Goal 11: Improve access to affordable housing, clean air, transportation, parks, and green spaces, as well as cultural heritage in Canada

Why this goal is important

This Goal's focus on promoting public transit and active transportation, providing access to affordable housing, maintaining and improving air quality, and helping Canadians get out in nature supports SDG Global Indicator Framework targets.

Read more on why this goal is important

This Goal's focus on promoting public transit and active transportation, providing access to affordable housing, maintaining and improving air quality, and helping Canadians get out in nature supports SDG Global Indicator Framework targets:

  • 11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
  • 11.2: By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
  • 11.3: By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
  • 11.4: Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world's cultural and natural heritage
  • 11.6: By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
  • 11.7: By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

In Canada, making cities and communities sustainable means improving access to transportation, parks and green spaces, as well as cultural heritage, clean air and affordable housing.

The percentage of households in core housing need, which measures progress against Sustainable Development Goal 11.1, shows housing challenges across Canada. A household is said to be in “core housing need” if its housing falls below at least one of the adequacy, affordability or suitability standards and the household would have to spend 30% or more of its total before-tax income to pay the median rent of alternative local housing that is acceptable (i.e., meets all three housing standards). In 2018, more than 11% of Canadian households were living in Core Housing Need. Many Canadians today experience or are at risk of homelessness, and otherwise face challenges with accessing acceptable housing. These challenges are exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has disproportionately negatively affected disadvantaged groups, and have continued to worsen since the COVID pandemic began.

Increased public transit and opportunities for active transportation support the transition to a net-zero economy by reducing air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and urban congestion. They also support economic growth by enabling greater access to employment as well as other opportunities and services. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected transit systems across Canada. Transit ridership dropped significantly in spring 2020 and has remained below pre-pandemic levels, reducing revenues for many cities and communities. Nevertheless, public transit and opportunities for active transportation are improving in Canada, with several light rail transit projects currently underway in Canadian cities. Cycling networks are also expanding and pedestrian-friendly streets are becoming more common.

Improving air quality is an important part of making cities more sustainable. In 2020-2021, it was estimated that air pollution contributed to 42 premature deaths per 100,000 Canadians every year. Air pollution also worsens health issues, such as asthma, for millions of Canadians. The total economic cost of all health impacts attributed to air pollution is an estimated $120 billion per year from issues such as medical costs and reduced workplace productivity. Reducing air pollution is also important for protecting food security, land use, and cultural activities, which are critical to the mental and physical health of Canadians.

Making cities and communities more sustainable also means providing access to green spaces. Most Canadians agree that access to community green space is important to their quality of life and three quarters say that their local green space could benefit from improvement. Canadians living in communities with populations of less than 10,000 experience more barriers to accessing physical activity than those in larger communities with populations of 250,000 or greater. This means that rural Canadians currently experience greater barriers to accessing green spaces than urban Canadians do, including lack of sidewalks, lack of street lighting, and lack of access to facilities and transportation. These gaps in infrastructure make it harder for those living in rural areas to undertake active transportation. Nature trails are generally free to use, making them an excellent opportunity to advance equity of access to green spaces. Improving access to green spaces also promotes co-benefits for mental and physical health and quality of life, as well as a natural way to cool cities from extreme temperatures as well as promote and maintain biodiversity.

How the Government of Canada contributes

The Government of Canada is committed to addressing homelessness and ensuring affordable housing for all Canadians.

Read more on how the government of Canada contributes

It launched the National Housing Strategy in 2017 and introduced Canada's first Poverty Reduction Strategy in 2018 (updated in 2020) to reduce poverty and homelessness. In April 2022, the federal Budget introduced new measures that will address homelessness and make housing more affordable across the country by:

  • putting Canada on the path to double housing construction over the next decade
  • helping Canadians buy their first home
  • protecting buyers and renters
  • curbing unfair practices that drive up housing prices
  • continuing to prevent and reduce homelessness and support housing affordability, particularly for the most vulnerable
  • addressing the housing needs of Indigenous Peoples

Everyone should have a place to call home, yet access to affordable and acceptable housing is becoming increasingly challenging for many Canadians. Housing affordability issues disproportionately impact low-income and equity-seeking groups. Demand for all types of housing has increased, and more housing, including affordable housing, must be created to address housing needs, especially in fast-growing cities.

Building more homes and making housing more affordable across the country are priorities for the Government of Canada, and will contribute to inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable communities. The federal government has re-engaged in affordable housing through the National Housing Strategy, which provides a platform for the public, private and non-profit sectors to work together to provide more Canadians with a place to call home.

