Population exposure to outdoor air pollutants
Access PDF (788 kB)
Breathing in air pollutants can contribute to health issues such as asthma, cardiovascular diseases and premature mortality. To better inform Canadians, an indicator was devised that monitors general improvements to air quality using the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards). More specifically, this indicator tracks the percentage of the population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 standards.Footnote 1
- Between the first (2005 to 2007) and most recent (2016 to 2018) reporting periods, the percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the standards increased from 60% to 68%
- Between the 2015 to 2017Footnote 2 and 2016 to 2018 reporting periods, the percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the standards dropped from 77% to 68%. This decline can be attributed to large wildfires that negatively affected air quality in Alberta and British Columbia for the 2016 to 2018 period
Percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards, Canada, 2005 to 2018
Data table for the long description
|Period||Proportion of the population where air pollutants were below the standards
|2005 to 2007||60|
|2006 to 2008||63|
|2007 to 2009||64|
|2008 to 2010||67|
|2009 to 2011||65|
|2010 to 2012||64|
|2011 to 2013||64|
|2012 to 2014||64|
|2013 to 2015||70|
|2014 to 2016||77|
|2015 to 2017||77|
|2016 to 2018||68|
Download data file (Excel/CSV; 1.26 kB)
Note: With the exception of the annual standards for nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide, the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards used in the indicator use 3-year average concentrations. For this reason the bar chart portrays percentage values over 3-year periods. The annual standards for nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide use a single annual concentration for the 3-year reporting period. For example, for the 2016 to 2018 reporting period, the annual concentrations for 2018 were used for the annual standards for nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide.
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (2020) Air Quality Research Division. Health Canada (2020) Air Health Effects Assessment Division.
The Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards) are health and environmental-based outdoor air quality objectives for pollutant concentrations in the air. The standards are intended to further protect human health and the environment and to drive continuous improvement in air quality across Canada.
The indicator uses 7 standardsFootnote 3 for 4 air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], ground-level ozone [O3], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and sulphur dioxide [SO2]) to assess whether the population of an area was exposed to outdoor air pollutant concentrations below or above the standards. For the population of a given area to be below the standards, the concentrations of all 4 pollutants had to be less than (or equal to) their respective standards. If the concentrations exceeded any of the 7 standards, it resulted in the population of a given area being above the standards.
Between the 2005 to 2007 and 2016 to 2018 reporting periods, exceedances of the 8-hour standard for O3 affected the greatest proportion of the Canadian population, followed by exceedances of the 24-hour and annual standards for PM2.5. Although the O3 standard was exceeded most often, the proportion of the population living in areas exceeding this standard decreased from 36% in 2005 to 2007 to 20% in 2016 to 2018. The O3 standard was exceeded most often in southern Ontario, where air quality is influenced by transboundary air pollutant flows from the United States.Footnote 4
From the 2013 to 2015 reporting period to the 2016 to 2018 reporting period, the proportion of the population living in areas exceeding the annual standard for PM2.5 decreased from 20% to 2%. This improvement can be attributed to fewer large cities, such as Toronto, Montreal, Quebec City and Hamilton reporting exceedances over the latter reporting periods. Conversely, in British Columbia and Alberta over the last 4 reporting periods, there have been an increasing number of communities reporting exceedances in the annual standard for PM2.5.
Between the last 2 reporting periods (2015 to 2017 and 2016 to 2018), the proportion of the population living in areas exceeding the 24-hour standard for PM2.5 increased from 3% to 12%. This can be attributed to the influence of smoke from large wildfires in the western United States in 2018, and in British Columbia in 2017 and 2018 that affected air quality in large communities in Alberta (Calgary, Edmonton and Red Deer) and British Columbia (Abbotsford and Chilliwack).
Exceedances of the annual and 1-hour standards for SO2 had minimal influence on the indicator. High concentrations of SO2 tend to be limited to areas near the SO2 sources which are typically located in communities with smaller populations. Despite its small influence on the indicator, SO2 (specifically the 1-hour standard) remains a concern because of its health impacts on populations and the environment close to sulphur-emitting facilities. Since the 2011 to 2013 reporting period, there have been no exceedances of the annual and 1-hour standards for NO2 based on the methodology used in the indicator.
