous peoples are accurately represented and that their existing harvesting rights, recognized and affirmed under the Constitution Act, 1982, are reflected. The changes also make it easier for Canadians to understand and comply with the regulations, and improve the government's ability to effectively manage migratory birds in Canada.

Enhancing the implementation of the Species at Risk Act is also a priority for the Government of Canada. The Act ensures legal protection for federally listed species at risk, preventing them from becoming extirpated or extinct, and providing for their recovery.

To protect and recover species at risk, the government is implementing the Pan-Canadian Approach to Transforming Species at Risk Conservation in Canada in partnership with most provinces and territories, Indigenous Peoples, and other partners. This approach focuses collaborative action on a national set of priority places, species, sectors, and threats across Canada. It is guided by commitments for increased collaboration between partners, evidence-based decision making, and improved monitoring and reporting. It is yielding results through strengthened partnerships, greater returns on investments, and increased co-benefits for biodiversity and ecosystems. Since 2018, federal, provincial and territorial governments have:

  • Collectively established 11 federal-provincial-territorial priority places covering nearly 30 million hectares in habitats and ecosystems with high concentrations of species at risk and other biodiversity. Actions implemented in priority places will support the protection and recovery of hundreds of species at risk and other biodiversity
  • Identified 6 priority ecologically important species (Barren-ground Caribou; Greater Sage-grouse; Peary Caribou; Wood Bison; Caribou, Boreal population; and Woodland Caribou, Southern Mountain population) that are distributed over 561 million hectares of Canada. Protecting and recovering priority species and their habitats will address multiple barriers to recovery and provide co-benefits for species throughout their ranges
  • Initiated dialogue for 3 priority sectors (agriculture and the forest sector, as well as urban development). Collaborative action in these sectors will address common broad-based threats to multiple species and promote sustainable practices

For aquatic species, a Framework for Aquatic Species at Risk Conservation is under development to guide multi-species, place-based and threat-based approaches to species at risk recovery and protection. Since 2018, as part of the Canada Nature Fund for Aquatic Species at Risk, 11 priority places, 2 priority marine threats, and 3 priority species have been identified across Canada as a focus for targeted multispecies recovery and protection stewardship actions. In these areas, 36 projects have been funded that target 70 populations of aquatic species at risk.

Work is underway on a shared, national 5-year strategic and operational plan to support and implement the goals identified in a Pan-Canadian Approach to Wildlife Health. The government is also working to promote the implementation of the One Health approach to address emerging risks from the human-animal-environment interface.

The 2020 Wild Species: the General Status of Species in Canada report and associated indicator, which is published every five years with progressively enhanced coverage of Canadian species, will be released in late 2022 and will provide the conservation status of more than 50,000 species from 46 taxonomic groups. The 2025 report is anticipated to cover nearly 60,000 species, representing about three-quarters of the species known to occur in Canada.

At the 2021 UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) in 2021, Canada joined 128 nations in a pledge to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation by 2030 while delivering sustainable development and promoting an inclusive rural transformation. The countries signed the Glasgow Leaders' Declaration on Forest and Land Use backed by USD$19.2 billion in public and private funding to help developing nations restore degraded land. In addition, Canada, along with 11 other countries, endorsed the UK‑led Global Forest Finance Pledge that aims to provide collectively USD$12 billion for forest-related climate finance from 2021 to 2025.

Finally, the Government of Canada is taking action to support sustainable forest management and an innovative forest sector, including by supporting provincial and territorial collaboration, promoting innovation in the forest sector, and supporting increased Indigenous participation.

Kitaskino Nuwenëné Wildland Provincial Park expansion

Through $5.3 million in funding under the Canada Nature Fund, the Mikisew Cree First Nation is working with the province, industry, and land owners to expand the existing Kitaskino Nuwenëné Wildland Provincial Park in Alberta. This collaboration expands the park by 1,438 square kilometres and significantly adds to the largest connected area of protected boreal forest in the world.

The newly protected area will expand protected habitat for species at risk, including the threatened Ronald Lake wood bison herd and boreal caribou, as well as the endangered whooping crane. The expanded portion of the park also fulfills an objective of the Mikisew Cree First Nation's land use plan to conserve an ecologically and culturally important watershed.

