Population exposure to outdoor air pollutants

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Breathing in air pollutants every day can contribute to health issues such as asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Overall, Canadians enjoy good outdoor air quality. This indicator tracks the percentage of the population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards.Footnote 1

Results

Key results

  • Between 2005 to 2007 and 2014 to 2016, the percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards increased from 60% to 77%
  • The percentage remained relatively stable until the 2013 to 2015 period with values varying from 60% to 67%. It then increased to 70% in 2013 to 2015 and reached 77% in the last period. This increase can be attributed to air quality improvements in larger urban areas in Alberta and Quebec

Percentage of Canadians living in areas where measured outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards, Canada, 2005 to 2016

Percentage of Canadians living in areas where measured outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards, Canada, 2005 to 2016 (see data table below for the long description)
Data table for the long description
Percentage of Canadians living in areas where measured outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards, Canada, 2005 to 2016

Period

Proportion of the population where air pollutants were below the standards
(percentage)

2005 to 2007

59.6

2006 to 2008

62.6

2007 to 2009

64.0

2008 to 2010

66.6

2009 to 2011

64.7

2010 to 2012

63.8

2011 to 2013

64.0

2012 to 2014

64.0

2013 to 2015

69.8

2014 to 2016

77.2

Download data file (Excel/CSV; 961 B)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: With the exception of the annual standard for nitrogen dioxide, the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards used in the indicator use 3-year average concentrations. For this reason the bar chart portrays percentage values over 3-year periods.
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (2019) Air Quality Research Division. Health Canada (2019) Air Health Effects Assessment Division.

The Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards are health and environmental-based outdoor air quality objectives for pollutant concentrations in the air. The standards are intended to further protect human health and the environment and to drive continuous improvement in air quality across Canada.

Six (6) standardsFootnote 2 for 4 air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], ground-level ozone [O3], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and sulphur dioxide [SO2]) were used to assess whether the population of an area was exposed to air pollutant concentrations below or above the standards. For the population of an area to be exposed to air pollutant concentrations below the standards, all air pollutants had to be below (or equal to) their respective standards.

Between 2005 to 2007 and 2014 to 2016, the 8-hour standard for O3 was exceeded most often, followed by exceedances of the annual standard for PM2.5. In general, there has been a slow decline in exceedances of the 24-hour standard for PM2.5, and the annual and 1-hour standards for NO2. Exceedances of the 1-hour standard for SO2 had minimal influence on the results because high concentrations of SO2 tend to be limited to areas near the SO2 source and impact a smaller population. Despite its minimal influence on the indicator, SO2 remains a concern because of its health impacts on populations living close to sulphur-emitting facilities. Ontario, Quebec and Alberta recorded the most exceedances of 1 or more of the 6 standards, while Newfoundland and Labrador and Manitoba have never had an exceedance.Footnote 3

Although the O3 standard was exceeded most often, the proportion of the population living in areas exceeding this standard decreased from 36% in 2005 to 2007 to 20% in 2014 to 2016. The O3 standard was exceeded most often in southern parts of Ontario, where air quality may be influenced by air pollutant flows from the United States.

Between the last 2 reporting periods (2013 to 2015 and 2014 to 2016), the proportion of the population living in areas exceeding the annual standard for PM2.5 decreased from 20% to 5%. This improvement can be attributed to fewer large cities (Montreal, Quebec City and Laval) reporting exceedances for 2014 to 2016.

About the indicator

About the indicator

What the indicator measures

This indicator tracks the proportion of the Canadian population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are below the 2020 Canadian Air Ambient Quality Standards (the standards). The indicator uses the following 2020 standards (see Table 1 for more details).