During the 2016 to 2018 reporting period, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Quebec and Saskatchewan recorded the most exceedances of 1 or more of the 7 standards. Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, the Northwest Territories, Yukon and Nunavut had no exceedances.Footnote 5
About the indicator
About the indicator
What the indicator measures
This indicator tracks the proportion of the Canadian population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are less than or equal to the 2020 Canadian Air Ambient Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards). The indicator uses the following 2020 standards (see Table 1 for more details).
- fine particulate matter (PM2.5): 24-hour and annual
- ground-level ozone (O3): 8-hour
- nitrogen dioxide (NO2): 1-hour and annual
- sulphur dioxide (SO2): 1-hour and annual
Why this indicator is important
Canadians are exposed to air pollutants on a daily basis, and this exposure can result in adverse health effects. Exposure to some air pollutants, even at low levels, has been linked to increased heart and respiratory problems, leading to increased hospitalization, emergency room visits and premature death. The Government of Canada estimates that each year 42 premature deaths per 100 000 Canadians can be linked to air pollution for a total of 15 300 premature deaths. The total economic valuation of the health impacts attributable to air pollution in Canada is $120 billion per year (based on 2016 currency).Footnote 6
Ground-level O3 and PM2.5 are key components of smog and 2 of the most widespread air pollutants. Exposure to O3 and PM2.5, even at very low levels, has been associated with pulmonary, cardiovascular and respiratory health effects. Exposure to O3 can cause throat irritation, coughing, shortness of breath and reduced lung function, and can also aggravate existing conditions, such as asthma or other chronic lung diseases. Exposure to PM2.5 can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular effects, such as asthma attacks, chronic bronchitis, heart attacks as well as lung cancer.
Exposure to SO2 and NO2 can irritate the lungs, reduce lung function and increase susceptibility to allergens in people with asthma. Long-term exposure to NO2 may contribute to allergies and asthma development. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), O3 and NO2 are known to have adverse health effects occurring even at low concentrations.
Besides their direct effects on health, NO2 contributes to the formation of O3 and PM2.5, and has major impacts on acid deposition (sometimes termed "acid rain") and eutrophication. Similarly, SO2 is also a major contributor to acid deposition. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can damage vegetation and structures, and contributes to haze and reduced visibility. Ozone can also impact vegetation, decrease the productivity of some crops and may contribute to forest decline. It can also damage synthetic materials and textiles, cause cracks in rubber, accelerate fading of dyes and speed deterioration of some paints and coatings.
Improved air quality reduces heart attacks, hospital visits, allergy and child asthma attacks, and prevents lost school and work days. Cleaner air can also reduce damage to crops, forests, surface waters and infrastructure such as buildings and bridges.Footnote 7
Consult the Air pollution: drivers and impacts web page for information on the impacts of air pollution on human health, the economy and the environment.
Safe and healthy communities
This indicator tracks progress on the 2019 to 2022 Federal Sustainable Development Strategy, supporting the target: Increase the percentage of Canadians living in areas where air quality standards are achieved from 70% in 2015 to 85% in 2030. The most recent data available shows that, between the 2013 to 2015 and the 2016 to 2018 reporting periods, the percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards decreased from 70% to 68%.
In addition, the indicator contributes to 2 of the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It is linked to Goal 3, Good Health and Well-being and Target 3.9, "By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination" and Goal 11, Sustainable Cities and Communities and Target 11.6, "By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management."
The Air health trends indicator provides an overview of the public health impacts attributable to outdoor air pollution in Canada.
The Air quality indicators track ambient concentrations of PM2.5, O3, SO2, NO2 and VOCs at the national and regional level and at local monitoring stations.
The Human exposure to harmful substances indicators track the concentrations of 4 substances (mercury, lead, cadmium and bisphenol A) in Canadians.
The Air pollutant emissions indicators track emissions from human activities of 6 key air pollutants: sulphur oxides (SOX), nitrogen oxides (NOX), volatile organic compounds (VOC), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Black carbon, which is a component of PM2.5, is also reported. For each air pollutant, data are provided at the national, provincial/territorial and facility level and by major sources.
