Facility greenhouse gas reporting: overview of 2020 reported emissions

A report that provides information on the latest greenhouse gas emission data reported by Canadian facilities and their trends over the years. Results are presented as key data tables.

Highlights

1 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program

The Government of Canada established the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) in March 2004 under the authority of section 46 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA) to collect GHG emissions information annually from the largest emitting Canadian facilities. A notice is published annually in the Canada Gazette that describes the reporting requirements under the program, and any facility subject to the reporting criteria is required to report. To date, facility-reported GHG information has been collected and published through the GHGRP for the period of 2004 to 2020. This program is part of ongoing efforts to develop and maintain, in collaboration with Canadian provinces and territories, a harmonized and efficient GHG reporting system that minimizes duplication and reporting burden for industry and governments. Key objectives of the program are to provide Canadians with consistent information on GHG emissions, inform the development of the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and support regulatory initiatives. Data collected are also shared with provinces and territories.

In December 2016, Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) published a Notice of Intent to inform stakeholders of its intent to expand the GHGRP. It is pursuing this expansion in order to: enable the direct use of the reported data in Canada’s Official GHG Inventory, increase the consistency and comparability of GHG data across jurisdictions, and obtain a more comprehensive picture of Canadian facility emissions. In phase 1 (2017 data), the reporting threshold was lowered from 50 kilotonnes (kt) to 10 kt of GHGs in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) units. Facilities in targeted industry sectors were also required to use prescribed methods to quantify their emissions and to report additional information on their calculations. These sectors were cement, lime, aluminium, iron and steel producers as well as facilities engaged in CO2 capture, transport, and geological storage activities.

Under Phase 2 of the expansion (2018 data), the reporting threshold was maintained at 10 kt CO2 eq. and facilities in nine additional industry sectors were required to provide additional data and use prescribed methods to determine emissions. These sectors were mining, ethanol production, electricity and heat generation, ammonia production, nitric acid production, hydrogen production, petroleum refineries, pulp and paper production, and base metal production.

ECCC will continue to assess potential changes and further expand reporting requirements under the GHGRP, with the aim of facilitating the direct use of the facility data in the National GHG Inventory, thus better reflecting emission changes occurring at individual facilities. Further expansion will also continue to focus on improving the granularity, consistency and comparability of GHG data across Canada.

ECCC has completed the collection and review of GHG emissions information for the 2020 calendar year. Any facility with annual GHG emissions of 10 kt CO2 eq. or higher in 2020 was required to report to the program. The Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2020, published in the Canada Gazette on February 13, 2021,Footnote 4 reflects the federal reporting requirements for 2020 data, submitted by facilities to ECCC in 2021. The data used in this overview report are current as of October 28, 2021. Subsequent company updates or new reports received will be included in future data releases.

The Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2021Footnote 5 was published in the Canada Gazette on December 18, 2021. The 2021 Notice sets out the federal reporting requirements for 2021 data, scheduled to be submitted by facilities to ECCC by June 1, 2022. The 2020 and 2021 Notices did not incorporate significant changes in reporting requirements.

2 Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions

For the purposes of the GHGRP, a facilityFootnote 6 is defined as an integrated facility, pipeline transportation system, or offshore installation. An integrated facility is defined as all buildings, equipment, structures, on-site transportation machinery, and stationary items that are located on a single site, on multiple sites or between multiple sites that are owned or operated by the same person or persons and that function as a single integrated site, excluding public roads.

A total of 1704 facilities reported their GHG emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada for the 2020 calendar year, collectively emitting a total of 273 Mt of GHGsFootnote 7 (Figure 1). Of these facilities, 536 reported GHG emission levels greater than 50 kt, accounting for 92% (250 Mt) of the total reported emissions, and 57 emitted more than 1 Mt, accounting for over half (55% or 149 Mt) of the overall total emissions (Figure 2a). Those with emissions over 1 Mt fall within several industrial sectors that include oil sands extraction (44%), electric power generation (27%), petroleum refineries (9%), and primary metal manufacturing (8%) such as iron, steel, and aluminium (Figure 2b).

Among all reported facilities, 1035 reported GHG emission levels in the 10 to 50 kt range, accounting for 8% (23 Mt) of the total reported emissions. These facilities belong to a number of sectors, such as oil and gas extraction (512 facilities), waste treatment and disposal (75 facilities), and food manufacturing (53 facilities).

Facilities with emissions falling below the reporting threshold of 10 kt per year can voluntarily report their GHG emissions; 133 facilities did so for the 2020 calendar year, representing 0.2% (0.63 Mt). All voluntarily reported emissions are included in this report and in the data set published by Environment and Climate Change Canada.

Figure 1: 2020 facility greenhouse gas emissions reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada

Figure 1 (See long description below)

Notes:
Map excludes pipeline transportation systems.
Map provided by the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators program.

Long description for Figure 1

Figure 1 is a map of facilities that reported their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada in 2020. The map excludes pipeline transportation systems. As shown, the distribution of facilities is uneven across the country, reflecting the concentration of large industrial facilities in certain provinces relative to others. Facilities are highly aggregated in Alberta and in the Windsor (Ontario) to Quebec City (Quebec) corridor. The map indicates a lower number of facilities located in Manitoba, Maritime provinces and territories.

Figure 2a: Contribution of facilities in various emission ranges to total reported emissions (2020)

Figure 2a (See long description below)

Notes:
Facilities in the 0–10 kt range voluntarily reported their emissions.
Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Long description for Figure 2a

Figure 2a is a column and scatter chart showing the number of facilities falling within various emissions ranges and their combined contribution to the total emissions reported to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program in 2020. The following table displays the number of reporting facilities by emission range and their contribution to the 2020 overall GHG total.