  • fine particulate matter (PM2.5): 24-hour and annual
  • ground-level ozone (O3): 8-hour
  • nitrogen dioxide (NO2): 1-hour and annual
  • sulphur dioxide (SO2): 1-hourFootnote 4 

Why this indicator is important

Canadians are exposed to air pollutants on a daily basis, and this exposure can result in adverse health and environmental effects. Exposure to some air pollutants, even at low levels, has been linked to increased heart and respiratory problems, increased hospitalization and emergency room visits and premature death. The Government of Canada estimates that each year 41 in 100 000 premature deaths in Canada can be linked to air pollution.Footnote 5 

Ground-level O3 and PM2.5 are key components of smog and 2 of the most widespread air pollutants. Exposure to these pollutants, even at very low levels, has been associated with pulmonary, cardiovascular and respiratory health issues. Exposure to O3 can cause throat irritation, coughing, shortness of breath and reduced lung function, and can also aggravate existing conditions, such as asthma or other chronic lung diseases. Exposure to PM2.5 can lead to health issues, such as asthma attacks, chronic bronchitis and heart attacks.

Exposure to SO2 and NO2 can irritate the lungs, reduce lung function and increase susceptibility to allergens in people with asthma. Long-term exposure to NO2 may contribute to allergies and asthma development and may increase susceptibility to respiratory infections. Inhalation of NO2 has also been linked to effects on the cardiovascular system, some reproductive effects and premature death. Like PM2.5 and O3, NO2 is known to have adverse health effects occurring even at low concentrations.

Besides their direct effects on health, NO2 and SO2 contribute to levels of PM2.5 and O3 in air and impact the environment. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) contributes to the formation of O3 and PM2.5, and has major impacts on acid deposition (sometimes termed "acid rain") and eutrophication. Similarly, SO2 is also a major contributor to acid deposition.

Improved air quality reduces heart attacks, hospital visits and allergy and child asthma attacks, and prevents lost school and work days. Cleaner air can also reduce damage to crops, forests, surface waters and infrastructure such as buildings and bridges.Footnote 6 

Consult the Air pollution: drivers and impacts web page for information on the impacts of air pollution on human health, the economy and the environment.

Federal Sustainable Development Strategy icon: Safe and healthy communities

Safe and healthy communities

This indicator tracks progress on the 2019 to 2022 Federal Sustainable Development Strategy, supporting the target: Increase the percentage of Canadians living in areas where air quality standards are achieved from 70% in 2015 to 85% in 2030. The most recent data available shows that, between 2005 to 2007 and 2014 to 2016, the percentage of Canadians living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards increased from 60% to 77%.

In addition, the indicator contributes to 2 of the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. It is linked to the 2030 Agenda's Goal 3, Good Health and Well-being and Target 3.9, "By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination" and Goal 11, Sustainable Cities and Communities and Target 11.6, "By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management."

Related indicators

The Air health trends indicator provides an overview of the public health impacts attributable to outdoor air pollution in Canada.

The Air quality indicators track ambient concentrations of PM2.5, O3, SO2, NO2 and VOCs at the national and regional level and at local monitoring stations.

The Human exposure to harmful substances indicators track the concentrations of 4 substances (mercury, lead, cadmium and bisphenol A) in Canadians.

Data sources and methods

Data sources and methods

Data sources

The indicator is calculated from air pollutant concentration data and population statistics.

The air pollutant concentration data are taken from Environment and Climate Change Canada's Canada-wide Air Quality Database. The population data were retrieved from Statistics Canada's demographic statistics.

More information

Air pollution concentration data

The Canada-wide Air Quality Database contains data collected through various monitoring networks.

  • The National Air Pollution Surveillance Program is a collaboration between Environment and Climate Change Canada, provincial and territorial governments and some municipalities
  • For ground-level ozone, the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network is operated by Environment and Climate Change Canada
    • Under this network, stations were established to research and monitor air pollution outside urban areas
  • Other provincial, territorial and municipal monitoring stations that report their air quality data to the database

Population data

Population statistics for the years 2005 to 2016 used in this indicator were obtained from Statistics Canada in September 2017.

Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards

In October 2012, the ministers of the Environment of all provinces and territories, except Quebec,Footnote 7 agreed to begin implementing the Air Quality Management System. This system provides a comprehensive, cross-Canada framework for collaborative action to further protect human health and the environment through continuous improvement of air quality. Under the system, the Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) are drivers for air quality improvement across the country. The CAAQS are health and environmental-based air quality objectives for pollutant concentrations in outdoor air. Together with the management levels,Footnote 8 the CAAQS act as a benchmark to support continuous improvement of air quality. The standards are not "pollute-up-to levels" and the Air Quality Management System encourages governments to take action to improve air quality, considering that some pollutants can affect human health even at concentrations below the standards.

Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the 2020 CAAQSFootnote 9 were established:

  • for fine particulate matter and ozone in May 2013
  • for sulphur dioxide in October 2017
  • for nitrogen dioxide in December 2017
Table 1. Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for 2020
Pollutant Averaging time 2020 Standard
(numerical value)
Statistical form
Fine particulate matter 24-hour (calendar day) 27 µg/m3 The 3-year average of the annual 98th percentile of the daily 24-hour average concentrations
Fine particulate matter Annual (calendar year) 8.8 µg/m3 The 3-year average of the annual average of the daily 24-hour average concentrations
Ozone 8-hour 62 ppb The 3-year average of the annual 4th-highest of the daily maximum 8-hour average concentrations
Nitrogen dioxide 1-hour 60 ppb The 3-year average of the annual 98th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations
Nitrogen dioxide Annual (calendar year) 17.0 ppb The arithmetic average over a single calendar year of all 1-hour average concentrations
Sulphur dioxide 1-hour 70 ppb The 3-year average of the annual 99th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations
Sulphur dioxide[A] Annual (calendar year) 5.0 ppb The arithmetic average over a single calendar year of all 1-hour average concentrations

Note: [A] The annual standard for sulphur dioxide is not used in this indicator because it is based on environmental effects and not human health-based effects. Units: µg/m3 = micrograms per cubic metre, ppb = parts per billion.

Methods

The indicator is calculated by comparing the average pollutant concentration for each geographical area with the respective Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS). The total population of all geographical areas where the average concentrations for all pollutants are less than or equal to the respective standards are compared to the national population.

More information

Data completeness criteria

Concentration values at monitoring stations are considered to be "valid" and are used in the calculation of the indicator only if they meet the related data completeness criteria specified in Table 2.

Table 2. Monitoring station data completeness criteria used in the calculation of the indicator
Pollutant Averaging time Data completeness and calculation criteria
Fine particulate matter 24-hour (calendar day) [A]
  • A daily 24-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18 hours) of the 1-hour concentrations were available on a given day
  • A 98th percentile of the daily average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% of the daily average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% of the daily average concentrations were available in each quarter[B] of a calendar year
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Fine particulate matter Annual (calendar year)
  • A daily 24-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18 hours) of the 1-hour concentrations were available on a given day
  • An annual average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% of the daily average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% of the daily average concentrations were available in each quarter[B] of a calendar year
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Ozone 8-hour[A]
  • Rolling (or moving) 8-hour average concentrations were calculated for each hour of the day from the 1-hour average concentrations, resulting in up to 24 8-hour average concentrations per day
  • To be valid a rolling 8-hour average concentration must have at least 6 1-hour average concentrations
  • A daily maximum 8-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18) of the 8-hour rolling average concentrations were available in the day
  • The annual 4th-highest daily maximum 8-hour average concentration was considered valid if there were at least 75% of all daily maximum 8-hour average concentrations in the second and third quarters combined (April 1 to September 30)
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Sulphur dioxide 1-hour[A]
  • The daily maximum 1-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18 hours) of the hourly concentrations were available on a given day
  • The annual 99th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations was considered valid if at least 75% of all the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations for the year were available and at least 60% in each quarter were available
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Nitrogen dioxide 1-hour[A]
  • The daily maximum 1-hour average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% (18) of the hourly concentrations were available on a given day
  • The 98th percentile of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations was considered valid if at least 75% of the daily maximum 1-hour average concentrations for the year were available and at least 60% in each quarter were available
  • For the 3-year average, at least 2 of the 3 years were needed
Nitrogen dioxide Annual (calendar year)
  • An annual average concentration was considered valid if at least 75% of all the 1 hour average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% were available in each quarter

