Population exposure to outdoor air pollutants

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Breathing in air pollutants can contribute to health issues such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases and premature mortality. To better inform Canadians, an indicator was devised that monitors general improvements to air quality using the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards). More specifically, this indicator tracks the percentage of the population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 standards.Footnote 1

Results

Key results

  • Between the first (2005 to 2007) and most recent (2016 to 2018) reporting periods, the percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the standards increased from 60% to 68%
  • Between the 2015 to 2017Footnote 2 and 2016 to 2018 reporting periods, the percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the standards dropped from 77% to 68%. This decline can be attributed to large wildfires that negatively affected air quality in Alberta and British Columbia for the 2016 to 2018 period

Percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards, Canada, 2005 to 2018

Percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards, Canada, 2005 to 2018 (see data table below for the long description)
Data table for the long description
Percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards, Canada, 2005 to 2018
Period Proportion of the population where air pollutants were below the standards
(percentage)
2005 to 2007 60
2006 to 2008 63
2007 to 2009 64
2008 to 2010 67
2009 to 2011 65
2010 to 2012 64
2011 to 2013 64
2012 to 2014 64
2013 to 2015 70
2014 to 2016 77
2015 to 2017 77
2016 to 2018 68

Download data file (Excel/CSV; 1.26 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: With the exception of the annual standards for nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide, the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards used in the indicator use 3-year average concentrations. For this reason the bar chart portrays percentage values over 3-year periods. The annual standards for nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide use a single annual concentration for the 3-year reporting period. For example, for the 2016 to 2018 reporting period, the annual concentrations for 2018 were used for the annual standards for nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide.
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (2020) Air Quality Research Division. Health Canada (2020) Air Health Effects Assessment Division.

The Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards) are health and environmental-based outdoor air quality objectives for pollutant concentrations in the air. The standards are intended to further protect human health and the environment and to drive continuous improvement in air quality across Canada.

The indicator uses 7 standardsFootnote 3 for 4 air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], ground-level ozone [O3], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and sulphur dioxide [SO2]) to assess whether the population of an area was exposed to outdoor air pollutant concentrations below or above the standards. For the population of a given area to be below the standards, the concentrations of all 4 pollutants had to be less than (or equal to) their respective standards. If the concentrations exceeded any of the 7 standards, it resulted in the population of a given area being above the standards.

Between the 2005 to 2007 and 2016 to 2018 reporting periods, exceedances of the 8-hour standard for O3 affected the greatest proportion of the Canadian population, followed by exceedances of the 24-hour and annual standards for PM2.5. Although the O3 standard was exceeded most often, the proportion of the population living in areas exceeding this standard decreased from 36% in 2005 to 2007 to 20% in 2016 to 2018. The O3 standard was exceeded most often in southern Ontario, where air quality is influenced by transboundary air pollutant flows from the United States.Footnote 4

From the 2013 to 2015 reporting period to the 2016 to 2018 reporting period, the proportion of the population living in areas exceeding the annual standard for PM2.5 decreased from 20% to 2%. This improvement can be attributed to fewer large cities, such as Toronto, Montreal, Quebec City and Hamilton reporting exceedances over the latter reporting periods. Conversely, in British Columbia and Alberta over the last 4 reporting periods, there have been an increasing number of communities reporting exceedances in the annual standard for PM2.5.

Between the last 2 reporting periods (2015 to 2017 and 2016 to 2018), the proportion of the population living in areas exceeding the 24-hour standard for PM2.5 increased from 3% to 12%. This can be attributed to the influence of smoke from large wildfires in the western United States in 2018, and in British Columbia in 2017 and 2018 that affected air quality in large communities in Alberta (Calgary, Edmonton and Red Deer) and British Columbia (Abbotsford and Chilliwack).