Data sources and methods
Data sources and methods
The indicator is calculated from air pollutant concentration data and population statistics.
The air pollutant concentration data are taken from Environment and Climate Change Canada's Canada-wide Air Quality Database. The population data were retrieved from Statistics Canada's demographic statistics.
Air pollution concentration data
The Canada-wide Air Quality Database contains data collected through the National Air Pollution Surveillance Program which is a collaboration between Environment and Climate Change Canada, provincial, territorial and regional government networks.
The 2005, 2007 to 2010 population estimates were received from Statistics Canada. These estimates are based on the 2011 Standard Geographical Classification. The following datasets were timestamped, May 26, 2014.
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2005, Census Subdivisions, Canada
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2007, Census Subdivisions, Canada
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2008, Census Subdivisions, Canada
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2009, Census Subdivisions, Canada
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2010, Census Subdivisions, Canada
The 2006 Census of population data were from the Statistics Canada Census Datasets website. The dataset was timestamped, May 29, 2008.
The 2011 Census of population data were from the Statistics Canada Census Datasets website. The dataset was timestamped, August 21, 2014.
The 2012 to 2015 population estimates were received from Statistics Canada. These estimates are based on the 2011 Standard Geographical Classification. The following datasets were timestamped, March 10, 2016.
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2012, Census Subdivisions, Canada
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2013, Census Subdivisions, Canada
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2014, Census Subdivisions, Canada
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2015, Census Subdivisions, Canada
The 2016 Census of population data were from the Statistics Canada Census Datasets website. The dataset was timestamped, August 28, 2017.
The 2017 to 2018 population estimates were received from Statistics Canada. These estimates are based on the 2016 Standard Geographical Classification. The following datasets were timestamped, August 21, 2019.
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2017, Census Subdivisions, Canada
- Table 1 Annual population estimates by sex, July 1 2018, Census Subdivisions, Canada
Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards
In October 2012, the ministers of the Environment of all provinces and territories, except Quebec,Footnote 8 agreed to begin implementing the Air Quality Management System. This system provides a comprehensive, cross-Canada framework for collaborative action to further protect human health and the environment through continuous improvement of air quality. Under the system, the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards) are drivers for air quality improvement across the country. The CAAQS are health and environmental-based air quality objectives for pollutant concentrations in outdoor air. Together with the management levels,Footnote 9 the CAAQS act as a benchmark to support continuous improvement of air quality. The standards are not "pollute-up-to levels" and the Air Quality Management System encourages governments to take action to improve air quality, considering that some pollutants can affect human health even at concentrations below the standards.
Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the 2020 CAAQSFootnote 10 were established:
- for fine particulate matter and ozone in May 2013
- for sulphur dioxide in October 2017
- for nitrogen dioxide in December 2017
The indicator uses the 2020 CAAQS numerical values. For more information on the 2015 and 2025 numerical values, refer to the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards.
|Pollutant||Averaging time||2020 Standard
|Fine particulate matter||24-hour (calendar day)||27 µg/m3||The 3-year average of the annual 98th percentile of the daily 24-hour average concentrations|
|Fine particulate matter||Annual (calendar year)||8.8 µg/m3||The 3-year average of the annual average of the daily 24-hour average concentrations|
|Ozone||8-hour||62 ppb||The 3-year average of the annual 4th-highest of the daily maximum 8-hour average concentrations|
|Nitrogen dioxide||1-hour||60 ppb||The 3-year average of the annual 98th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations|
|Nitrogen dioxide||Annual (calendar year)||17.0 ppb||The arithmetic average over a single calendar year of all 1-hour average concentrations|
|Sulphur dioxide||1-hour||70 ppb||The 3-year average of the annual 99th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations|
|Sulphur dioxide||Annual (calendar year)||5.0 ppb||The arithmetic average over a single calendar year of all 1-hour average concentrations|
Note: Units: µg/m3 = micrograms per cubic metre, ppb = parts per billion.
The indicator is calculated by comparing the spatially averaged pollutant concentration for each geographical area with the respective 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards). The total population of all geographical areas where the average concentrations for all pollutants are less than or equal to the respective standards are compared to the national population.