Stakeholder perspective: Habitat and Biodiversity Assessment Tool for agricultural producers

With funding from the Canada Nature Fund, the Canadian Forage and Grassland Association (CFGA) developed the Habitat and Biodiversity Assessment Tool (HBAT), building upon existing work in Alberta. The HBAT is a province-specific online tool for agricultural producers to assess habitat and biodiversity on their land. It will provide guidance on which beneficial management practices are most relevant to the habitats on their farms and help them integrate the needs of multiple native species in the management of the land. CFGA has developed and tested the tool for Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia, with work underway to expand the tool to Ontario, New Brunswick and British Columbia.

Source: Canadian Forage and Grassland Association

Additional context and updates regarding this goal

Targets, indicators, milestones and contextual indicators

Targets, indicators, milestones and contextual indicators

Theme:  Conservation of land and freshwater 

Target: Sustainable forests  (1)

Between 2023 and 2026, Canada's sustainable wood supply level (guided by sustainable forest management policies to reflect the current unique social, environmental and economic characteristics of managed forests), exceeds the annual timber harvests (Minister of Natural Resources) 

Indicator  (i)

Sustainability of timber harvest 

This indicator compares the amount of timber harvested with the maximum sustainable harvest, also known as the sustainable wood supply. Between 1990 and 2020, timber harvest in Canada range from 48% to 85% of the estimated sustainable wood supply. The most recent data available shows that 141.1 million cubic metres of industrial roundwood was harvested in 2020, well below the sustainable wood supply of 215.3 million cubic metres. 

Target: Terrestrial ecosystem conservation  (1)

Conserve 25% of Canada's land and inland waters by 2025, working toward 30% by 2030, from 12.5% recognized as conserved as of the end of 2020, in support of the commitment to work to halt and reverse nature loss by 2030 in Canada, and achieve a full recovery for nature by 2050 (Minister of Environment and Climate Change) 

Indicator  (i)

Canada's conserved areas 

This indicator tracks the percentage of Canadian land and inland waters recognized as conserved. Conserved areas are managed to achieve the long-term conservation of biodiversity, maintaining ecosystems together with their functions and supporting healthy populations of wild species. They include protected areas as well as other effective area-based conservation measures. As of the end of 2021, 13.5% of Canada's land and fresh water was recognized as conserved, including 12.6% in protected areas. 

Short-term milestone: Finalize nature agreements  (1)

By the end of 2023, finalize nature agreements with at least 6 participating provinces and territories. 

Short-term milestone: Make progress on Canada's commitment to area-based conservation  (1)

By the end of 2024, make demonstrable progress on Canada's commitment to protect 25% of Canada's land and inland waters by 2025, and to work toward 30% by 2030. 

Short-term milestone: Establish new national wildlife areas  (1)

By the end of 2025, establish 6 new national wildlife areas, finalize the designation of 7 national wildlife areas, and establish at least 5 new marine national wildlife areas. 

Short-term milestone: Establish new national parks  (1)

Establish 10 new national parks by the end of 2026 and 4 freshwater national marine conservation areas, working with Indigenous communities on co-management agreements for these national parks. 

Short-term milestone: Support ecological corridors  (1)

By the end of 2026, identify and support ecological corridors to improve ecological connectivity between protected and conserved areas.

Theme:  Species protection and recovery 

Target: Species at risk  (2)

By 2026, increase the percentage of species at risk listed under federal law that exhibit population trends that are consistent with recovery strategies and management plans to 60%, from a baseline of 42% in 2019 (Minister of Environment and Climate Change; Minister of Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard) 

Indicator  (i)

Species at risk population trends 

This indicator tracks whether the population and distribution trends of species at risk are consistent with the objectives in final recovery strategies or management plans. As of 2021, of the 141 species for which trends could be determined: 

  • 58 species (41%) showed progress towards meeting their population and distribution objectives 
  • 67 species (48%) did not show progress 
  • 16 species (11%) showed mixed evidence, meaning that some information suggests improving trends, but there is also some evidence of decline 
Update (i)

Species at risk population trends 

As of May 2022, of the 144 species at risk for which trends could be determined: 

  • 62 species (43%) show progress towards their population and distribution objectives 
  • 18 species (13%) show mixed evidence, meaning that some information suggests improving trends, but there is also some evidence of decline 
  • 64 species (44%) do not show progress towards their population and distribution objectives 