Exceedances of the annual and 1-hour standards for SO2 had minimal influence on the indicator. High concentrations of SO2 tend to be limited to areas near the SO2 sources which are typically located in communities with smaller populations. Despite its small influence on the indicator, SO2 (specifically the 1-hour standard) remains a concern because of its health impacts on populations and the environment close to sulphur-emitting facilities. Since the 2011 to 2013 reporting period, there have been no exceedances of the annual and 1-hour standards for NO2 based on the methodology used in the indicator.

During the 2016 to 2018 reporting period, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Quebec and Saskatchewan recorded the most exceedances of 1 or more of the 7 standards. Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, the Northwest Territories, Yukon and Nunavut had no exceedances.Footnote 5

About the indicator

About the indicator

What the indicator measures

This indicator tracks the proportion of the Canadian population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are less than or equal to the 2020 Canadian Air Ambient Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards). The indicator uses the following 2020 standards (see Table 1 for more details).

  • fine particulate matter (PM2.5): 24-hour and annual
  • ground-level ozone (O3): 8-hour
  • nitrogen dioxide (NO2): 1-hour and annual
  • sulphur dioxide (SO2): 1-hour and annual

Why this indicator is important

Canadians are exposed to air pollutants on a daily basis, and this exposure can result in adverse health effects. Exposure to some air pollutants, even at low levels, has been linked to increased heart and respiratory problems, leading to increased hospitalization, emergency room visits and premature death. The Government of Canada estimates that each year 42 premature deaths per 100 000 Canadians can be linked to air pollution for a total of 15 300 premature deaths. The total economic valuation of the health impacts attributable to air pollution in Canada is $120 billion per year (based on 2016 currency).Footnote 6

Ground-level O3 and PM2.5 are key components of smog and 2 of the most widespread air pollutants. Exposure to O3 and PM2.5, even at very low levels, has been associated with pulmonary, cardiovascular and respiratory health effects. Exposure to O3 can cause throat irritation, coughing, shortness of breath and reduced lung function, and can also aggravate existing conditions, such as asthma or other chronic lung diseases. Exposure to PM2.5 can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular effects, such as asthma attacks, chronic bronchitis, heart attacks as well as lung cancer.

Exposure to SO2 and NO2 can irritate the lungs, reduce lung function and increase susceptibility to allergens in people with asthma. Long-term exposure to NO2 may contribute to allergies and asthma development. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), O3 and NO2 are known to have adverse health effects occurring even at low concentrations.

Besides their direct effects on health, NO2 contributes to the formation of O3 and PM2.5, and has major impacts on acid deposition (sometimes termed "acid rain") and eutrophication. Similarly, SO2 is also a major contributor to acid deposition. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can damage vegetation and structures, and contributes to haze and reduced visibility. Ozone can also impact vegetation, decrease the productivity of some crops and may contribute to forest decline. It can also damage synthetic materials and textiles, cause cracks in rubber, accelerate fading of dyes and speed deterioration of some paints and coatings.

Improved air quality reduces heart attacks, hospital visits, allergy and child asthma attacks, and prevents lost school and work days. Cleaner air can also reduce damage to crops, forests, surface waters and infrastructure such as buildings and bridges.Footnote 7

Consult the Air pollution: drivers and impacts web page for information on the impacts of air pollution on human health, the economy and the environment.

Federal Sustainable Development Strategy icon: Safe and healthy communities

Safe and healthy communities

This indicator tracks progress on the 2019 to 2022 Federal Sustainable Development Strategy, supporting the target: Increase the percentage of Canadians living in areas where air quality standards are achieved from 70% in 2015 to 85% in 2030. The most recent data available shows that, between the 2013 to 2015 and the 2016 to 2018 reporting periods, the percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards decreased from 70% to 68%.

In addition, the indicator contributes to 2 of the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It is linked to Goal 3, Good Health and Well-being and Target 3.9, "By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination" and Goal 11, Sustainable Cities and Communities and Target 11.6, "By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management."