Contribution of facilities in various emission ranges to total reported emissions (2020)
Emission range (kt CO2 eq.) Number of reporting facilities % of total reported emissions
Below 10 133 0.2%
10 to < 50 1 035 8%
50 to < 100 205 5%
100 to < 500 218 17%
500 to < 1 000 56 14%
Over 1 000 57 55%
Total 1 704 100%

Figure 2b: Breakdown of 2020 emissions from facilities with reported emissions over 1000 kt CO2 eq. by sector

Figure 2b (See long description below)

Note:
a. “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines and cement manufacturers.

Long description for Figure 2b

Figure 2b shows a breakdown by industry sector for reporting facilities with annual GHG emissions greater than 1000 kt. The following table displays the percentage of total GHG emissions by industry sector for facilities in the Over 1000 kt range.

Breakdown of 2020 emissions from facilities with reported emissions over 1000 kt CO2 eq. by sector
Industry sector % of total reported emissions
Oil sands extraction 44%
Electric power generation 27%
Petroleum refineries 9%
Primary metal manufacturing  8%
Chemical manufacturing 6%
Other 6%
Total 100%

2.1 Emission calculation methods

Facilities reporting to the GHGRP (except those subject to expanded requirements) may choose among a number of available methods to calculate their GHG emissions. The methods selected by these facilities must be consistent with the methodological guidelines developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the preparation of national GHG inventories. Reporting facilities must indicate the types of methods used to determine the quantities of emissions reported. Such methods may include monitoring or direct measurement, mass balance, emission factors, and/or engineering estimates.

As specified in section 1, facilities in 14 industry sectors or engaged in activities covered under phases 1 and 2 of the GHGRP expansion are required to use specific quantification methods, described in Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Quantification Requirements.

Overall, methods incorporating the use of emission factors were the approach preferred by most facilities (Figure 3). An emission factor is a statistical measure of the rate at which a GHG is released into the atmosphere due to a given activity, such as burning a specific fuel type or producing a specific industrial product. The emission factors used may be general or technology-specific. Many facilities used more than one calculation method to determine their emissions.

Figure 3: Types of methods used by facilities

Figure 3 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 3

Figure 3 is a pie chart showing the types of calculation methods and their percent usage by facilities to estimate their GHG emissions. The most common method (at 61%) was that using emissions factors followed by mass balance (at 16%) and engineering estimates (at 15%). The remaining method is monitoring or direct measurements, used 8% of the time.

Types of methods used by facilities
Method Usage rate (%)
Emission Factors 61%
Mass Balance 16%
Engineering Estimates 15%
Monitoring / Direct Measurement 8%
Total 100%

2.2 Greenhouse gases and global warming potentials

GHGs are not equal in their effect on the atmosphere. Each GHG has its own average atmospheric lifetime and heat-trapping potential. GHG emissions are often calculated and reported in terms of how much CO2 would be required to produce a similar warming effect over a given time horizon. This is called the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) value and is calculated by multiplying the amount of the gas by its associated metric such as the global warming potential (GWP) (Table 1). Environment and Climate Change Canada uses GWPFootnote 8 values consistent with those used in Canada’s Official GHG Inventory, a complete list of which can be found in the Notice with respect to reporting of greenhouse gases (GHGs) for 2020.

Table 1: Global warming potential values for the main greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gas 100-year GWPsTable 1 Notea
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1
Methane (CH4) 25
Nitrous oxide (N2O) 298
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 22 800
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 13 species Ranges from 92 to 14 800
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), 7 species Ranges from 7 390 to 12 200

Note:
a. GWPs were updated in 2013 and applied to all years in the data published by the GHGRP.

2.3 Reported greenhouse gas emissions by gas and by source

CO2 represented the majority (93%) of the total reported emissions in 2020, while methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions contributed 6% and 0.8%, respectively (Figure 4). Facilities are also required to report emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) stemming from industrial processes or industrial product use. The combined emissions of these gases accounted for the remaining 0.5% (1.5 Mt).

Figure 4: Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by gas (273 Mt of CO2 eq.)

Figure 4 (See long description below)

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Long description for Figure 4

Figure 4 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the reported 2020 GHG emissions by gas. Facilities reported 273 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2020. Carbon dioxide (CO2) represented the majority of the total emissions at 93%, while methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions each contributed an additional 6% and 0.8% respectively. The combined emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) accounted for the remaining 0.5%.

Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by gas (273 Mt of CO2 eq.)
Greenhouse gas % of total reported emissions
CO2 93%
CH4 6%
N2O 0.8%
HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 0.5%
Total 100%

When reporting to the GHGRP, facilities are required to report GHG emissions under the following source categories:Footnote 9 stationary fuel combustion, industrial processes, fugitive sources including venting, flaring and leakage, on-site transportation, waste and wastewater.Footnote 10 Stationary fuel combustion is the largest source of reported emissions, representing 76% of the total (Figure 5). This source includes emissions resulting from the burning of fuels for the purpose of producing energy (e.g., to generate electricity, heat or steam), but does not include emissions from combustion engines in vehicles or mobile equipment, which are grouped under on-site transportation. Any waste material burned or incinerated at a facility to produce energy is also included in stationary combustion. CO2 emissions from the combustion of biomass materials must be reported to the GHGRP, but are not included in the facility-reported total. Industrial process emissions, the second-largest source of reported emissions at 13%, refer to emissions stemming from specific industrial processes involving chemical or physical reactions other than combustion. Such reactions occur, for example, in the processes of mineral production (e.g., lime, cement), metal production (e.g., iron, steel, aluminium) and chemical production (e.g., nitric acid and ammonia production).

Figure 5: Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by source

Figure 5 (See long description below)

Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Long description for Figure 5

Figure 5 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2020 GHG emissions by emission source category. Facilities reported 273 megatonnes of total CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 emissions in 2020. The following table displays the breakdown of 2020 GHG emissions by source category.

Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by source
Emission source category % of total reported emissions
Stationary Fuel Combustion 76%
Industrial Processes 13%
On-site Transportation 3%
Waste 3%
Venting 2%
Flaring 2%
Leakage 2%
Wastewater 0.1%
Total 100%

2.4 Reported greenhouse gas emissions by province/territory

Facilities in the province of Alberta accounted for the largest share of reported emissions, with approximately 54% of the total, followed by facilities in Ontario (15%), Saskatchewan (9%) and Quebec (8%) (Table 2). The number of facilities, the quantity and type of fuel consumed, and the predominant industry largely explain this ranking.