Note: [A] If a monitoring station exceeded the 24-hour standard for fine particulate matter, the 8-hour standard for ozone, the 1-hour standard for sulphur dioxide or the 1-hour standard for nitrogen dioxide, it was included in the results even if the data completeness criteria were not satisfied. [B] The calendar quarters are as follows: quarter 1 from January 1 to March 31; quarter 2 from April 1 to June 30; quarter 3 from July 1 to September 30 and quarter 4 from October 1 to December 31.

Geographical areas

Each air quality monitoring station is assigned to a geographical area. For fine particulate matter, ground-level ozone and nitrogen dioxide, these areas are either a Statistics Canada's census metropolitan area, census division or census subdivision. For each year from 2005 to 2016, population counts are allocated to each geographical area with at least 1 monitoring station.

Because high sulphur dioxide concentrations tend to be localized around point sources, the geographical area for sulphur dioxide was set to a 2 kilometre (km) radius around the station. Only population data within the 2 km boundary of the monitoring station were used. In this case, Statistics Canada's dissemination block data were used to calculate the population within the 2 km boundary of a station.

Refer to Annex A for a list of geographic areas used to calculate the indicator.

Air pollutant concentrations by geographical area

For each air pollutant and averaging time, the following steps were used to assign a concentration value to each geographical area.

  1. A concentration value was first calculated for each monitoring station in the area using the data completeness and calculation criteria outlined in Table 2
  2. The arithmetic average was calculated from the concentration values of all monitoring stations in the geographical area

For example, Ottawa has 2 monitoring stations with enough data. The annual average concentration of fine particulate matter for Ottawa is calculated by using the following steps.

  1. The daily 24-hour average concentration for each monitoring station was calculated
    • if at least 75% (18 hours) of the 1‑hour concentrations for the station were available on a given day (from Table 2)
  2. An annual average concentration for each monitoring station was then calculated
    • if at least 75% of the daily average concentrations were available for the year and at least 60% of the daily average concentrations were available in each quarter of a calendar year (from Table 2)
  3. Finally, the annual average concentration was calculated using the arithmetic average of the annual average concentration of each monitoring station within Ottawa

Comparison with the standards and total population below the standards

The concentration value for each pollutant was then compared to the respective standard to determine if the population in the geographical area was exposed to pollutant levels less than or equal to the corresponding standard. This comparison was done for each pollutant and for each standard. If the concentration value for the area was less than or equal to the respective standard for all 6 CAAQS, the population count was recorded for the geographical area. If at least 1 standard was exceeded, the population for the geographical area was set to 0.The population from all geographical areas with average concentrations less than or equal to all CAAQS were then added together. The sum was then divided by the total Canadian population and multiplied by 100 to produce the percentage of the population that lives in an area where air pollutant concentrations were below the standards. The general formula is as follows:

100 * (sum of the population below all CAAQS ÷ total population of Canada)

Where the population below all CAAQS = the population of Canadians living in geographical areas where ambient concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter, sulphur dioxideFootnote 10 and nitrogen dioxide are all less than or equal to their respective standard.

Caveats and limitations

From 2005 to 2016, approximately 62% of the population lived in areas covered by selected air quality monitoring stations that meet the data completeness criteria. Refer to Annex A for a list of geographical areas used in the indicator. The indicator assumes that the remainder of the population lives in areas where outdoor concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are less than or equal to their standards. Populations in northern regions of the country have less coverage, as monitoring stations tend to be situated near urban areas with a higher population density.