In the Indigenous context, during the spring and summer of 2022, the government led a distinctions-based engagement process to understand infrastructure needs in Indigenous communities. The results of this engagement will provide a community-defined assessment of the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities in Canada and support the co-development of infrastructure plans to address critical needs in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities. Budget 2022 also announced $4 billion over seven years, starting in 2022-23, to accelerate work in closing Indigenous housing gaps for First Nations on reserve communities, First Nations Self-Governing and Modern Treaty Holder communities, as well as Inuit and Métis communities.

The Government of Canada is working with partners to ensure that cities and communities are resilient and sustainable. The Permanent Public Transit Fund will support new subway lines, light-rail transit and streetcars, electric buses, active transportation infrastructure, and improved rural transit. This will create affordable commuting options and reduce Canada's emissions. It will also provide local governments with predictable transit funding.

Electrification of public transit fleets can be challenging due to the complexities of converting transit systems to a new technology, which involves significant upfront costs associated with zero emission buses and related infrastructure. To bridge this gap, the $2.75 billion Zero Emission Transit Fund offers support to public transit and school bus operators electrifying their fleets.

In addition, the Government of Canada has released its first National Active Transportation Strategy and launched the Active Transportation Fund, which will help build new and expanded networks of pathways, bike lanes, trails and pedestrian bridges and undertake planning studies. This will provide tangible benefits to communities by shortening commute times for families, promoting healthier lifestyles, cutting air and noise pollution, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The new Natural Infrastructure Fund supports projects related to local parks, green spaces, and waterfronts as well as design elements that enhance access to nature. Design elements may include walkways, ramps, signage, lighting, garbage bins, benches, and multi-functional piers. Natural features will also support biodiversity goals and targets by providing wildlife habitat, resources, and connectivity, and these projects can provide public education opportunities related to natural processes and species.

The Green Municipal Fund (GMF) supports innovative and replicable municipal environmental projects through grants, loans, capacity building, and knowledge sharing. With GMF support, municipalities and their partners can pursue plans, studies, pilots, and capital projects across energy, transportation, waste and land use, improving energy efficiency, reducing pollution, and delivering triple bottom line benefits to communities across Canada. Since its original endowment in 2000, the GMF has grown into a $1 billion revolving fund administered by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. GMF used the investment of $950 million from Budget 2019 to create three new energy efficiency funding offers and endow 7 local climate hubs through the Low Carbon Cities Canada initiative.

Back to the Land

Back to the Land initiatives help further a connection between Indigenous communities and their ancestral land. By bringing Indigenous Peoples closer to the land culturally, socially and spiritually, Back to the Land initiatives aid in maintaining sustainable land-use practices, support environmental conservation, and even promote social and psychological well-being. By supporting Back to the Land initiatives the Government of Canada can ensure these benefits are maintained, while also helping to preserve Indigenous cultural heritage and practices. The Mental Health Innovation Network's Going Off, Growing Strong program has helped socially-isolated Inuit youth connect with their community and cultural heritage and build strong relationships. This has resulted in drastically reduced rates of youth suicide through land-based activities such as hunting, fishing, and gathering, all of which build connections between Indigenous Peoples with their communities and the land. Back to the Land initiatives respect the rights, responsibilities, needs, and unique perspectives of Indigenous Peoples.

The Government of Canada is also committed to improving air quality through the Air Quality Management System. A key element of this approach is the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards, which are in place for 4 air pollutants—sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and ground-level ozone—to protect human health and the environment and to drive continuous improvement in air quality across Canada. The Government of Canada also works to address air pollutant emissions from industrial sectors and equipment, the transportation sector, and consumer and commercial products that are used every day.

The Government of Canada works with other countries to address air pollution originating from outside its borders through international agreements such as the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and its Gothenburg Protocol.

The Government of Canada also provides opportunities for Canadians to get out into nature and experience Canada's cultural heritage, including through Canada's network of national parks, national wildlife areas, migratory bird sanctuaries, national historic sites, and other protected areas. The government has launched a new National Urban Parks program to create a network of national urban parks in collaboration with local authorities, Indigenous groups, and stakeholders with the goal of protecting biodiversity, supporting health and well-being, advancing reconciliation with Indigenous Peoples, and connecting Canadians with nature.

Internationally, the Government of Canada adopted the New Urban Agenda at the United Nations 2016 Habitat III Summit in Ecuador. This will strengthen the commitment to make a meaningful contribution to the sustainable development of towns, cities and human settlements for the next 20 years.