Note for Table 2: Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Table 2: Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by province/territory
Province/territory Number of facilities Total emissions (kt CO2 eq) Percentage of total emissions
Newfoundland and Labrador 13 3 764 1%
Prince Edward Island 3 79 0.03%
Nova Scotia 21 7 128 3%
New Brunswick 26 5 884 2%
Quebec 187 21 623 8%
Ontario 361 42 021 15%
Manitoba 40 2 502 1%
Saskatchewan 140 25 296 9%
Alberta 702 147 926 54%
British Columbia 197 15 823 6%
Nunavut 7 625 0.2%
Northwest Territories 5 488 0.2%
Yukon 2 48 0.02%
Total 1 704 273 208 100%

2.5 Reported greenhouse gas emissions by sector

When completing a report for the GHGRP, a reporter is required to identify the main activities occurring at its facility using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).Footnote 11 In 2020, three NAICS‑defined industry sectors accounted for the majority of GHG emissions: the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector (NAICS 21), representing 41% (113 Mt) of total reported emissions; the Manufacturing sector (NAICS 31-33), accounting for 30% (82 Mt); and the Utilities sector (NAICS 22), primarily facilities generating electricity from fossil fuels, accounting for 22% (60 Mt) (Figure 6). The remaining 7% (19 Mt) of emissions captured under “Other” were reported by various types of facilities, mainly natural gas transportation pipelines (9 Mt) and waste management (7 Mt).

Figure 6: Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by industry sector (273 Mt CO2 eq.)

Figure 6 (See long description below)

Note:
a. "Other" is not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.

Long description for Figure 6

Figure 6 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of reported 2020 GHG emissions by main industry sector. These sectors are: the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector, the Utilities sector, and the Manufacturing sector. The “Other” category, accounting for 7% of emissions, includes facilities that fall into industry sectors other than those already mentioned, such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings. The following table displays the breakdown of 2020 GHG emissions by industry sector.

Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by industry sector (273 Mt CO2 eq.)
Industry sector % of total
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction 41%
Manufacturing 30%
Utilities 22%
Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas 3%
Waste Management and Remediation Services 3%
Educational Services and Health Care 0.5%
Miscellaneous 1%
Total 100%

Activities of reporting facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector can be further broken down into three main categories (Figure 7):

  1. Oil sands extraction, the dominant sub-category which includes oil sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading (64% of sector emissions)
  2. Oil and gas extraction (except oil sands) (27%)
  3. Mining of metal ore (e.g., iron) (4%), coal (3%), and non-metallic minerals (e.g., potash and diamonds) (2%)

Figure 7: Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (113 Mt CO2 eq.)

Figure 7 (See long description below)

Notes:
a. Includes facilities engaged in oils sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading.
Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Long description for Figure 7

Figure 7 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of the 2020 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector. Facilities in this sector reported 113 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2020. The following table displays the breakdown of 2020 GHG emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector by industry subsector.

Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (113 Mt CO2 eq.)
Industry subsector % of total
Oil Sands Extraction 64%
Oil and Gas Extraction (except oil sands)  27%
Metal Ore Mining 4%
Coal Mining 3%
Non-metallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying 2%
Support Activities for Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction 0.02%
Total 100%

The Manufacturing sector includes a wide range of industrial activities, with important contributors to the reported 2020 emissions being (Figure 8):

  1. Petroleum and coal product manufacturing (21% of sector emissions)
  2. Iron and steel manufacturing (17%)
  3. Basic chemical manufacturing (e.g., ethylene, polyethylene, hydrogen gas) (15%)
  4. Cement and concrete product manufacturing (13%)

Figure 8: Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of manufacturing (82 Mt CO2 eq.)

Figure 8 (See long description below)

Notes:
a. Non-Ferrous Metal (except Aluminium) Manufacturing includes the production of base metals (e.g., copper, nickel, zinc).
b. “Other Manufacturing” represents other types of manufacturing, including electrical equipment, transportation equipment and furniture manufacturing.

Long description for Figure 8

Figure 8 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of 2020 GHG emissions reported by subsectors of the Manufacturing sector. Facilities in this sector reported 82 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2020. The following table displays the breakdown of 2020 GHG emissions from the Manufacturing sector by industry subsector.

Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions by subsectors of manufacturing (82 Mt CO2 eq.)
Industry subsector % of Total
Petroleum and Coal Products 21%
Iron and Steel Manufacturing 17%
Basic Chemicals 15%
Cement and Concrete Products 13%
Alumina and Aluminium Production and Processing 8%
Wood Products and Paper 8%
Pesticide, Fertilizer, and Other Agricultural Chemicals 7%
Food, Beverage, and Tobacco Products 3%
Lime and Gypsum Products 2%
Non-Ferrous Metal (except Aluminium) Manufacturing 2%
Other Manufacturing 3%
Total 100%

2.6 Impact of Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program expansion: reported emissions in the 10 to 50 kt range

Starting with the 2017 data collection, the mandatory reporting threshold was lowered from 50 kt CO2 eq. to 10 kt CO2 eq. This means any facility emitting 10 kt or more of GHGs in the calendar year must report to the program. The threshold change resulted in a significant increase in the number of facilities reporting.

Of all 1704 facilities that reported in 2020, 1035 facilities (61%) reported emissions in the range of 10 to 50 kt. Total emissions from these 1035 facilities are 23 Mt, representing 8% of the 2020 total reported emissions. Over half (53%, or 12 Mt) of the total amount of GHGs emitted by these facilities come from 568 facilities in the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector (Figure 9). The Manufacturing sector is the second largest contributor (224 facilities reporting), accounting for 21% (5 Mt) of the emissions reported by the facilities in this range. Many landfills, universities and hospitals were also required to report because of the 10 kt threshold.