Data completeness criteria
Concentration values at monitoring stations are considered to be "valid" and are used in the calculation of the indicator if they meet the related data completeness criteria specified in Table 2.
|Pollutant||Averaging time||Data completeness and calculation criteria|
|Fine particulate matter||24-hour (calendar day)||
|Fine particulate matter||Annual (calendar year)||
|Sulphur dioxide||Annual (calendar year)||
|Nitrogen dioxide||Annual (calendar year)||
Note: [A] The calendar quarters are as follows: quarter 1 from January 1 to March 31; quarter 2 from April 1 to June 30; quarter 3 from July 1 to September 30 and quarter 4 from October 1 to December 31.
For a geographical area having only 1 monitoring station, the data completeness criteria of Table 2 are applied. For a geographical area having more than 1 monitoring station, the data completeness criteria of Table 2 are applied to the overall data available for all monitoring stations within the geographical area. In such a case, the averaged concentration of all monitoring stations is reported for that particular geographical area even though each of the monitoring stations could have incomplete data.
Each air quality monitoring station is assigned to a geographical area. For fine particulate matter, ground-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide (annual concentrations only), these areas are either a Statistics Canada's census metropolitan area, census division or census subdivision. For each year from 2005 to 2018, population counts are allocated to each geographical area with at least 1 monitoring station.
Because high sulphur dioxide concentrations tend to be localized around point sources, the geographical area for the 1-hour standard for sulphur dioxide was set to a 2 kilometre (km) radius around the station. Only population data within the 2 km boundary of the monitoring station were used. In this case, Statistics Canada's dissemination block data were used to calculate the population within the 2 km boundary of a station.
Refer to Annex A for a list of geographic areas used to calculate the indicator.
Air pollutant concentrations by geographical area
For each air pollutant and averaging time, the following steps were used to assign a concentration value to each geographical area.
- A concentration value was first calculated for each monitoring station in the area using the data completeness and calculation criteria outlined in Table 2
- The arithmetic average was calculated from the concentration values of all monitoring stations in the geographical area
For example, Winnipeg has 2 monitoring stations that meet the data completeness criteria for fine particulate matter. The annual average concentration of fine particulate matter for Winnipeg is calculated by using the following steps.
- The daily 24-hour average concentration for each monitoring station was calculated
- if at least 75% (18 hours) of the 1‑hour concentrations for the station were available on a given day (from Table 2)
- An annual average concentration for each monitoring station was then calculated
- if at least 75% of the daily average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% of the daily average concentrations were available in each quarter of a calendar year (from Table 2)
- Finally, the annual average concentration for Winnipeg was calculated using the arithmetic average of the annual average concentration of each of the 2 monitoring stations within Winnipeg
Comparison with the standards and total population below the standards
The concentration value for each pollutant was then compared to the respective standard to determine if the population in the geographical area was exposed to pollutant levels less than or equal to the corresponding standard. This comparison was done for each pollutant and for each standard. If the concentration value for the area was less than or equal to the respective standard for all 7 CAAQS, the population count was recorded for the geographical area. If at least 1 standard was exceeded, the population for the geographical area was set to 0.The population from all geographical areas with average concentrations less than or equal to all CAAQS were then added together. The sum was then divided by the total Canadian population and multiplied by 100 to produce the percentage of the population that lives in an area where air pollutant concentrations were below the standards. The general formula is as follows:
100 * (sum of the population below all CAAQS ÷ total population of Canada)
Where the population below all CAAQS = the population of Canadians living in geographical areas where ambient concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are all less than or equal to their respective standard.
The annual standard for sulphur dioxide was not used in the previous iteration of the indicator because it is based on environmental effects and not human health-based effects. It was included in this iteration for the 2015 to-2017 and the 2016 to 2018 reporting periods. For consistency the results for the 2014 to 2016 reporting period were recalculated and it was confirmed that the inclusion of the standard had little to no difference to the final value of the indicator.