Differences in exposure to air pollutants

Canadians are exposed to varying levels of air pollution that depend on factors such as the proximity to emissions sources and the long-range transport of pollutants by wind. The highest concentrations of most air pollutants are found around Canada's Census Metropolitan Areas, with the Windsor to Québec City corridor generally having the highest levels of air pollution. This is primarily due to the large concentration of population and associated emissions sources, such as cars, trucks and industry, as well as the transport of air pollutants over long distances by wind from the United States. Exposure to air pollutants is particularly felt amongst visible minority and immigrant populations living in Canada's largest cities. Additionally, those living in areas impacted by wildfire smoke can experience higher levels of air pollution.

Stakeholder perspective: Le Pôle sur la ville résiliente de l'Université du Québec à Montréal

The Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) created the Pôle sur la ville résiliente to develop, in collaboration with urban partners, innovative solutions to improve living environments, limit the impact of the urban environment on natural ecosystems, and cope with potential crises and extreme events. The research areas of the Pôle's members include urban forests, urban water, habitat and living environments, nourishing cities, and mobility. For example, in the “Soft and collective mobility” research project, a research team from the Urban and Tourism Studies department of ESG-UQAM was mandated to design a transit-oriented development (TOD) area project for the municipality of Bois-des-Filion. This work allowed for the design of development scenarios that will increase the density of the built environment according to TOD criteria. This will be accomplished while promoting walkability in the sector and the use of bicycles and public transit, respecting the natural environment while focusing on the development of quality public spaces, and finally increasing the canopy and green spaces to avoid heat islands and soil permeabilization.

Source: Pôle sur la ville résiliente, UQAM

Additional context and updates regarding this goal

Targets, indicators, milestones and contextual indicators

Targets, indicators, milestones and contextual indicators

Theme:  Affordable housing and homelessness

Target: Reducing chronic homelessness (1)

By 2028, reduce chronic homelessness by 50% (Minister of Housing and Diversity and Inclusion)

Indicator (i)

Growth rate of people experiencing chronic homelessness

This indicator measures the growth rate of people experiencing chronic homelessness. It refers to individuals who are currently experiencing homelessness and who meet at least one of the following criteria:

  • they have had a total of at least 6 months (180 days) of homelessness over the past year
  • they have had recurrent experiences of homelessness over the past 3 years, with a cumulative duration of at least 18 months (546 days)

The number of people who are estimated to be chronically homeless increased by 14.7% between 2016 and 2019 (26,083 to 29,927).

Target: Reduction or elimination of housing need for 530,000 households (1)

By 2028, reduce or eliminate housing need for 530,000 households (Minister of Housing and Diversity and Inclusion)

Indicator (i)

Households whose housing need was reduced or eliminated

The Housing Need indicator is used to measure the change in severity of need of a household with respect to affordability, suitability, and adequacy resulting from a program intervention, where:

  • Affordability: housing costs to the household with a goal of less than 30% of the total before-tax household income
  • Suitability: housing has enough bedrooms for the size and composition of households, according to the National Occupancy Standard
  • Adequacy: condition of the housing does not require any major repairs

As of June 30, 2022, the National Housing Strategy (NHS) has reduced housing need for 204,725 households.

Short-term milestone: Launch a new Veteran Homelessness Program (1)

By the end of 2023-2024, launch a new Veterans Homelessness program that will provide services and rent supplements to veterans experiencing homelessness in partnership with community organizations.

Short-term milestone: Make progress on reducing chronic homelessness (1)

Reduce chronic homelessness by at least 31% by March 2024.

Theme:  Public transit and active transportation

Target: Public transit and active transportation (2)

By 2030, 22% of commuters use public transit or active transportation (Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs, Infrastructure and Communities)

Indicator (i)

Population using public transit or active transportation

This indicator tracks the percentage of the population using public transit or active transportation for commuting. In 2016, 19.3% of commuters used public transit or active transportation.

Short-term milestone: Support the purchase of zero-emission buses (2)

By the end of 2026, support the purchase of 5000 zero-emission buses and the necessary supporting infrastructure.

Theme:  Air quality

Target: Air quality (3)

Increase the percentage of the population across Canada living in areas where air pollutant concentrations are less than or equal to the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards from 60% in 2005 to 85% in 2030 (Minister of Environment and Climate Change; Minister of Health)

Indicator (i)

Population exposure to outdoor air pollutants

This indicator tracks the proportion of the Canadian population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are less than or equal to the 2020 Canadian Air Ambient Quality Standards. Between the first (2005 to 2007) and most recent (2016 to 2018) reporting periods, the percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were less than or equal to the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards increased from 60 to 68%.