Figure 9: Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions from facilities in the 10 to 50 kt range by sector
(23 Mt CO2 eq.)

Figure 9 (See long description below)

Note:
a. “Other” includes various types of facilities such as wholesale trade and transportation and warehousing.

Long description for Figure 9

Figure 9 is a pie chart showing the breakdown of 2020 GHG emissions reported by main industry sectors of facilities in the 10 to 50 kilotonne range. Facilities in this range reported 23 megatonnes of total GHG emissions in 2020. The following table displays the breakdown of 2020 GHG emissions from facilities in the 10 to 50 kilotonne range by industry sector

Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions from facilities in the 10 to 50 kt range by sector (23 Mt CO2 eq.)
Industry sector % of Total
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction 53%
Manufacturing 21%
Waste Management and Remediation Services 10%
Utilities 6%
Greenhouse, nursery and floriculture production 4%
Educational Services 2%
Health Care and Social Assistance 1%
Public Administration 1%
Other 1%
Total 100%

Alberta experienced the highest number of reporters in the 10 to 50 kt range with a total 450 reported facilities (43% of the total number of new reporting facilities – Figure 10), followed by 223 in Ontario (22%), 118 in British Columbia (11%), and 99 in Quebec (10%).

The total number of facilities as well as the coverage of emissions for specific industry subsectors have increased to varying degrees due to the lower reporting threshold, providing more complete tracking of emissions in these subsectors (Table 3).

Figure 10: Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions for facilities between 10 kt and 50 kt CO2 eq. by province/territory

Figure 10 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 10

Figure 10 is a column chart comparing 2020 distribution of GHG emissions reported by facilities in the 10 to 50 kilotonne range across the provinces and territories. The following table displays the number of reporting facilities by province/territory for the 10 to 50 kilotonne range and the associated 2020 GHG emissions from facilities in this range.

Reported 2020 greenhouse gas emissions from facilities between 10 kt and 50 kt CO2 eq. by province/territory
Province/territory Number of facilities Reported emissions (kt CO2 eq.)
NL 6 219
PE 0 0
NS 13 329
NB 12 307
QC 99 1 995
ON 223 4 978
MB 31 757
SK 78 1 782
AB 450 9 704
BC 118 2 571
YT 2 48
NT 1 19
NU 2 54
Total 1 035 22 763

Comparing the level of reporting in 2016 and in 2020, 670 facilities in the Oil and Gas Extraction (except Oil Sands) subsector are now reporting their emissions to the GHGRP (up from 113), exhibiting the largest change in emissions due to newly reporting facilities (increase of 11 Mt). These newly reporting facilities include natural gas processing plants, oil/gas battery operations and compressor stations. Facilities in the Waste Treatment and Disposal subsector (such as landfills) have also shown a notable increase, with 120 facilities reporting emissions in 2020 from 49 facilities in 2016. Emissions coverage in this subsector continued to improve each year, as the number of facilities reporting in the 10 to 50 kt range steadily increased (i.e. from 61 facilities in 2017 to 75 in 2020). In addition, gold and silver ore mining facilities increased from 8 facilities reporting in 2016 to 25 in 2020, increasing the coverage of emissions from this subsector by 33% since 2016.

The lowering of the threshold also resulted in a number of subsectors reporting for the first time. For example, 45 facilities within the “Other food crops grown under cover” subsector (mainly consisting of greenhouses) now report their emissions. Since 2017, the number of facilities reporting in this subsector has also gradually increased (i.e. from 33 facilities in 2017 to 45 in 2020), thereby improving the coverage of emissions from this subsector over this time period (by 36%).

Table 3: Impact of lowering the emissions threshold, selected industry subsectors
Industry subsectors 2016 number of facilities 2020 number of facilities 2016 total emissions
(kt CO2 eq.)
2020 total emissions
(kt CO2 eq.)
2020 emissions from
newa facilities
(< 50 kt CO2 eq.)
Oil and Gas Extraction
(Except Oil Sands)
113 670 14 827 30 458 10 731
Waste Treatment and Disposal 49 120 5 517 7 069 2 180
Pulp, Paper and
Paperboard mills
51 72 4 685 5 774 610
Gold and Silver Ore Mining 8 25 632 1 380 343
Grain and Oil Seed Milling 4 20 320 959 338
Other Food grown under cover 0 45 0 848 848

Note:
a. New facilities are facilities with emissions below 50 kt that have reported to the GHGRP since 2017

3 Trends in reported greenhouse gas emissions

The number of facilities reporting GHG emissions to Environment and Climate Change Canada can change from year to year. The lowering of the mandatory reporting threshold from 50 kt to 10 kt resulted in an increase in the number of facilities reporting. Changes in production levels, processes and technologies, the types of fuels used at a facility, new facility operations starting up, facility closures and unplanned events can all result in a change in the annual emissions reported. A facility may fall below or attain the reporting threshold from one year to the next or the number of voluntary reporters may also change, affecting the number of reporting facilities. Over the 2005–2020 period, the number of reporting facilities increased from 337 to 1704 (Table 4.A).

3.1 National-level trends

The overall total reported GHG emissions for all facilities were 273 Mt in 2020, a decrease of 20 Mt (7%) from 2019 reported emissions (Table 4.A).Footnote 12

Over the 2005–2020 period, the number of reporting facilities increased from 337 to 1704, while overall emissions from facilities decreased by 1.7% (4.7 Mt). The significant increase in the number of reporting facilities since 2005 is largely attributed to the lower thresholds introduced in 2009 (50 kt) and in 2017 (10 kt). Emission changes were also partly impacted, given more emissions were progressively reported to the program over this period.

For facilities emitting 50 kt of CO2 eq. or more, total reported emissions were 250 Mt in 2020, compared to 270 Mt for 2019 (Table 4.B). Over the 2005–2020 period, the number of reporting facilities in this range increased from 323 to 536, largely due to the lower threshold introduced in 2009. By contrast, the combined emissions from facilities in this range have not changed significantly since 2005, with the exception of a 10% drop in emissions observed in 2020 (Table 4.B).