More information

This indicator is used to report the percentage of the Canadian population living in areas where outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were below (or equal to) the 2020 Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS). The indicator is not used for formally reporting the achievement status of the standards. Under the Air Quality Management System, reporting on achievement of the standards is a provincial and territorial responsibility.

The methods used to calculate the indicator differ from those used to report the achievement status of the CAAQS. For example, for the indicator, the average concentration from all monitoring stations in the geographical area is used to compare against the standard. Whereas, for reporting the CAAQS, the monitoring station with the highest concentration for a geographical area is used. This difference can account for a geographical area exceeding a standard under CAAQS reporting, but not exceeding the standard under the indicator.

Populations not covered by monitoring stations were assumed to be below the standards. While this results in some uncertainty regarding the estimated population below the standards, a sensitivity analysis indicated that this assumption does not result in a large error. Ongoing research and analysis is being conducted on methods that will consider the entire population.

Some data collected at monitoring stations cannot be used in calculating the indicator because the data do not meet the data completeness criteria. The removal of this data can influence the number of geographical areas used per reporting period. Refer to Annex A for a list of geographical areas used in the indicator.

The indicator uses the actual concentrations measured at monitoring stations. Some of these concentrations may have been influenced by pollutant sources in other countries and by smoke from forest fires both within and outside Canada.

Resources

Resources

References

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2012) Guidance document on achievement determination Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter and ozone (PDF; 264 kB). Retrieved on January 15, 2020.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2014) Air Quality Management System. Retrieved on January 15, 2020.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2017) State of the air. Retrieved on January 15, 2020.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (2019) Guidance document on air zone management (PDF; 225 kB). Retrieved on January 15, 2020.

Environment and Climate Change Canada (2019) National Air Pollution Surveillance Program. Retrieved on January 15, 2020.

Government of Canada (2019) Health effects of air pollution. Retrieved on January 15, 2020.