Update (i)

Population exposure to outdoor air pollutants

  • In the most recent reporting period (2019 to 2021), 85% of Canadians lived in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were within the standard
  • This represents an improvement on the 64% established for the previous period (2018 to 2020), a period largely influenced by the 2018 wildfires in British Columbia (1.36 million hectares burned, the largest area on record for the province) and in the United States that caused standards to be exceeded in Alberta and British Columbia
  • This is not only an improvement on the 63% established for the first period (2005 to 2007) but also the highest proportion recorded since this reference period

Source: Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators, Population exposure to outdoor air pollutants, 2023

Short-term milestone: Maintain reduced air pollutant emission levels (3)

Canada has achieved its 2020 air pollutant emission reduction commitments under the amended Gothenburg Protocol. These commitments are for 2020 and beyond, and must be maintained on a yearly basis. Over the course of this strategy and beyond, air pollutant emission levels will therefore be maintained at or below the targets in the amended Gothenburg Protocol for sulphur dioxide (55% reduction from 2005 levels by 2020), nitrogen oxides (35% reduction from 2005 levels by 2020), volatile organic compounds (20% reduction from 2005 levels by 2020), and fine particulate matter (25% reduction from 2005 levels by 2020).

Short-term milestone: Strengthen Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (3)

By the end of 2025, strengthened Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards will be in place for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and fine particulate matter.

Theme:  Green spaces, cultural and natural heritage

Target: National urban parks (4)

Designate national urban parks as part of a network, with a target of up to 6 new national urban parks by 2026 and a total of 15 new national urban parks by 2030 (Minister of Environment and Climate Change)

Indicator (i)

Designation of new national urban parks

This indicator tracks the designation of national urban parks as part of a national network. The Rouge National Urban Park in the Greater Toronto Area was established in 2015 by Parks Canada, and as of January 2022, is Parks Canada's only federally owned and operated national urban park.

Target: Visitation to Parks Canada heritage places (4)

By 2026, support at least 23.7 million visitors annually to Parks Canada places (Minister of Environment and Climate Change)

Indicator (i)

Number of visits to Parks Canada places

This indicator tracks the number of visitors to Parks Canada places. In 2019 to 2020 Parks Canada places hosted 24.9 million visitors, however visitation declined to 17 million in 2020 to 2021 as a result of COVID-19 public health measures and closures. This number began trending upwards again in 2021 to 2022 with 21.6 million visitors reported.

Short-term milestone: Increase visitation to national wildlife areas

By March 31, 2023, increase annual visitation to the 10 national wildlife areas that are part of the Connecting Canadians to Nature Initiative.

Contextual indicator: Air quality  (i)

Air quality indicators present the concentrations of 5 key air pollutants for Canada. Between 2002 and 2016:

  • nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and peak ground‑level ozone concentrations decreased
  • average ground-level ozone concentrations showed almost no change
  • fine particulate matter concentrations exhibited variable results
Update (i)

Air quality

Between 2005 and 2019,

  • average PM2,5 concentrations have remained mostly unchanged with slight year-to-year fluctuations and a dip in 2019
  • peak PM2,5 concentrations exhibited variable results, decreasing after 2005 but trending upward over the past decade and decreasing again in 2019
  • average O(3) concentrations fluctuated above and below 2005 levels, while peak O(3) concentrations have generally decreased
  • average and peak NO(2), SO(2) and average VOC concentrations have decreased steadily

Source: Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators, Air Quality, 2023

Contextual indicator: Emissions of harmful substances to air (i)

This indicator tracks human-related emissions to air of mercury, lead, cadmium, and their compounds. These substances may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment and constitute a danger to human life or health.

  • mercury, lead and cadmium emissions decreased by 91%, 89% and 95%, respectively, between 1990 and 2020
  • the decrease in emissions came mostly from large reductions in the non-ferrous refining and smelting industry
Contextual indicator: Population living close to a public transit stop (i)

This indicator tracks the percentage of the population living within 500 metres of a public transit stop. In 2016, 86.5% of Canadians living in large urban centres (those with a population of at least 100,000 with at least 50,000 living in the core; referred to as census metropolitan areas) had access to public transportation.