For facilities emitting between 10 and 50 kt of CO2 eq., total reported emissions were 23 Mt in 2020. Reported emissions from these facilities have remained constant since 2017 (23 Mt) when the 10-kt reporting threshold was implemented.

Note for Table 4.A:
The complete data set (i.e. yearly data since 2004), is available on ECCC website: Facility-reported greenhouse gas data.

Table 4.A: Facility-reported greenhouse gas emissions, selected years
Total facility reported emissions 2005 2009a 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017a 2018 2019 2020
Number of facilities 337 537 544 548 560 579 585 573 613 1681 1737 1732 1704
GHG emissions (kt CO2 eq.) 277 997 253 113 263 649 256 150 259 406 261 077 264 051 264 401 264 281 293 487 293 678 293 111 273 208

Note:
a. The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt and, from 50 kt to 10 kt in 2017.

Note for Table 4.B:
N/A = Not available

Table 4.B: Facility-reported greenhouse gas emissions, selected years
Facilities with emissions greater than 50 kt CO2 eq. 2005 2009a 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017a 2018 2019 2020
Number of facilities 323 464 479 476 487 498 501 490 505 526 540 554 536
GHG emissions (kt CO2 eq.) 277 761 252 150 262 308 254 699 258 156 259 247 262 177 262 556 262 235 270 025 269 819 269 773 249 814
Annual change N/A -4.2% 4.0% -2.9% 1.4% 0.4% 1.1% 0.1% -0.1% 3.0% -0.1% -0.02% -7.4%
Change since 2005 N/A -9.2% -5.6% -8.3% -7.1% -6.7% -5.6% -5.5% -5.6% -2.8% -2.9% -2.9% -10.1%

Note:
a. The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt and, from 50 kt to 10 kt in 2017.

3.2 Industry sector and provincial/territorial trends

The summary of facility-reported emissions by NAICS industry sector provides a picture of the types of facilities (mostly industrial operations) that report to the GHGRP in response to the annual GHG reporting requirements (Figure 11 and Table 5). The provincial breakdown of each main industry sector highlights the regional presence of key industries accounting for the reported emissions (e.g., large component of emissions from the Manufacturing sector in Ontario, Quebec and Alberta) (Table 6). Facilities that emitted 10 kt or more were used for the analysis presented in this section. Therefore, observed emission changes from 2005 through 2020 reflect the impact of changing the reporting threshold on the number of reporting facilities in some industry sectors (notably in Mining, Quarrying, Oil and Gas Extraction).

Overall, GHG emissions reported by the Utilities sector have steadily decreased over the last decade. On the other hand, the Mining, Quarrying, Oil and Gas Extraction sector has experienced a sustained increase in emissions since 2005, surpassing those reported by Utilities in 2015 (Figure 11). This can be attributed in part to new facilities with emissions in the 10 to 50 kt range reporting since 2017 in this sector (see section 2.6). Trends observed from facility-reported sector emissions are similar to trends observed in the National GHG Inventory. Various factors have led to these trends and are further discussed in this section.

Figure 11: Long-term sectoral trends, 2005 to 2020

Figure 11 (See long description below)

Note:
"Other" is not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities and public administration buildings.

Long description for Figure 11

Figure 11 is a line chart grouping facilities into four main industrial sectors and shows the changes in the facility-reported GHG emissions for each of these sectors between 2005 and 2020. In 2005, the Utilities sector was the highest GHG emitting sector, followed by the Manufacturing sector, and the Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector. There is an overall increasing trend in emissions from the Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction sector while emissions from the Manufacturing sector and Utilities have generally levelled off or decreased since 2005. From 2015 onwards, the Mining, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector became the highest GHG-emitting sector, surpassed those reported by the Manufacturing sector and the Utilities sector. The sector called “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills and universities. The following table displays reported GHG emissions by industrial sector from 2005 to 2020.

Long-term sectoral trends, 2005 to 2020
Year Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (Mt CO2 eq.) Manufacturing (Mt CO2 eq.) Utilities (Mt CO2 eq) Other (Mt CO2 eq.)
2005 48 92 123 15
2006 53 89 116 14
2007 55 87 122 14
2008 55 84 113 12
2009 62 74 103 13
2010 69 77 106 12
2011 72 78 94 12
2012 77 79 90 13
2013 82 76 89 14
2014 84 76 89 15
2015 87 76 86 15
2016 87 77 85 16
2017 109 84 81 19
2018 113 87 74 20
2019 115 87 71 20
2020 113 82 60 19

Notes for Table 5:
N/A = Not available
Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Table 5: Reported greenhouse gas emissions by North American Industry Classification System industry sector, selected years
Table 5 Note aNAICSa industry sector (Units: Mt CO2 eq.) 2005 Table 5 Note b2009b 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Table 5 Note b2017b 2018 2019 2020
Total 278 253 264 256 259 261 264 264 264 293 294 293 273
21 – Mining, Quarrying, and
Oil and Gas Extraction (total)(total of the 6 following rows)
48 62 69 72 77 82 84 87 87 109 113 115 113
Oil and gas extraction 14 15 15 15 14 15 15 15 15 30 31 31 30
Oil sands extractionTable 5 Note c 28 42 47 49 55 59 61 65 64 69 72 74 72
Coal mining 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3
Metal ore mining 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 5 5 5 5
Non-metallic mineral mining and quarrying 0.8 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
Support activities for mining, and oil and gas extraction N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.02
22 – Utilities (total)(total of the 3 following rows) 123 103 106 94 90 89 89 86 85 81 74 71 60
Electric power generation 122 101 103 92 88 86 87 84 83 79 72 69 58
Natural gas distribution 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Water, sewage and other systemsTable 5 Note d 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8
31–33 Manufacturing (total)(total of the 11 following rows) 92 74 77 78 79 76 76 76 77 84 87 87 82
Food, beverages, and tobacco products 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3
Wood products and paper 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6
Petroleum and coal products 20 19 18 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 17 18 17
Basic chemicals 13 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 13 13 13
Pesticide, fertilizer, other agricultural chemicals 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Cement and concrete products 13 9 10 10 11 10 10 11 10 11 11 11 11
Lime and gypsum products 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Iron and steel manufacturingTable 5 Note e 17 11 14 14 15 13 14 13 14 14 16 16 14
Alumina and aluminium production and processing 10 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 7
Non-ferrous metal (except alum.) manufacturingTable 5 Note f 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Other manufacturingTable 5 Note g 0.7 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2
Other (total)(total of the 4 following rows)Table 5 Note h 15 13 12 12 13 14 15 15 16 19 20 20 19
Pipeline transportation of natural gas 12 7 6 7 6 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 9
Waste management and remediation services 3 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 8 7 7 7
Educational Services and Health Care N/A 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 1 1 1 1
Miscellaneous N/A 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 1 1 1