Related indicators

The Air health trends indicator provides an overview of the public health impacts attributable to outdoor air pollution in Canada.

The Air quality indicators track ambient concentrations of PM2.5, O3, SO2, NO2 and VOCs at the national and regional level and at local monitoring stations.

The Human exposure to harmful substances indicators track the concentrations of 4 substances (mercury, lead, cadmium and bisphenol A) in Canadians.

The Air pollutant emissions indicators track emissions from human activities of 6 key air pollutants: sulphur oxides (SOX), nitrogen oxides (NOX), volatile organic compounds (VOC), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Black carbon, which is a component of PM2.5, is also reported. For each air pollutant, data are provided at the national, provincial/territorial and facility level and by major sources.

Data sources and methods

Data sources and methods

Data sources

The indicator is calculated from air pollutant concentration data and population statistics.

The air pollutant concentration data are taken from Environment and Climate Change Canada's Canada-wide Air Quality Database. The population data were retrieved from Statistics Canada's demographic statistics.

More information

Air pollution concentration data

The Canada-wide Air Quality Database contains data collected through the National Air Pollution Surveillance Program which is a collaboration between Environment and Climate Change Canada, provincial, territorial and regional government networks.

Population data

The 2005, 2007 to 2010 population estimates were received from Statistics Canada. These estimates are based on the 2011 Standard Geographical Classification. The following datasets were timestamped, May 26, 2014.

  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2005, Census Subdivisions, Canada
  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2007, Census Subdivisions, Canada
  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2008, Census Subdivisions, Canada
  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2009, Census Subdivisions, Canada
  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2010, Census Subdivisions, Canada

The 2006 Census of population data were from the Statistics Canada Census Datasets website. The dataset was timestamped, May 29, 2008.

The 2011 Census of population data were from the Statistics Canada Census Datasets website. The dataset was timestamped, August 21, 2014.

The 2012 to 2015 population estimates were received from Statistics Canada. These estimates are based on the 2011 Standard Geographical Classification. The following datasets were timestamped, March 10, 2016.

  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2012, Census Subdivisions, Canada
  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2013, Census Subdivisions, Canada
  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2014, Census Subdivisions, Canada
  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2015, Census Subdivisions, Canada

The 2016 Census of population data were from the Statistics Canada Census Datasets website. The dataset was timestamped, August 28, 2017.

The 2017 to 2018 population estimates were received from Statistics Canada. These estimates are based on the 2016 Standard Geographical Classification. The following datasets were timestamped, August 21, 2019.

  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2017, Census Subdivisions, Canada
  • Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2018, Census Subdivisions, Canada

Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards

In October 2012, the ministers of the Environment of all provinces and territories, except Quebec,Footnote 8 agreed to begin implementing the Air Quality Management System. This system provides a comprehensive, cross-Canada framework for collaborative action to further protect human health and the environment through continuous improvement of air quality. Under the system, the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards) are drivers for air quality improvement across the country. The CAAQS are health and environmental-based air quality objectives for pollutant concentrations in outdoor air. Together with the management levels,Footnote 9 the CAAQS act as a benchmark to support continuous improvement of air quality. The standards are not "pollute-up-to levels" and the Air Quality Management System encourages governments to take action to improve air quality, considering that some pollutants can affect human health even at concentrations below the standards.

Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the 2020 CAAQSFootnote 10 were established:

  • for fine particulate matter and ozone in May 2013
  • for sulphur dioxide in October 2017
  • for nitrogen dioxide in December 2017

The indicator uses the 2020 CAAQS numerical values. For more information on the 2015 and 2025 numerical values, refer to the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards.

Table 1. Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for 2020
Pollutant Averaging time 2020 Standard
(numerical value)
Statistical form
Fine particulate matter 24-hour (calendar day) 27 µg/m3 The 3-year average of the annual 98th percentile of the daily 24-hour average concentrations
Fine particulate matter Annual (calendar year) 8.8 µg/m3 The 3-year average of the annual average of the daily 24-hour average concentrations
Ozone 8-hour 62 ppb The 3-year average of the annual 4th-highest of the daily maximum 8-hour average concentrations
Nitrogen dioxide 1-hour 60 ppb The 3-year average of the annual 98th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations
Nitrogen dioxide Annual (calendar year) 17.0 ppb The arithmetic average over a single calendar year of all 1-hour average concentrations
Sulphur dioxide 1-hour 70 ppb The 3-year average of the annual 99th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations
Sulphur dioxide Annual (calendar year) 5.0 ppb The arithmetic average over a single calendar year of all 1-hour average concentrations

Note: Units: µg/m3 = micrograms per cubic metre, ppb = parts per billion.

Methods

The indicator is calculated by comparing the spatially averaged pollutant concentration for each geographical area with the respective 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards). The total population of all geographical areas where the average concentrations for all pollutants are less than or equal to the respective standards are compared to the national population.

More information

Data completeness criteria

Concentration values at monitoring stations are considered to be "valid" and are used in the calculation of the indicator if they meet the related data completeness criteria specified in Table 2.

Table 2. Monitoring station data completeness criteria used in the calculation of the indicator
Pollutant Averaging time Data completeness and calculation criteria
Fine particulate matter 24-hour (calendar day)
  • A daily 24-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18 hours) of the 1-hour concentrations were available on a given day
  • A 98th percentile of the daily average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% of the daily average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% of the daily average concentrations were available in each quarter[A] of a calendar year
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Fine particulate matter Annual (calendar year)
  • A daily 24-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18 hours) of the 1-hour concentrations were available on a given day
  • An annual average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% of the daily average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% of the daily average concentrations were available in each quarter[A] of a calendar year
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Ozone 8-hour
  • Rolling (or moving) 8-hour average concentrations were calculated for each hour of the day from the 1-hour average concentrations, resulting in up to 24 8-hour average concentrations per day
  • To be valid a rolling 8-hour average concentration must have at least 6 1-hour average concentrations
  • A daily maximum 8-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18) of the 8-hour rolling average concentrations were available in the day
  • The annual 4th-highest daily maximum 8-hour average concentration was considered valid if there were at least 75% of all daily maximum 8-hour average concentrations in the period from April 1 to September 30
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Sulphur dioxide 1-hour
  • The daily maximum 1-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18 hours) of the hourly concentrations were available on a given day
  • The annual 99th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations was considered valid if at least 75% of all the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations for the year were available and at least 60% in each quarter were available
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Sulphur dioxide Annual (calendar year)
  • An annual average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% of all the 1 hour average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% were available in each quarter
Nitrogen dioxide 1-hour
  • The daily maximum 1-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18) of the hourly concentrations were available on a given day
  • The 98th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations was considered valid if at least 75% of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations for the year were available and at least 60% in each quarter were available
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Nitrogen dioxide Annual (calendar year)
  • An annual average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% of all the 1 hour average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% were available in each quarter

Note: [A] The calendar quarters are as follows: quarter 1 from January 1 to March 31; quarter 2 from April 1 to June 30; quarter 3 from July 1 to September 30 and quarter 4 from October 1 to December 31.

For a geographical area having only 1 monitoring station, the data completeness criteria of Table 2 are applied. For a geographical area having more than 1 monitoring station, the data completeness criteria of Table 2 are applied to the overall data available for all monitoring stations within the geographical area. In such a case, the averaged concentration of all monitoring stations is reported for that particular geographical area even though each of the monitoring stations could have incomplete data. 

Geographical areas

Each air quality monitoring station is assigned to a geographical area. For fine particulate matter, ground-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide (annual concentrations only), these areas are either a Statistics Canada's census metropolitan area, census division or census subdivision. For each year from 2005 to 2018, population counts are allocated to each geographical area with at least 1 monitoring station.

Because high sulphur dioxide concentrations tend to be localized around point sources, the geographical area for the 1-hour standard for sulphur dioxide was set to a 2 kilometre (km) radius around the station. Only population data within the 2 km boundary of the monitoring station were used. In this case, Statistics Canada's dissemination block data were used to calculate the population within the 2 km boundary of a station.

Refer to Annex A for a list of geographic areas used to calculate the indicator.

Air pollutant concentrations by geographical area

For each air pollutant and averaging time, the following steps were used to assign a concentration value to each geographical area.

  1. A concentration value was first calculated for each monitoring station in the area using the data completeness and calculation criteria outlined in Table 2
  2. The arithmetic average was calculated from the concentration values of all monitoring stations in the geographical area

For example, Winnipeg has 2 monitoring stations that meet the data completeness criteria for fine particulate matter. The annual average concentration of fine particulate matter for Winnipeg is calculated by using the following steps.

  1. The daily 24-hour average concentration for each monitoring station was calculated
    • if at least 75% (18 hours) of the 1‑hour concentrations for the station were available on a given day (from Table 2)
  2. An annual average concentration for each monitoring station was then calculated
    • if at least 75% of the daily average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% of the daily average concentrations were available in each quarter of a calendar year (from Table 2)
  3. Finally, the annual average concentration for Winnipeg was calculated using the arithmetic average of the annual average concentration of each of the 2 monitoring stations within Winnipeg

Comparison with the standards and total population below the standards

The concentration value for each pollutant was then compared to the respective standard to determine if the population in the geographical area was exposed to pollutant levels less than or equal to the corresponding standard. This comparison was done for each pollutant and for each standard. If the concentration value for the area was less than or equal to the respective standard for all 7 CAAQS, the population count was recorded for the geographical area. If at least 1 standard was exceeded, the population for the geographical area was set to 0.The population from all geographical areas with average concentrations less than or equal to all CAAQS were then added together. The sum was then divided by the total Canadian population and multiplied by 100 to produce the percentage of the population that lives in an area where air pollutant concentrations were below the standards. The general formula is as follows:

100 * (sum of the population below all CAAQS ÷ total population of Canada)

Where the population below all CAAQS = the population of Canadians living in geographical areas where ambient concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are all less than or equal to their respective standard.

Recent changes

The annual standard for sulphur dioxide was not used in the previous iteration of the indicator because it is based on environmental effects and not human health-based effects. It was included in this iteration for the 2015 to-2017 and the 2016 to 2018 reporting periods. For consistency the results for the 2014 to 2016 reporting period were recalculated and it was confirmed that the inclusion of the standard had little to no difference to the final value of the indicator.

The results for 2015 to 2017 were previously reported as 75% in Health Canada's and Environment and Climate Change Canada's 2019 to 2020 Departmental Results Reports and the Addressing Air Pollution Horizontal Initiative Evaluation Report. This value has since been reassessed following quality assurance/quality control. Additional geographical areas (communities) were also included in the data which could have influenced the revised value. The revised value of 77% is reported in the indicator.

Caveats and limitations

From 2005 to 2018, approximately 63% of the population lived in areas covered by selected air quality monitoring stations that meet the data completeness criteria. Refer to Annex A for a list of geographical areas used in the indicator. The indicator assumes that the remainder of the population lives in areas where outdoor concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are less than or equal to their 2020 standards.Footnote 11 Populations in northern regions of the country have less coverage, as monitoring stations tend to be situated near urban areas with a higher population density.

More information

This indicator is used to report the percentage of the Canadian population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were less than (or equal to) the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards). The indicator is not used for formally reporting the achievement status of the standards. Under the Air Quality Management System, reporting on achievement of the standards is a provincial and territorial responsibility.

The methods used to calculate the indicator differ from those used to report on the achievement status of the CAAQS. For example, for the indicator, the average concentration from all monitoring stations in the geographical area is used to compare against the standard. However, for reporting on achievement of the CAAQS, the achievement is determined on a single station basis. This difference can account as to why a geographical area exceeds a standard under formal CAAQS reporting, but does not exceed the standard under the indicator.

Populations not covered by monitoring stations were assumed to be below the standards. While this results in some uncertainty regarding the estimated population below the standards, a sensitivity analysis indicated that this assumption does not result in a large error. Ongoing research and analysis is being conducted on methods that will consider the entire population.

Some data collected at monitoring stations cannot be used in calculating the indicator because the data do not meet the data completeness criteria. The removal of this data can influence the number of geographical areas used per reporting period. Refer to Annex A for a list of geographical areas used in the indicator.

The indicator uses the actual concentrations measured at monitoring stations. Some of these concentrations may have been influenced by pollutant sources in other countries and by smoke from wildfires both within and outside Canada.

Resources

Resources

References

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2012) Guidance document on achievement determination for Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter and ozone (PDF; 264 kB). Retrieved on March 15, 2021.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2014) Air Quality Management System. Retrieved on March 15, 2021.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2017) State of the air. Retrieved on March 15, 2021.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2019) Guidance document on air zone management (PDF; 225 kB). Retrieved on March 15, 2021.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2020) Guidance document on achievement determination for Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for nitrogen dioxide (PDF; 616 kB). Retrieved on March 15, 2021.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2020) Guidance document on achievement determination for Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulphur dioxide (PDF; 586 kB). Retrieved on March 15, 2021.

Environment and Climate Change Canada (2020) National Air Pollution Surveillance Program. Retrieved on March 15, 2021.

Government of Canada (2021) Health effects of air pollution. Retrieved on March 15, 2021.