Related information

Air pollution: drivers and impacts

Canadian Smog Science Assessment Highlights and Key Messages

Smog: causes and effects

Annex A

Annex A. Geographical areas used to calculate the indicator

Table A.1. Geographical areas used to calculate the indicator
Census subdivision, census metropolitan area or census division Province or territory Community Reporting periods used
1 Newfoundland and Labrador St. John's 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1002005 Newfoundland and Labrador Burin 2014-2016
1005018 Newfoundland and Labrador Corner Brook 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1006017 Newfoundland and Labrador Grand Falls-Windsor 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1010032 Newfoundland and Labrador Labrador City 2014-2016
1207001 Nova Scotia Kings, Subd. A 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
1209034 Nova Scotia Halifax 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1212004 Nova Scotia Pictou 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1215002 Nova Scotia Port Hawkesbury 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1217030 Nova Scotia Cape Breton 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1301006, 310 New Brunswick Saint John 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1302026 New Brunswick Saint Andrews 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1307022 New Brunswick Moncton 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1310032 New Brunswick Fredericton 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
1315011 New Brunswick Bathurst 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2413045 Quebec Auclair 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2418040 Quebec Notre-Dame-du-Rosaire 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2423027, 2423 Quebec Québec 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2429020 Quebec Saint-Hilaire-de-Dorset 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2434058 Quebec Deschambault-Grondines 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2437067 Quebec Trois-Rivières 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
2438020 Quebec Lemieux 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2439025 Quebec Tingwick 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2441027 Quebec La Patrie 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2443027 Quebec Sherbrooke 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2445093 Quebec Eastman 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2450090 Quebec Saint-Zéphirin-de-Courval 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2451080 Quebec Charette 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2454090 Quebec Saint-Simon 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2456083 Quebec Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2458007 Quebec Brossard 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2458227 Quebec Longueuil 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2459020 Quebec Varennes 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2460028 Quebec L'Assomption 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2465005 Quebec Laval 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2466023, 2466 Quebec Montréal 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2469070 Quebec Saint-Anicet 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2478047 Quebec Saint-Faustin–Lac-Carré 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2479097 Quebec Ferme-Neuve 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2481017 Quebec Gatineau 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2482035 Quebec La Pêche 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2485005 Quebec Témiscaming 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
2486042 Quebec Rouyn-Noranda 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2489040 Quebec Senneterre 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2490027 Quebec Lac-Édouard 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2491050 Quebec La Doré 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
2494068 Quebec Saguenay 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3501012 Ontario Cornwall 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3501020 Ontario South Dundas 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
3506008 Ontario Ottawa 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3510010 Ontario Kingston 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3512005 Ontario Belleville 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
3515014 Ontario Peterborough 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3518013 Ontario Oshawa 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3519048 Ontario Newmarket 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3520005 Ontario Toronto 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3521005 Ontario Mississauga 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3521010 Ontario Brampton 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3523008 Ontario Guelph 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3524001 Ontario Oakville 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3524002 Ontario Burlington 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3525005 Ontario Hamilton 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3526053 Ontario St. Catharines 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3528052 Ontario Norfolk County 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3529006 Ontario Brantford 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3530013 Ontario Kitchener 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3534020 Ontario Central Elgin 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3536020 Ontario Chatham-Kent 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3537016 Ontario Essex 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
3537039 Ontario Windsor 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3538030 Ontario Sarnia 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3539036 Ontario London 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3540005 Ontario South Huron 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3541024 Ontario Kincardine 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3543042 Ontario Barrie 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3544027 Ontario Lake of Bays 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3547090 Ontario Laurentian Hills 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3548044 Ontario North Bay 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3549032 Ontario Parry Sound 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3553005 Ontario Greater Sudbury 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3557061 Ontario Sault Ste. Marie 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
3558004 Ontario Thunder Bay 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4607062 Manitoba Brandon 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4611040, 602 Manitoba Winnipeg 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4706027 Saskatchewan Regina 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4711066 Saskatchewan Saskatoon 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4715066 Saskatchewan Prince Albert 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4801006 Alberta Medicine Hat 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4802012 Alberta Lethbridge 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
825 Alberta Calgary 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4808011 Alberta Red Deer 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4809002 Alberta Clearwater County 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4810058 Alberta Lamont County 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4810068 Alberta Improvement District No. 13 Elk Island 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
4811061, 835 Alberta Edmonton 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4812002 Alberta Cold Lake 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4812014 Alberta St. Paul County No. 19 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4814003 Alberta Yellowhead County 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
4814019 Alberta Hinton 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4814024 Alberta Edson 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
860 Alberta Wood Buffalo 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4818015 Alberta Greenview No. 16 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
4819006 Alberta Grande Prairie County No. 1 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
4819012 Alberta Grande Prairie 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5903045 British Columbia Castlegar 2014-2016
5909009 British Columbia Hope 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5909020 British Columbia Chilliwack 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
932 British Columbia Abbotsford 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
933 British Columbia Vancouver 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5909032 British Columbia Kent 2014-2016
935 British Columbia Victoria 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5919012 British Columbia Duncan 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5921007 British Columbia Nanaimo 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5923019 British Columbia Ucluelet 2014-2016
5924034 British Columbia Campbell River 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
5926010 British Columbia Courtenay 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5931006 British Columbia Squamish 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5931020 British Columbia Whistler 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5933042 British Columbia Kamloops 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5935010 British Columbia Kelowna 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5937014 British Columbia Vernon 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5941009 British Columbia Williams Lake 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5941013 British Columbia Quesnel 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5949011 British Columbia Terrace 2014-2016
5951043 British Columbia Smithers 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
5953023 British Columbia Prince George 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
6001009 Yukon Whitehorse 2005-2007 to 2013-2015
6101017 Northwest Territories Inuvik 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
6102007 Northwest Territories Norman Wells 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
6106023 Northwest Territories Yellowknife 2005-2007 to 2014-2016
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