The results for 2015 to 2017 were previously reported as 75% in Health Canada's and Environment and Climate Change Canada's 2019 to 2020 Departmental Results Reports and the Addressing Air Pollution Horizontal Initiative Evaluation Report. This value has since been reassessed following quality assurance/quality control. Additional geographical areas (communities) were also included in the data which could have influenced the revised value. The revised value of 77% is reported in the indicator.
Caveats and limitations
From 2005 to 2018, approximately 63% of the population lived in areas covered by selected air quality monitoring stations that meet the data completeness criteria. Refer to Annex A for a list of geographical areas used in the indicator. The indicator assumes that the remainder of the population lives in areas where outdoor concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are less than or equal to their 2020 standards.Footnote 11 Populations in northern regions of the country have less coverage, as monitoring stations tend to be situated near urban areas with a higher population density.
This indicator is used to report the percentage of the Canadian population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were less than (or equal to) the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, the standards). The indicator is not used for formally reporting the achievement status of the standards. Under the Air Quality Management System, reporting on achievement of the standards is a provincial and territorial responsibility.
The methods used to calculate the indicator differ from those used to report on the achievement status of the CAAQS. For example, for the indicator, the average concentration from all monitoring stations in the geographical area is used to compare against the standard. However, for reporting on achievement of the CAAQS, the achievement is determined on a single station basis. This difference can account as to why a geographical area exceeds a standard under formal CAAQS reporting, but does not exceed the standard under the indicator.
Populations not covered by monitoring stations were assumed to be below the standards. While this results in some uncertainty regarding the estimated population below the standards, a sensitivity analysis indicated that this assumption does not result in a large error. Ongoing research and analysis is being conducted on methods that will consider the entire population.
Some data collected at monitoring stations cannot be used in calculating the indicator because the data do not meet the data completeness criteria. The removal of this data can influence the number of geographical areas used per reporting period. Refer to Annex A for a list of geographical areas used in the indicator.
The indicator uses the actual concentrations measured at monitoring stations. Some of these concentrations may have been influenced by pollutant sources in other countries and by smoke from wildfires both within and outside Canada.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2012) Guidance document on achievement determination for Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter and ozone (PDF; 264 kB). Retrieved on March 15, 2021.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2014) Air Quality Management System. Retrieved on March 15, 2021.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2017) State of the air. Retrieved on March 15, 2021.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2019) Guidance document on air zone management (PDF; 225 kB). Retrieved on March 15, 2021.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2020) Guidance document on achievement determination for Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for nitrogen dioxide (PDF; 616 kB). Retrieved on March 15, 2021.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2020) Guidance document on achievement determination for Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulphur dioxide (PDF; 586 kB). Retrieved on March 15, 2021.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (2020) National Air Pollution Surveillance Program. Retrieved on March 15, 2021.
Government of Canada (2021) Health effects of air pollution. Retrieved on March 15, 2021.
Annex A. Geographical areas used to calculate the indicator
|Census subdivision, census metropolitan area or census division||Province or territory||Community||Reporting periods used|
|1||Newfoundland and Labrador||St. John's||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1002002||Newfoundland and Labrador||Lewin's Cove||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|1002005||Newfoundland and Labrador||Burin||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|1005018||Newfoundland and Labrador||Corner Brook||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1006017||Newfoundland and Labrador||Grand Falls-Windsor||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1009022||Newfoundland and Labrador||Port au Choix||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|1010025||Newfoundland and Labrador||Happy Valley-Goose Bay||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|1010032||Newfoundland and Labrador||Labrador City||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|1101042||Prince Edward Island||Lot 41||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|1102075||Prince Edward Island||Charlottetown||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|1103031||Prince Edward Island||Lot 14||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|1205001||Nova Scotia||Annapolis, Subd.D||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|1207001||Nova Scotia||Kings, Subd.A||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1207012||Nova Scotia||Kentville||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|1209034||Nova Scotia||Halifax||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1212004||Nova Scotia||Pictou||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1215002||Nova Scotia||Port Hawkesbury||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1217030||Nova Scotia||Cape Breton||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1301006, 310||New Brunswick||Saint John||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1302026||New Brunswick||Saint Andrews||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1305018||New Brunswick||Norton||2014-2016 to 2015-2017|