Notes:
a. Facilities required to report to the GHGRP provide a primary NAICS code that describes the main activities occurring at the facility.
b. The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt and in 2017 from 50 kt to 10 kt.
c. Includes facilities engaged in oils sands mining, in-situ bitumen production and upgrading.
d. Includes sewage treatment facilities, heating and steam generation plants.
e. Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by facilities engaged in types of manufacturing such as Iron and steel mills and ferro-alloy manufacturing, Steel product manufacturing from purchased steel (NAICS 3312), and Ferrous metal foundries.
f.  Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by facilities engaged in types of manufacturing such as Non-ferrous metal (except aluminium) production and processing and Non-ferrous metal foundries.
g. Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by facilities engaged in other types of manufacturing such as Electrical equipment, Transportation equipment, Furniture manufacturing, and others. 
h. Not a NAICS sector but a grouping of various NAICS codes reported by the following types of facilities: natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.

Notes for Table 6:
N/A = Not available
Totals may not add up due to rounding.

Table 6: Reported greenhouse gas emissions by industry sector and by province/territory,
selected years
Industry sector
province/territory
(Units: Mt CO2 eq.)
2005 2009Table 6 Note a 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017Table 6 Note a 2018 2019 2020
Total 278 253 264 256 259 261 264 264 264 293 294 293 273
21 – Mining, Quarrying, and
Oil and Gas Extraction (total)(total of the 12 following rows)
48 62 69 72 77 82 84 87 87 109 113 115 113
Alberta 35 50 54 56 62 65 67 71 70 86 90 92 90
British Columbia 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 6 6 8 8 8 8
Manitoba N/A 0.06 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3
New Brunswick N/A N/A 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.02 N/A 0.06 N/A 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.004
Newfoundland and Labrador 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2
Northwest Territories 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5
Nova Scotia N/A 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.06 0.4
Nunavut N/A N/A 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6
Ontario 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 1 1 1 1
Quebec 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Saskatchewan 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 8 8 8 8
Yukon N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.02 0.02 0.004 0.01
22 – Utilities (total)(total of the 12 following rows) 123 103 106 94 90 89 89 86 85 81 74 71 60
Alberta 50 48 48 46 44 44 49 47 47 46 38 36 30
British Columbia 2 2 2 0.9 0.9 1 1 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 1 0.9
Manitoba 0.6 0.2 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.07 0.1 N/A 0.06 0.03 0.06 0.05
New Brunswick 9 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 2
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.8
Northwest Territories N/A 0.06 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.06 N/A 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Nova Scotia 11 9 9 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6
Nunavut N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.06 0.06 0.05
Ontario 36 20 25 18 18 15 10 10 9 6 6 6 6
Prince Edward Island N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.01 0.003 0.002
Quebec 0.5 1 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4
Saskatchewan 15 16 16 15 16 15 15 16 15 16 16 16 13
Yukon N/A 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03
31–33 Manufacturing (total)(total of the 12 following rows) 92 74 77 78 79 76 76 76 77 84 87 87 82
Alberta 18 17 17 18 18 19 18 19 19 20 22 22 22
British Columbia 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Manitoba 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
New Brunswick 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 3
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 1 1 0.9 1 0.9 1 1 1 1 1 2 0.4
Nova Scotia 1 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Ontario 38 26 27 28 29 27 28 27 28 30 33 32 29
Prince Edward Island 0.1 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.08
Quebec 20 17 18 17 17 17 17 17 16 18 18 18 18
Saskatchewan 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Other (total)(total of the 12 following rows)Table 6 Note b 15 13 12 12 13 14 15 15 16 19 19 20 19
Alberta 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 6
British Columbia 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2
Manitoba 1 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8
New Brunswick N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.1 0.5
Newfoundland and Labrador N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.05
Nova Scotia N/A 0.06 0.04 0.04 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.006 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.2
Ontario 5 4 3 4 3 4 4 5 5 6 5 6 6
Quebec 0.3 0.9 1 0.8 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1
Saskatchewan 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Notes:
a. The reporting threshold changed in 2009 from 100 kt to 50 kt and in 2017 from 50 kt to 10 kt.
b. “Other” includes various types of facilities such as natural gas transportation pipelines, solid waste landfills, airports, universities, hospitals and public administration buildings.

3.2.1 Short-term changes

Short-term changes in reported emissions reflect the combined effect of actual changes in emissions from the same facilities and additional emissions reported from newly reporting facilities since the implementation of a lower reporting threshold for the 2017 data onwards.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on 2020 emission levels

Total facility-reported emissions were noticeably lower in 2020 than in previous years. Based on information reported by facilities to the GHGRP, there is evidence to suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the 7% drop in emissions between 2019 and 2020 to some extent (e.g. temporary shut downs, reduced demand), particularly in the electric power generation and the iron and steel manufacturing sectors. Overall, factors such as reduced coal consumption, fuel switching and lower production levels, impacted emissions to a larger degree.