Contextual indicator: Proximity to neighbourhood parks (i)

This indicator tracks proximity to neighborhood parks. In 2019, 90% of Canadians reported having a park or green space within a 10-minute journey from their home (93% in large urban areas, and 82% in smaller cities, towns, and rural areas).

Contextual indicator: Visits to parks and public green spaces (i)

This indicator tracks trends in the percentage of Canadian households that report that they visited parks or public green spaces. In 2019, 85% of Canadian households that lived close to a park or green space reported that they had visited it within the past 12 months.

 

Implementation strategies and departmental actions

Implementation strategies and departmental actions

Theme:  Affordable housing and homelessness

Implementation strategy: Prevent and address homelessness (1)

Ensure that urban, Indigenous, territorial, rural and remote communities have the support they need to continue to prevent and reduce homelessness by investing in programs and research that help in addressing homelessness.

Implementation strategy: Implement the National Housing Strategy (1)

In addition to providing direct assistance to households in housing need, programs support innovative housing solutions, share knowledge and research, seek to learn from those with lived experience in housing need and adopt a “whole-of-government” approach that aligns housing with other important goals like creating jobs, increasing access to healthcare and education, and preventing violence against women. Funding through the National Housing Strategy also supports improved homeownership options for Canadians.

Implementation strategy: Support affordable housing and related infrastructure for Indigenous communities and communities in the North (1)

Work with provincial, territorial, federal and Indigenous partners to ensure long-term, sustainable and predictable funding to support affordable housing and related infrastructure both north and south of 60, and accelerate work to close gaps in Indigenous housing and infrastructure.

Theme:  Public transit and active transportation

Implementation strategy: Invest in public transit and active transportation (2)

Foster a connection to nature and culture by expanding and enhancing programs and services that meet the needs of visitors and facilitate positive and memorable experiences.

Theme:  Air quality

Implementation strategy: Develop, administer and enforce measures addressing air pollution (3)

Develop, administer, and enforce regulatory and non-regulatory measures that reduce the impacts of air pollution on the environment and human health.

Implementation strategy: Work with partners to address air pollution (3)

Work collaboratively with provinces, territories, and stakeholders to develop and regularly update the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards and associated tools and guidance.

Implementation strategy: Encourage communities across Canada to innovate (3)

Empower communities to adopt technology, data and innovative solutions to make improvements in quality of life and community infrastructure.

Implementation strategy: Inform Canadians about air quality (3)

Help Canadians make informed decisions related to their health and the environment by providing them with up to date and accurate information on local outdoor air quality and strategies to improve their indoor air quality.

Implementation strategy: Research the impacts of air pollution (3)

Support research that will enable Canadians and scientists to gain a better understanding of the impacts of air pollution on ecosystems, wildlife, and human health.

Theme:  Green spaces, cultural and natural heritage

Implementation strategy: Develop green spaces close to urban centres (4)

Develop green spaces in or close to urban centres and facilitate access to them.

Implementation strategy: Enhance visitor experience in parks and historic places (4)

Encourage Canadians to visit their national parks and historic places, experience the outdoors and learn more about the environment, history and culture. Provide opportunities to foster a connection to nature and culture by expanding and enhancing programs and services (for example, citizen science and conservation management programs) that meet the needs of visitors and facilitate positive and memorable experiences.

Implementation strategy: Promote access to green space, cultural and natural heritage (4)

Provide opportunities to connect with nature, green spaces, trail networks and culture.

Implementation strategy: Work with partners on conservation (4)

Engage with Indigenous Peoples, partners and the public and in stewardship activities to protect and conserve cultural and natural space as well as wildlife species and their habitat.

Responsibilities and contributions of federal organizations

Responsibilities and contributions of federal organizations

1Target theme: Affordable housing and homelessness
FSDS component Title Supports Goal and/or Target Responsible organization(s)
Target By 2028, reduce chronic homelessness by 50% Supports the goal Minister of Housing and Diversity and Inclusion
Target By 2028, reduce or eliminate housing need for 530,000 households Supports the goal Minister of Housing and Diversity and Inclusion
Milestone Launch a new Veteran Homelessness Program Supports the goal and the Reducing Chronic Homelessness Target Infrastructure Canada
Milestone Make progress on reducing chronic homelessness Supports the goal and the Reducing Chronic Homelessness Target Infrastructure Canada
Implementation Strategy Prevent and address homelessness Supports the goal and the Reducing Chronic Homelessness Target Infrastructure Canada
Implementation Strategy Implement the National Housing Strategy Supports the goal and the Reduction or Elimination of Housing Need for 530,000 households Target Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Implementation Strategy Support affordable housing and related infrastructure for Indigenous communities and communities in the North Supports the goal and the Reduction or Elimination of Housing Need for 530,000 households Target

Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada

Indigenous Services Canada

2Target theme: Public transit and active transportation
FSDS component Title Supports Goal and/or Target Responsible organization(s)
Target By 2030, 22% of commuters use public transit or active transportation Supports the goal Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs, Infrastructure and Communities
Milestone Support the purchase of zero-emission buses Supports the goal Infrastructure Canada
Implementation Strategy Invest in public transit and active transportation Supports the goal and the Public Transit and Active Transportation Target

Infrastructure Canada

The Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Inc.

National Capital Commission

3Target theme: Air quality
FSDS component Title Supports Goal and/or Target Responsible organization(s)
Target Increase the percentage of the population across Canada living in areas where air pollutant concentrations are less than or equal to the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards from 60% in 2005 to 85% in 2030 Supports the goal

Minister of Environment and Climate Change

Minister of Health

Milestone Maintain reduced air pollutant emission levels Supports the goal and the Air Quality Target Environment and Climate Change Canada
Milestone Strengthen Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards Supports the goal and the Air Quality Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Health Canada

Implementation Strategy Develop, administer and enforce measures addressing air pollution Supports the goal and the Air Quality Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Transport Canada

Implementation Strategy Work with partners to address air pollution Supports the goal and the Air Quality Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Health Canada

Implementation Strategy Encourage communities across Canada to innovate Supports the goal Infrastructure Canada
Implementation Strategy Inform Canadians about air quality Supports the goal

Environment and Climate Change Canada

Health Canada

Implementation Strategy Research the impacts of air pollution Supports the goal

Health Canada

National Research Council of Canada

Transport Canada

4Target theme: Green spaces, cultural and natural heritage
FSDS component Title Supports Goal and/or Target Responsible organization(s)
Target Designate national urban parks as part of a network, with a target of up to 6 new national urban parks by 2026 and a total of 15 new national urban parks by 2030 Supports the goal Minister of Environment and Climate Change
Target By 2026, support at least 23.7 million visitors annually to Parks Canada places Supports the goal Minister of Environment and Climate Change
Milestone Increase visitation to the National Wildlife Areas Supports the goal Environment and Climate Change Canada
Implementation Strategy Develop green spaces close to urban centres Supports the goal, and the National Urban Parks Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

The Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Inc.

National Battlefields Commission

National Capital Commission

Parks Canada

Implementation Strategy Enhance visitor experience in parks and historic places Supports the goal and the Visitation to Parks Canada Heritage Places Target Parks Canada
Implementation Strategy Promote access to green space, cultural and natural heritage Supports the goal and the Visitation to Parks Canada Heritage Places Target

Environment and Climate Change Canada

The Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Inc.

National Battlefields Commission

National Capital Commission

Parks Canada

Implementation Strategy Work with partners on conservation Supports the goal

Environment and Climate Change Canada

National Capital Commission

Parks Canada

Performance measurement

iIndicators supporting the goal and contextual indicators
Indicator type Target Indicator Source Update cycle
Target By 2028, reduce chronic homelessness by 50% Growth rate of people experiencing chronic homelessness * Infrastructure Canada Annual - 3-year lag in the availability of data.
Target By 2028, reduce or eliminate housing need for 530,000 households Households whose housing need was reduced or eliminated Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Annually
Target By 2030, 22% of commuters use public transit or active transportation Population using public transit or active transportation * Statistics Canada Every 5 years
Target Increase the percentage of the population across Canada living in areas where air pollutant concentrations are less than or equal to the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards from 60% in 2005 to 85% in 2030 Population exposure to outdoor air pollutants * CESI Annual
Target Designate national urban parks as part of a network, with a target of up to 6 new national urban parks by 2026 and a total of 15 new national urban parks by 2030 Designation of new national urban parks Parks Canada Annual
Target By 2026, support at least 23.7 million visitors annually to Parks Canada places Number of visits at Parks Canada places Parks Canada Annual
Contextual Air quality CESI Annual
Emissions of harmful substances to air CESI Annual
Population living close to a public transit stop * Statistics Canada Occasional
Proximity to neighbourhood parks Statistics Canada Every 2 years
Visits to parks and public green spaces Statistics Canada Every 2 years

*Indicators that have also been included in the Canadian Indicator Framework.

For more detailed information see Strengthening transparency and accountability.

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