|1307022||New Brunswick||Moncton||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1309031||New Brunswick||Newcastle||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|1310032||New Brunswick||Fredericton||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|1315011||New Brunswick||Bathurst||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2413045||Quebec||Auclair||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2418040||Quebec||Notre-Dame-du-Rosaire||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2420005||Quebec||Saint-Francois-de-l'Île-d'Orléans||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|2423027, 2423||Quebec||Québec||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2425213||Quebec||Levis||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|2429020||Quebec||Saint-Hilaire-de-Dorset||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2434058||Quebec||Deschambault-Grondines||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2437067||Quebec||Trois-Rivières||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2438020||Quebec||Lemieux||2005-2007 to 2015-2017|
|2439025||Quebec||Tingwick||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2441027||Quebec||La Patrie||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2443027||Quebec||Sherbrooke||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2445093||Quebec||Eastman||2005-2007 to 2015-2017|
|2450090||Quebec||Saint-Zéphirin-de-Courval||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2451080||Quebec||Charette||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2454090||Quebec||Saint-Simon||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2456083||Quebec||Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2458007||Quebec||Brossard||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2458227||Quebec||Longueuil||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2459020||Quebec||Varennes||2005-2007 to 2014-2016|
|2460028||Quebec||L'Assomption||2005-2007 to 2015-2017|
|2464008||Quebec||Terrebonne||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|2465005||Quebec||Laval||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2466023, 2466||Quebec||Montréal||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2469070||Quebec||Saint-Anicet||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2478047||Quebec||Saint-Faustin–Lac-Carré||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2479097||Quebec||Ferme-Neuve||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2481017||Quebec||Gatineau||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2482035||Quebec||La Pêche||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2485005||Quebec||Témiscaming||2005-2007 to 2013-2015|
|2486042||Quebec||Rouyn-Noranda||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2489040||Quebec||Senneterre||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2490027||Quebec||Lac-Édouard||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2491050||Quebec||La Doré||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2494068||Quebec||Saguenay||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|2499060||Quebec||Baie James||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|3501012||Ontario||Cornwall||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3501020||Ontario||South Dundas||2005-2007 to 2013-2015|
|3506008||Ontario||Ottawa||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3510010||Ontario||Kingston||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3512005||Ontario||Belleville||2005-2007 to 2013-2015|
|3515014||Ontario||Peterborough||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3518013||Ontario||Oshawa||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3519048||Ontario||Newmarket||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3520005||Ontario||Toronto||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3521005||Ontario||Mississauga||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3521010||Ontario||Brampton||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3523008||Ontario||Guelph||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3524001||Ontario||Oakville||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3524002||Ontario||Burlington||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3525005||Ontario||Hamilton||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3526053||Ontario||St. Catharines||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3528052||Ontario||Norfolk County||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3529006||Ontario||Brantford||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3530013||Ontario||Kitchener||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3534020||Ontario||Central Elgin||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3536020||Ontario||Chatham-Kent||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3537016||Ontario||Essex||2005-2007 to 2013-2015|
|3537039||Ontario||Windsor||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3538030||Ontario||Sarnia||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3538031||Ontario||Point Edward||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|3539036||Ontario||London||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3540005||Ontario||South Huron||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3541024||Ontario||Kincardine||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3543042||Ontario||Barrie||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3544027||Ontario||Lake of Bays||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3547090||Ontario||Laurentian Hills||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3548044||Ontario||North Bay||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3549032||Ontario||Parry Sound||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3553005||Ontario||Greater Sudbury||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3557061||Ontario||Sault Ste. Marie||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3557095||Ontario||Algoma, Unorganized, North Part||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|3558004||Ontario||Thunder Bay||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|3560049||Ontario||Pickle Lake||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|3556090||Ontario||Kenora, Unorganized||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|4607062||Manitoba||Brandon||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4621064||Manitoba||Flin Flon (Part)||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|4622026||Manitoba||Thompson||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|4611040, 602||Manitoba||Winnipeg||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4706027||Saskatchewan||Regina||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4708004||Saskatchewan||Swift Current||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|4711066||Saskatchewan||Saskatoon||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4715066||Saskatchewan||Prince Albert||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4718070||Saskatchewan||Buffalo Narrows||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|4718090||Saskatchewan||Division No.18, Unorganized||2016-2018|