Source: Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators, Species at risk population trends, 2023

Target: Migratory birds 

By 2030, increase the percentage of migratory bird species whose population sizes fall within an acceptable range—neither too low nor too high—to 70% from 57% in 2016 (Minister of Environment and Climate Change) 

Indicator  (i)

Population status of Canada's migratory birds 

This indicator tracks the proportion of bird species listed in the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 whose populations fall within acceptable bounds and provides a snapshot of the general state of birds in Canada. In 2016, of the 358 bird species with adequate monitoring data: 

  • 57% had populations within acceptable bounds 
  • Waterfowl and forest birds were the 2 groups with the highest proportion of populations within acceptable bounds (74% and 63%, respectively) 
  • only 12% of grassland and aerial insectivore birds had populations within acceptable bounds 
  • 12% of waterfowl had populations above acceptable bounds 
Short-term milestone: Develop conservation action plans  (2)

By the end of 2022, in collaboration with provincial, territorial and Indigenous partners, as well as stakeholders, develop 3 draft conservation action plans for terrestrial species at risk with the agriculture, forest and urban development sectors to achieve better conservation outcomes for species at risk and enhance sector sustainability. 

Short-term milestone: Collaborate on protection and recovery actions for terrestrial species at risk  (2)

By March 2023, fully implement 50% of actions identified in Parks Canada-led Species at Risk Act action plans. 

By the end of 2025, in collaboration with provincial, territorial and Indigenous partners, as well as stakeholders, improve timelines for listing species and expand protection and recovery actions for 300 terrestrial species at risk within priority places and for priority species with co-benefits for migratory birds and biodiversity. 

Short-term milestone: Partner with provinces and territories on species at risk  (2)

By the end of 2024, maximize efforts for the protection and recovery of terrestrial species at risk and their habitats through partnerships with provinces and territories, including through nature agreements. 

Short-term milestone: Enhance protection and recovery actions for aquatic species at risk  (2)

By the end of 2026, help support the protection and recovery of 50 aquatic species and their critical habitat. This will be done through assessment, listing, stewardship actions, enforcement, monitoring, and reporting for species listed under the Species at Risk Act. This will also help support the participation of Indigenous Peoples in the protection and recovery of aquatic species at risk; and enable the stewardship actions of partners with contributions funding through the Canada Nature Fund for Aquatic Species at Risk. 

Short-term milestone: Increase the percentage of migratory bird species whose population sizes fall within an acceptable range  (2)

By the end of 2022, the proportion of bird species listed in the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 and with population sizes within an acceptable range has increased by more than 2 percentage points over 2013. 

Short-term milestone: Develop and implement a no net loss of biodiversity policy framework  (2)

By the end of 2024, develop and integrate into federal decision making (for example, management of land, authorizations and funding) a policy framework that aims at achieving no net loss of biodiversity (meaning that any loss of biodiversity that cannot be avoided, minimized or restored on site is offset by gains elsewhere) and, wherever possible, achieving a net gain. 

Short-term milestone: Work with Indigenous Peoples on migratory bird monitoring and research  (2)

By the end of 2026, the number of Indigenous Peoples participating in migratory bird monitoring and research projects has increased. 

Contextual indicator: Canadian species index  (i)

This indicator shows whether monitored vertebrate species have increasing or decreasing population size trends over time. This provides an integrated measure of the condition of the environment. Between 1970 and 2016: 

  • the population size of monitored vertebrate species declined by 4% on average 
  • the population size of monitored mammal and fish species decreased by 42% and 21% on average, respectively 
Update (i)

Canadian species index

Between 1970 and 2018,

  • the population abundance of all monitored vertebrate species declined by 7% on average
  • the population abundance of monitored mammal and fish species decreased by 42% and 30% on average, respectively
  • By system

  • the index for the terrestrial system, which includes most of the bird and mammal populations, and some reptiles and amphibians, decreased by 14%
  • the index for the marine system, which includes mammals (such as whales and seals), birds (such as terns), 1 reptile (the leatherback turtle) and most of the fish populations decreased by 16%
  • the index for the freshwater system, which includes birds (such as waterfowl), 2 mammals (beaver and river otter), fish, and the majority of amphibian and reptile populations, increased by 38%
  • Source: Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators, Canadian species index, 2023

Contextual indicator: Deforestation and afforestation  (i)

This indicator tracks land-use changes from forest to other land uses. Between 1990 and 2018, Canada's already-low deforestation rate declined from 64,000 hectares per year to about 34,300 hectares per year. While the annual area of afforestation is very small relative to the total forest area of Canada, efforts are underway to increase capacity to track the amount of afforestation occurring under urban and rural planting initiatives.

Contextual indicator: Ecological integrity of national parks  (i)

This indicator summarizes the state (good, fair, poor) and trend (improving, stable, declining) of ecosystems within 43 national parks. For the year 2020, of the 119 national parks ecosystems assessed, the ecological integrity of 82% of park ecosystems has been maintained or improved. Most park ecosystems are stable (68%), while 14% are improving and 18% are declining. 

Update (i)

Ecological integrity of national parks National

National

  • 117 ecosystems in 42 national parks were assessed in 2022. Of those,
    • 55% are in good condition, 29% are in fair condition, and 16% are in poor condition
    • 68% are stable, 11% are improving, and 21% are declining
  • Overall, the ecological integrity of 79% of park ecosystems was stable or improving in 2022. This represents an 11% decrease from 2016

By ecosystem type

  • 86% of coastal/marine, 78% of tundra and 75% of wetland ecosystems were stable
  • 100% of glacier, 29% of forest and 21% of freshwater ecosystems were declining
  • 17% of wetlands, 15% of freshwater and 13% of forest ecosystems were improving

Source: Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators, Ecological integrity of national parks, 2023

Contextual indicator: Status of wild species  (i)

This indicator summarizes the conservation status of 29,848 species in 34 species groups. 16,078 native species were assigned a national extinction risk level. As of 2015: 

  • 80% or 12,833 species were ranked as secure or apparently secure 
  • 10% or 1,586 species were vulnerable 
  • 10% or 1,534 species were imperiled or critically imperiled 
  • less than 1% or 125 species were presumed extirpated or possibly extirpated (no longer found in Canada) 
Update 

As of May 2020: 

  • Of the 24,483 native species with a NatureServe numerical rank: 
    • 19 600 species (80%) are ranked as secure or apparently secure 
    • 4 883 species (20%) are at some risk of extirpation (ranked as vulnerable, imperiled or critically imperiled) 
  • 135 species are presumed extirpated or possibly extirpated (no longer found in Canada) 

Source: Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators, General status of wild species, 2023

Contextual indicator: Trends in Canada's bird populations  (i)

This indicator tracks the average population trends of various groups of native Canadian bird species. From 1970 to 2016, the trends in bird species groups varied: 

  • waterfowl and birds of prey increased by 150% and 110%, respectively 
  • shorebirds, grassland birds, and aerial insectivores decreased by 40%, 57% and 59%, respectively 
  • wetland birds, seabirds, forest birds and all other birds showed little to moderate change 
Implementation strategies and departmental actions

Implementation strategies and departmental actions

Theme:  Conservation of land and freshwater  

Implementation strategy: Conserve natural spaces  (1)

Accelerate the establishment of new protected and conserved areas, including by developing and implementing nature agreements with provinces and territories, and by protecting freshwater spaces; enhance Canadians' access to nature; and create jobs in nature conservation and management. 

Implementation strategy: Support Indigenous leadership in conservation  (1)

Work with Indigenous Peoples to conserve and protect species, lands, waters and ice, including by working with First Nations, Inuit and Métis to support new and existing Indigenous Guardians initiatives and the establishment of Indigenous Guardians Networks across Canada. Support Indigenous communities to plan for future conservation goals and support protected areas or Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures that contribute to Indigenous Led Conservation, including Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas. 

Implementation strategy: Better understand lands and forests  (1)

Continue to conduct scientific research and engage Indigenous Peoples to better understand managed forests and support sustainable land-use planning, including forest management planning and collecting Indigenous Knowledge towards an enhanced understanding of Indigenous forest management practices. 

Implementation strategy: Promote participation in Canada's forest sector and support the transition to a sustainable economy  (1)

Provide support to increase participation in Canada's forest sector, including from Indigenous communities. Support could include programs such as the Indigenous Forestry Initiative and programs related to the transition to a sustainable economy and forest adaptation and mitigation through sustainable forest practices. 

Theme:  Species protection and recovery 

Implementation strategy: Deliver enhanced conservation action  (2)

Make significant, targeted investments, including under the renewed Canada Nature Fund, that drive partnerships, co-investment, innovation and improved conservation outcomes, with a focus on priority places, species, sectors and threats. 

Implementation strategy: Implement, innovate and modernize the regulatory and policy framework and tools to protect species at risk, other fish and fish habitat  (2)

Continue to assess and list species and develop timely recovery strategies, action plans, and management plans under the Species at Risk Act and promote compliance with the Species at Risk Act and the Fisheries Act. Continue to advance new policy and program approaches to modernize and improve the implementation of the Species at Risk Act. Continue to pursue bilateral agreements with provinces and territories for the management of species at risk. 

Implementation strategy: Work with partners to enhance foundational knowledge of species, habitats and ecosystems  (2)

Carry out research and share information to protect and recover wildlife species using available open data and enhance monitoring of species at risk to allow for adaptive management. 

Implementation strategy: Work with partners to implement the Pan-Canadian Approach to Transforming Species at Risk Conservation in Canada and the Framework for Aquatic Species at Risk Conservation  (2)

With provincial, territorial and Indigenous partners, as well as stakeholders, strategically focus efforts and resources on multi-species and ecosystem-based approaches to achieve better outcomes for species at risk.  

Implementation strategy: Work with partners to implement the pan-Canadian approach to wildlife health  (2)

With partners, focus efforts and resources on priorities and address discrepancies in capacity across Canada, particularly in rural and northern regions, and emerging threats related to climate change. 

Implementation strategy: Ensure key knowledge is available to support migratory bird conservation  (2)

Continue to work to make active migratory bird program data openly available to the public to support conservation actions and promote outreach and education. 

Implementation strategy: Implement, innovate and modernize the regulatory and policy framework and tools to protect migratory birds  (2)

Promote compliance with the Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994. Continue to advance new policy and program approaches to modernize and improve the implementation of the Act. 

Implementation strategy: Modernize technology for monitoring international wildlife trade  (2)

Implement modernized digital technology to better track invasive alien species, vectors of diseases and endangered species at Canada's international borders and to improve monitoring, tracking, and traceability capabilities for all species imported into Canada.  

Implementation strategy: Prevent, detect, respond to, control and manage invasive alien species  (2)

Collaborate with provincial and territorial governments, Indigenous Peoples, local jurisdictions, non-governmental organizations and international partners to increase awareness of invasive alien species, better understand their costs and impacts, and prevent, detect, respond to, control and manage them. 

Implementation strategy: Uphold international commitments related to wildlife  (2)

Work with international partners to protect and conserve species at risk and fulfill Canada's obligations under international agreements.  

Responsibilities and contributions of federal organizations

Responsibilities and contributions of federal organizations

1Target theme: Conservation of land and fresh water
FSDS component Title Supports Goal and/or Target Responsible organization(s)
Target Between 2023 and 2026, Canada’s sustainable wood supply level (guided by sustainable forest management policies to reflect the current unique social, environmental and economic characteristics of managed forests), exceeds the annual timber harvests Supports the goal Minister of Natural Resources
Target Conserve 25% of Canada’s land and inland waters by 2025, working toward 30% by 2030, from 12.5% recognized as conserved as of the end of 2020, in support of the commitment to work to halt and reverse nature loss by 2030 in Canada, and achieve a full recovery for nature by 2050 Supports the goal Minister of Environment and Climate Change
Milestone Finalize nature agreements Supports goal and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Conservation Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Milestone Make progress on Canada’s commitment to area-based conservation Supports the goal and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Conservation Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Milestone Establish new national wildlife areas Supports the goal and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Conservation Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Milestone Establish new national parks Supports the goal and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Conservation Target Parks Canada
Milestone Support ecological corridors Supports the goal and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Conservation Target Parks Canada
Implementation Strategy Conserve natural spaces Supports the goal and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Conservation Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Parks Canada

Implementation Strategy Support Indigenous leadership in conservation Supports the goal and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Conservation Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Parks Canada

Implementation Strategy Better understand lands and forests Supports the goal and the Sustainable Forests Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

The Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Inc.

Natural Resources Canada

Implementation Strategy Promote participation in Canada’s forest sector and support the transition to a sustainable economy Supports the goal and the Sustainable Forests Target Natural Resources Canada
2Target theme: Species protection and recovery
FSDS component Title Supports Goal and/or Target Responsible organization(s)
Target By 2026, increase the percentage of species at risk listed under federal law that exhibit population trends that are consistent with recovery strategies and management plans to 60%, from a baseline of 42% in 2019 Supports the goal Minister of Environment and Climate Change; Minister of Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard
Target By 2030, increase the percentage of migratory bird species whose population sizes fall within an acceptable range—neither too low nor too high—to 70% from 57% in 2016 Supports the goal Minister of Environment and Climate Change
Milestone Develop conservation action plans Supports the goal and the Species at Risk Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Milestone Collaborate on protection and recovery actions for terrestrial species at risk Supports the goal and the Species at Risk Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Parks Canada

Milestone Partner with provinces and territories on species at risk Supports the goal and the Species at Risk Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Milestone Enhance protection and recovery actions for aquatic species at risk Supports the goal and the Species at Risk Target

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Parks Canada

Milestone Increase the percentage of migratory bird species whose population sizes fall within an acceptable range Supports the goal and the Migratory Birds Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Milestone Develop and implement a no net loss of biodiversity policy framework Supports the goal Environment and Climate Change Canada
Milestone Work with Indigenous Peoples on migratory bird monitoring and research Supports the goal Environment and Climate Change Canada
Implementation Strategy Deliver enhanced conservation action Supports the goal and the Species at Risk Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

The Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Inc.

Parks Canada

Implementation Strategy Implement, innovate and modernize the regulatory and policy framework and tools to protect species at risk, other fish and fish habitat Supports the goal and the Species at Risk Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Implementation Strategy Work with partners to enhance foundational knowledge of species, habitats and ecosystems Supports the goal and the Species at Risk Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Parks Canada

Natural Resources Canada

Implementation Strategy Work with partners to implement the Pan-Canadian Approach to Transforming Species at Risk Conservation in Canada and the Framework for Aquatic Species at Risk Conservation Supports the goal and the Species at Risk Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Parks Canada

Implementation Strategy Work with partners to implement the pan-Canadian approach to wildlife health Supports the goal and the Species at Risk Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Implementation Strategy Ensure key knowledge is available to support migratory bird conservation Supports the goal and the Migratory Birds Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Implementation Strategy Implement, innovate and modernize the regulatory and policy framework and tools to protect migratory birds Supports the goal and the Migratory Birds Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Implementation Strategy Modernize technology for monitoring international wildlife trade Supports the goal

Canada Border Services Agency

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Implementation Strategy Prevent, detect, respond to, control and manage invasive alien species Supports the goal

Canada Border Services Agency

Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Fisheries and Oceans Canada 

Natural Resources Canada

Parks Canada

Implementation Strategy Uphold international commitments related to wildlife Supports the goal

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Performance measurement

iIndicators supporting the goal and contextual indicators
Indicator type Target Indicator Source Update cycle
Target Between 2023 and 2026, Canada’s sustainable wood supply level (guided by sustainable forest management policies to reflect the current unique social, environmental and economic characteristics of managed forests), exceeds the annual timber harvests Sustainability of timber harvest CESI Annual
Target Conserve 25% of Canada’s land and inland waters by 2025, working toward 30% by 2030, from 12.5% recognized as conserved as of the end of 2020, in support of the commitment to work to halt and reverse nature loss by 2030 in Canada, and achieve a full recovery for nature by 2050 Canada's conserved areas * CESI Annual
Target By 2026, increase the percentage of species at risk listed under federal law that exhibit population trends that are consistent with recovery strategies and management plans to 60%, from a baseline of 42% in 2019 Species at risk population trends CESI Annual
Target By 2030, increase the percentage of migratory bird species whose population sizes fall within an acceptable range—neither too low nor too high—to 70% from 57% in 2016 Population status of Canada’s migratory birds CESI Every 5 years (last update December 2019)
Contextual Canadian Species Index CESI Every 3 years
Deforestation and afforestation Natural Resources Canada Annual
Ecological integrity of national parks CESI Annual
Status of wild species CESI Every 5 years
Trends in Canada’s bird populations CESI Every 5 years

*Indicators that have also been included in the Canadian Indicator Framework.

For more detailed information see Strengthening transparency and accountability.

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