Since 2017, total reported emissions have decreased by 7% (20 Mt). This can largely be attributed to the steady year-over-year decreases in reported emissions from facilities in the Utilities sector, where overall emissions have declined by 26% (21 Mt) between 2017 and 2020. This significant decrease is a result of ongoing emissions reductions in the electric power generation subsector, which experienced a 21 Mt decrease in emissions since 2017 (Table 5), with 76% of this decrease (16 Mt) occurring in Alberta. During the same period, the Utilities sector in Saskatchewan also experienced a decrease in emissions, with reported emissions declining by 19% (3 Mt). These observed emission reductions are mainly attributed to the reduced use of fossil fuels, coal in particular,Footnote 13 for electricity generation and the increased reliance on renewable electricity sources in Alberta.Footnote 14

Emissions from the Manufacturing sector did not change significantly, showing an overall decrease in emissions of 3% (2 Mt) over this same period (Table 5). The majority of this decrease can be linked to emissions reductions in the petroleum and coal products sector in Newfoundland and Labrador (1.0 Mt, due to a refinery closure), and in the iron and steel manufacturing sector in Ontario and Quebec (0.7 Mt), notably between 2019 and 2020 (Table 5 and Table 6).

While the above sectors’ emissions have declined since 2017, reported emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction sector increased by 3% (4 Mt). Oils sands extraction contributed the most to this increase, with reported emissions from this sector increasing by 3 Mt between 2017 and 2020, with minor inter-annual fluctuations, especially in Alberta, consistent with observed changes in synthetic crude oil production (+7%)Footnote 15 and in crude oil and crude bitumen production (-5% in 2020).Footnote 16

3.2.2 Long-term trends

The major long-term emission patterns illustrate two large off-setting trends of a 65 Mt increase in emissions in Mining, Quarrying and Oil and Gas Extraction since 2005, compensated by 64 Mt and 10 Mt emission decreases in Utilities and Manufacturing respectively (Table 5). Long-term trends were not impacted by the addition of newly reporting facilities to the same extent as the short-term trends.

Up to and including the year 2014, the Utilities sector consistently accounted for the largest portion of reported emissions (Figure 11), with electric power generation being the main contributor. However, emissions from fossil-fuel electric power generation experienced a significant decline of 64 Mt throughout 2005 to 2020 (Table 5), largely from the discontinuation of coal-fired electricity production in Ontario, Alberta, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (Table 6). Over the same period, the number of large-emitting facilities (1 Mt or above) in the fossil-fuel electric power generation subsector declined from 24 in 2005 to 16 in 2020. Other contributors to the decrease in utility emissions include fuel switching (e.g., from coal to natural gas or other lower carbon fuel) and increased reliance on hydro, nuclear and renewable sources of generation.Footnote 17 Footnote 18

Between 2005 and 2020, overall emissions from the Manufacturing sector remain below (11%, or 10 Mt) their 2005 levels (Figure 11), with Ontario and Quebec facilities in specific industry sectors contributing the most to this overall decrease. Ontario facilities saw a net decrease of 9 Mt (Table 6) compared to 2005, largely observed in iron/steel, cement, primary magnesium production, and chemical manufacturing (e.g., halted adipic acid production in 2009) (Table 5). Quebec facilities showed an overall 2-Mt decrease in emissions from 2005 to 2020 (Table 6), with aluminium production and petroleum refining facilities contributing the most to this change (Table 5). Emission decreases resulted from technological change in aluminium production,Footnote 19 Footnote 20 Footnote 21 and the closure of a magnesium production facility and aluminium smelters in Quebec.

In contrast, Alberta facilities in the Manufacturing sector saw a 29% increase (5 Mt) in reported emissions since 2009, with 46% (2.2 Mt) of the observed increase in the basic chemicals sector, and 21% (1.0 Mt) in the petroleum and coal products sector, driven by the opening of a new refinery in Alberta in 2017. Between 2005 and 2020, overall emissions from the petroleum and coal products sector have decreased by 16% (3 Mt) as a result of refinery closures. Since 2005, four refineries have either closed or been converted to terminal facilities, in several provinces (Ontario (2005), Quebec (2010), Nova Scotia (2013), and Newfoundland and Labrador (2020)).

The Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas extraction sector has shown an increasing trend over the last decade (Figure 11). Most of the increase (between 2005 and 2020) was driven by oil sands extraction facilities in Alberta (45 Mt growth since 2005) as existing facilities expanded operations and new facilities came online and thermal heavy oil extraction in Saskatchewan, reflecting this sector’s steady growth trend. In more recent years, the increase in reported emissions from the Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas extraction sector is partly due to the increased number of facilities from this sector reporting their emissions to the program, as a result of the lowering of the reporting threshold (see section 2.6).

4 Facility-reported emissions and the national greenhouse gas inventory

The total facility-reported GHG emissions for 2020 collected under the GHGRP represent 41% of Canada’s total GHG emissions in 2020 (672 Mt) and 63% of Canada’s industrial GHG emissions.Footnote 22 The GHGRP applies to large GHG-emitting facilities (mostly industrial) and does not cover diffuse sources of GHG emissions such as road transportation and agricultural sources, whereas the National GHG Inventory is a complete accounting of all GHG sources and sinks in Canada.

When comparing the provincial and territorial breakdown of the facility-reported emissions to the corresponding information in the National GHG Inventory, the distribution of emissions by province shows a similar pattern (Figure 12). Alberta has the highest emissions, followed by Ontario. Saskatchewan accounted for the third largest portion of total reported emissions in the GHGRP while Quebec is the third major contributor to the total emissions of the National GHG Inventory. This pattern of industrial emissions reflects the regional concentration of large industrial facilities and trends in the use of fossil fuels for energy production.

Figure 12: Provincial/territorial contribution to 2020 facility-reported Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program total and the national inventory total

Figure 12 (See long description below)
Long description for Figure 12

Figure 12 is a column chart comparing the provincial/territorial distribution of the GHG emissions reported by facilities to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. The two distributions follow a similar pattern, with Alberta contributing the largest quantity of emissions by province, followed by Ontario. The following table displays 2020 GHG emissions by province/territory for both the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory.

Provincial/territorial contribution to 2020 facility-reported Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program total and the national inventory total
Province/territory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program
(kt CO2 eq.)
National Inventory Report
(kt CO2 eq.)
NL 3 764 9 501
PE 79 1 610
NS 7 128 14 596
NB 5 884 12 441
QC 21 623 76 241
ON 42 021 149 585
MB 2 502 21 674
SK 25 296 65 894
AB 147 926 256 460
BC 15 823 61 747
YT,NT,NU 1 161 2 667

Although the facility-reported emissions may capture 63% of industrial GHG emissions nationally, the degree of coverage at the provincial level varies from province to province (Figure 13), due to the size and number of industrial facilities in each province that have emissions above the 10 kt CO2 eq. reporting threshold. The degree of coverage are fairly high for some provinces and territories. For example, the reported emissions in 2020 captured approximately 79% of industrial emissions in Nova Scotia, and 72% of total industrial emissions in Alberta.

Figure 13: 2020 Facility-reported emissions as a percentage of national and provincial/territorial industrial greenhouse gas emissions from the national inventory

Figure 13 (See long description below)

Notes:
In this overview report, Canada’s industrial GHG emissions include the following GHG categories from the National Inventory Report 1990–2020: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste.
Nunavut is not included due to the lack of data.

Long description for Figure 13

Figure 13 is a column-stacked chart showing the percentages of industrial GHG emissions from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, accounted for by the facility-reported data from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. In this overview report, Canada’s industrial greenhouse gas emissions include the following categories from the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report: Stationary Combustion Sources (except Residential), Other Transportation, Fugitive Sources, Industrial Processes and Product Use, and Waste. The following table displays the degree of coverage by the facility reporting program of 2020 GHG emissions by province/territory.

2020 Facility-reported emissions as a percentage of national and provincial/territorial industrial greenhouse gas emissions from the national inventory
Province/territory % of industrial GHG emissions from the national inventory
NL 70%
PE 17%
NS 79%
NB 68%
QC 57%
ON 53%
MB 32%
SK 58%
AB 72%
BC 48%
YT,NT 56%
National 63%

Where appropriate, the facility-reported emissions data are used by Environment and Climate Change Canada in the national GHG inventory, which is developed largely from national and provincial statistics based on internationally-recognised emission estimation methodologies. The extent to which the facility-reported GHG emissions data could be fully integrated into the national inventory is dependent on the level of detail and type of data available. This integration of the facility-reported data is a key objective for the recent expansion to reporting under the GHGRP.

5 Additional information about the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program

5.1 Data quality

Facilities that meet the GHG reporting requirements under the GHGRP must ensure that the reported data are reliable. Facilities are required by law to submit information that is true, accurate and complete to the best of their knowledge. CEPA sets out penalties for companies that fail to report or that knowingly submit false or misleading information. Reporters have a legal obligation to keep copies of the information submitted, along with any calculations, measurements and other data on which the information is based. All information must be kept for a period of three years from the date on which it was required to be reported to Environment and Climate Change Canada.

The data provided in this report are for information purposes only. Environment and Climate Change Canada conducted a number of data quality checks of the submitted data for compliance purposes and for completeness, and it will continue to analyze the data, which may result in periodic updates.

The data received from facilities are subject to various levels of review as part of the quality control/quality assurance (QC/QA) process set out under the GHGRP to resolve data gaps or inconsistencies and potential reporting errors. ExamplesFootnote 23 of the types of checks completed are:

5.2 Public access

The GHGRP provides public access to information from all facilities that reported GHG emissions to the program through an annual online publication. In addition to this summary report, the facility-level data are presented in the form of tables, a searchable database and a downloadable format. Users can search by emissions of a specific gas or emissions of all gases, by facility name or GHGRP identification number, by National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) identification number, by reporting company, by province/territory or city, or by industry sector, using the NAICSFootnote 24 code. Users can also access a web-based mapping tool on the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators website, which shows where reporting facilities are located in Canada.

To access the data or obtain further information on the GHGRP or National Greenhouse Gas Inventory program, consult the following websites:

Reported Facility GHG Data

Reporting to the GHGRP

Canada’s Official GHG Inventory

Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators

5.3 Links to National Pollutant Release Inventory and provincial reporting

The GHGRP is similar to, yet distinct from, the NPRI. Although both programs are delivered by Environment and Climate Change Canada under the authority of section 46 of CEPA, the NPRI collects data from facilities on pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling, whereas the GHGRP collects data from facilities on GHG emissions. Facilities reporting to the GHGRP are asked to report their NPRI identification number to facilitate searching and comparison of emissions from facilities that report to both programs.

A number of provincial jurisdictions also require facilities to report GHG emissions information annually under specific provincial regulations. Efforts have been undertaken to streamline the reporting process between the national and various provincial jurisdictions, resulting in the launch of a single-window reporting system to help reduce the reporting burden on industry and the overall cost to government. This single-window system allows one-time entry for information commonly required at both levels, while accommodating requirements that are jurisdiction-specific. Provinces currently using this reporting system include Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan.

Facilities in the industry sectors subject to the recently expanded federal reporting requirements, and who already report similar data to provincial GHG reporting programs/regulations in British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador, had the option to include their provincial report as part of their GHGRP report.

The GHGRP processes the provincial reports and amends the federal report to include relevant data from those provincial reports that meet the expanded requirements. The GHGRP checks the provincial data provided in order to ensure sufficient and reliable data that fully complies with the federal requirements, and will contact the facility reporter to resolve any gaps or data issues in the submitted data.

6 Contact us

If you have questions about this report or for more information about its content, please contact the GHGRP:

Environment and Climate Change Canada
Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program
Place Vincent Massey, 7th Floor
351 St. Joseph Boulevard
Gatineau QC  K1A 0H3

E-mail: GES-GHG@ec.gc.ca
Telephone: 1-877-877-8375
Website: Greenhouse gas reporting: facilities

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