Related information

Air pollution: drivers and impacts

Canadian Smog Science Assessment Highlights and Key Messages

Smog: causes and effects

Annex A

Annex A. Geographical areas used to calculate the indicator

Geographical areas used to calculate the indicator
Census subdivision, census metropolitan area or census division Province or territory Community Reporting periods used
1 Newfoundland and Labrador St. John's 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1002002 Newfoundland and Labrador Lewin's Cove 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
1002005 Newfoundland and Labrador Burin 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
1005018 Newfoundland and Labrador Corner Brook 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1006017 Newfoundland and Labrador Grand Falls-Windsor 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1009022 Newfoundland and Labrador Port au Choix 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
1010025 Newfoundland and Labrador Happy Valley-Goose Bay 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
1010032 Newfoundland and Labrador Labrador City 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
1101042 Prince Edward Island Lot 41 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
1102075 Prince Edward Island Charlottetown 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
1103031 Prince Edward Island Lot 14 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
1205001 Nova Scotia Annapolis, Subd.D 2014-2016, 2016-2018
1207001 Nova Scotia Kings, Subd.A 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1207012 Nova Scotia Kentville 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
1209034 Nova Scotia Halifax 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1212004 Nova Scotia Pictou 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1215002 Nova Scotia Port Hawkesbury 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1217030 Nova Scotia Cape Breton 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1301006, 310 New Brunswick Saint John 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1302026 New Brunswick Saint Andrews 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1305018 New Brunswick Norton 2014-2016 to 2015-2017
1307022 New Brunswick Moncton 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1309031 New Brunswick Newcastle 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
1310032 New Brunswick Fredericton 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
1313004 New Brunswick Saint-Leonard 2014-2016
1313027 New Brunswick Edmunston 2016-2018
1315011 New Brunswick Bathurst 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2413045 Quebec Auclair 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2418040 Quebec Notre-Dame-du-Rosaire 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2420005 Quebec Saint-Francois-de-l'Île-d'Orléans 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
2423027, 2423 Quebec Québec 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2425213 Quebec Levis 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
2429020 Quebec Saint-Hilaire-de-Dorset 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2434058 Quebec Deschambault-Grondines 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2437067 Quebec Trois-Rivières 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2438020 Quebec Lemieux 2005-2007 to 2015-2017
2439025 Quebec Tingwick 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2441027 Quebec La Patrie 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2443027 Quebec Sherbrooke 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2445093 Quebec Eastman 2005-2007 to 2015-2017
2446010 Quebec Frelighsburg 2014-2016, 2016-2018
2446058 Quebec Sutton 2014-2016
2450090 Quebec Saint-Zéphirin-de-Courval 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2451080 Quebec Charette 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2454090 Quebec Saint-Simon 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2456083 Quebec Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2458007 Quebec Brossard 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2458227 Quebec Longueuil 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2459020 Quebec Varennes 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2460028 Quebec L'Assomption 2005-2007 to 2015-2017
2464008 Quebec Terrebonne 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
2465005 Quebec Laval 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2466023, 2466 Quebec Montréal 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2469070 Quebec Saint-Anicet 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2478047 Quebec Saint-Faustin–Lac-Carré 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2479097 Quebec Ferme-Neuve 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2481017 Quebec Gatineau 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2482035 Quebec La Pêche 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2485005 Quebec Témiscaming 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
2486042 Quebec Rouyn-Noranda 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2489040 Quebec Senneterre 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2490027 Quebec Lac-Édouard 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2491050 Quebec La Doré 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2494068 Quebec Saguenay 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
2498045 Quebec Longue-Pointe-de-Mingan 2014-2016
2499060 Quebec Baie James 2014-2016, 2016-2018
3501012 Ontario Cornwall 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3501020 Ontario South Dundas 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
3506008 Ontario Ottawa 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3510010 Ontario Kingston 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3512005 Ontario Belleville 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
3515014 Ontario Peterborough 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3518013 Ontario Oshawa 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3519028 Ontario Vaughn 2016-2018
3519048 Ontario Newmarket 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3520005 Ontario Toronto 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3521005 Ontario Mississauga 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3521010 Ontario Brampton 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3523008 Ontario Guelph 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3524001 Ontario Oakville 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3524002 Ontario Burlington 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3525005 Ontario Hamilton 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3526053 Ontario St. Catharines 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3528052 Ontario Norfolk County 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3529006 Ontario Brantford 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3530013 Ontario Kitchener 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3534020 Ontario Central Elgin 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3536020 Ontario Chatham-Kent 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3537016 Ontario Essex 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
3537039 Ontario Windsor 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3538025 Ontario Sarnia 45 2016-2018
3538030 Ontario Sarnia 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3538031 Ontario Point Edward 2014-2016, 2016-2018
3539036 Ontario London 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3540005 Ontario South Huron 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3541024 Ontario Kincardine 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3543021 Ontario Essa 2014-2016, 2016-2018
3543042 Ontario Barrie 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3544027 Ontario Lake of Bays 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3547090 Ontario Laurentian Hills 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3548044 Ontario North Bay 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3549032 Ontario Parry Sound 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3553005 Ontario Greater Sudbury 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3556056 Ontario Moonbeam 2014-2016, 2016-2018
3557061 Ontario Sault Ste. Marie 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3557095 Ontario Algoma, Unorganized, North Part 2014-2016, 2016-2018
3558004 Ontario Thunder Bay 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
3560049 Ontario Pickle Lake 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
3556090 Ontario Kenora, Unorganized 2014-2016, 2016-2018
4607062 Manitoba Brandon 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4621064 Manitoba Flin Flon (Part) 2014-2016, 2016-2018
4622026 Manitoba Thompson 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
4611040, 602 Manitoba Winnipeg 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4701024 Saskatchewan Estevan 2016-2018
4706027 Saskatchewan Regina 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4708004 Saskatchewan Swift Current 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
4711066 Saskatchewan Saskatoon 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4715066 Saskatchewan Prince Albert 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4718070 Saskatchewan Buffalo Narrows 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
4718090 Saskatchewan Division No.18, Unorganized 2016-2018
4801006 Alberta Medicine Hat 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4802012 Alberta Lethbridge 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
825 Alberta Calgary 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4808011 Alberta Red Deer 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4809002 Alberta Clearwater County 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4810058 Alberta Lamont County 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4810068 Alberta Improvement District No. 13 Elk Island 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
4811031 Alberta Drayton Valley 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
4811032 Alberta Brazeau County 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
4811061, 835 Alberta Edmonton 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4812002 Alberta Cold Lake 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4812014 Alberta St. Paul County No. 19 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4813001 Alberta Lac Ste. Anne County 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
4814003 Alberta Yellowhead County 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4814019 Alberta Hinton 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4814024 Alberta Edson 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
860 Alberta Wood Buffalo 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4818015 Alberta Greenview No. 16 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
4819006 Alberta Grande Prairie County No. 1 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
4819009 Alberta Beaverlodge 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
4819012 Alberta Grande Prairie 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5903045 British Columbia Castlegar 2014-2016, 2016-2018
5903058 British Columbia Central Kootenay J 2014-2016, 2016-2018
5905014 British Columbia Trail 2014-2016, 2016-2018
5905018 British Columbia Warfield 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
5905026 British Columbia Kootenay Boundary A 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
5905030 British Columbia Kootenay Boundary B 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
5905032 British Columbia Grand Forks 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
5909009 British Columbia Hope 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5909020 British Columbia Chilliwack 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
932 British Columbia Abbotsford 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
933 British Columbia Vancouver 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5909032 British Columbia Kent 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
935 British Columbia Victoria 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5917029 British Columbia Capital G 2014-2016, 2016-2018
5919008 British Columbia North Cowichan 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5919012 British Columbia Duncan 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5921007 British Columbia Nanaimo 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5923008 British Columbia Port Alberni 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5923019 British Columbia Ucluelet 2014-2016
5923037 British Columbia Alberni-Clayoquot E 2014-2016 to 2015-2017
5923801 British Columbia Ahahswinis 1 2014-2016 to 2015-2017
5924034 British Columbia Campbell River 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5926010 British Columbia Courtenay 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5927008 British Columbia Powell River 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5929028 British Columbia Sunshine Coast F 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5931006 British Columbia Squamish 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5931020 British Columbia Whistler 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5931807 British Columbia Cheakamus 11 2014-2016 to 2015-2017
5933042 British Columbia Kamloops 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5933880 British Columbia Kamloops 1 2014-2016 to 2015-2017
5935010 British Columbia Kelowna 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5937014 British Columbia Vernon 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5939007 British Columbia Golden 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5941009 British Columbia Williams Lake 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5941013 British Columbia Quesnel 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5941021 British Columbia Cariboo B 2014-2016 to 2015-2017
5943017 British Columbia Port Alice 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5949011 British Columbia Kitimat 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5949011 British Columbia Terrace 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5949803 British Columbia Kitimat 2 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5951007 British Columbia Vanderhoof 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5951022 British Columbia Burns Lake 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5951034 British Columbia Houston 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5951043 British Columbia Smithers 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5953023 British Columbia Prince George 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
5955021 British Columbia Peace River D 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5955023 British Columbia Peace River E 2016-2018
5955030 British Columbia Taylor 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5955034 British Columbia Fort St. John 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
5955804 British Columbia Doig River 206 2014-2016
6001009 Yukon Whitehorse 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
6101017 Northwest Territories Inuvik 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
6102007 Northwest Territories Norman Wells 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
6105001 Northwest Territories Fort Smith 2014-2016 to 2016-2018
6106023 Northwest Territories Yellowknife 2005-2007 to 2016-2018
6204003 Nunavut Iqaluit 2015-2017 to 2016-2018
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