|4801006||Alberta||Medicine Hat||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4802012||Alberta||Lethbridge||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|825||Alberta||Calgary||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4808011||Alberta||Red Deer||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4809002||Alberta||Clearwater County||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4810058||Alberta||Lamont County||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4810068||Alberta||Improvement District No. 13 Elk Island||2005-2007 to 2013-2015|
|4811031||Alberta||Drayton Valley||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|4811032||Alberta||Brazeau County||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|4811061, 835||Alberta||Edmonton||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4812002||Alberta||Cold Lake||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4812014||Alberta||St. Paul County No. 19||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4813001||Alberta||Lac Ste. Anne County||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|4814003||Alberta||Yellowhead County||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4814019||Alberta||Hinton||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4814024||Alberta||Edson||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|860||Alberta||Wood Buffalo||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4818015||Alberta||Greenview No. 16||2005-2007 to 2013-2015|
|4819006||Alberta||Grande Prairie County No. 1||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|4819009||Alberta||Beaverlodge||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|4819012||Alberta||Grande Prairie||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5903045||British Columbia||Castlegar||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|5903058||British Columbia||Central Kootenay J||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|5905014||British Columbia||Trail||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|5905018||British Columbia||Warfield||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|5905026||British Columbia||Kootenay Boundary A||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|5905030||British Columbia||Kootenay Boundary B||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|5905032||British Columbia||Grand Forks||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
|5909009||British Columbia||Hope||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5909020||British Columbia||Chilliwack||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|932||British Columbia||Abbotsford||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|933||British Columbia||Vancouver||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5909032||British Columbia||Kent||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|935||British Columbia||Victoria||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5917029||British Columbia||Capital G||2014-2016, 2016-2018|
|5919008||British Columbia||North Cowichan||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5919012||British Columbia||Duncan||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5921007||British Columbia||Nanaimo||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5923008||British Columbia||Port Alberni||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5923037||British Columbia||Alberni-Clayoquot E||2014-2016 to 2015-2017|
|5923801||British Columbia||Ahahswinis 1||2014-2016 to 2015-2017|
|5924034||British Columbia||Campbell River||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5926010||British Columbia||Courtenay||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5927008||British Columbia||Powell River||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5929028||British Columbia||Sunshine Coast F||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5931006||British Columbia||Squamish||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5931020||British Columbia||Whistler||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5931807||British Columbia||Cheakamus 11||2014-2016 to 2015-2017|
|5933042||British Columbia||Kamloops||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5933880||British Columbia||Kamloops 1||2014-2016 to 2015-2017|
|5935010||British Columbia||Kelowna||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5937014||British Columbia||Vernon||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5939007||British Columbia||Golden||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5941009||British Columbia||Williams Lake||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5941013||British Columbia||Quesnel||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5941021||British Columbia||Cariboo B||2014-2016 to 2015-2017|
|5943017||British Columbia||Port Alice||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5949011||British Columbia||Kitimat||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5949011||British Columbia||Terrace||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5949803||British Columbia||Kitimat 2||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5951007||British Columbia||Vanderhoof||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5951022||British Columbia||Burns Lake||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5951034||British Columbia||Houston||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5951043||British Columbia||Smithers||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5953023||British Columbia||Prince George||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|5955021||British Columbia||Peace River D||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5955023||British Columbia||Peace River E||2016-2018|
|5955030||British Columbia||Taylor||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5955034||British Columbia||Fort St. John||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|5955804||British Columbia||Doig River 206||2014-2016|
|6001009||Yukon||Whitehorse||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|6101017||Northwest Territories||Inuvik||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|6102007||Northwest Territories||Norman Wells||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|6105001||Northwest Territories||Fort Smith||2014-2016 to 2016-2018|
|6106023||Northwest Territories||Yellowknife||2005-2007 to 2016-2018|
|6204003||Nunavut||Iqaluit||2015-2017 to 2016-2018|
Report a problem or mistake on this page
- Date modified: