International comparison: air pollutant emissions in selected countries

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Air pollution problems, such as smog and acid rain, result from the release of pollutants into the atmosphere. These indicators compare Canada's emissions of 5 key air pollutants with those of top emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

By pollutant
Sulphur oxides

Sulphur oxides

Key results

In 2017, Canada:

  • saw a decrease of 50% in sulphur oxides (SOX) emissions from 2007 levels
  • ranked fourth highest in SOX emissions among OECD member countries
  • had the fourth highest ratio of SOX emissions to gross domestic product among the top 10 emitting OECD member countries

Sulphur oxides emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017

Sulphur oxide emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006 and 2016 (see data table below for the long description)
Data tables for the long description
Sulphur oxides emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 sulphur oxides emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 sulphur oxides emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 sulphur oxides emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 sulphur oxides emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
United States 10 563 2 489 0.70 0.14
Turkey 2 523 2 350 2.09 1.19
Australia 2 445 2 288 2.76 2.01
Canada 1 900 949 1.41 0.60
Japan 927 696 0.20 0.14
Poland 1 174 583 1.63 0.58
Germany 455 315 0.14 0.09
Chile 400 306 1.39 0.79
Spain 1 045 221 0.69 0.14
United Kingdom 632 172 0.27 0.07
Sulphur oxides emissions and emissions intensity of the other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 sulphur oxides emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 sulphur oxides emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 sulphur oxides emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 sulphur oxides emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
France 414 144 0.18 0.06
Italy 345 115 0.16 0.06
Czech Republic 212 110 0.73 0.33
New Zealand
82 74 0.61 0.44
Greece 491 69 1.41 0.27
Iceland 61 50 4.42 3.09
Portugal 159 49 0.55 0.17
Estonia
88 39 2.53 1.03
Belgium
123 37 0.29 0.08
Finland
83 35 0.38 0.16
Hungary
36 28 0.16 0.11
Slovak Republic 69 27 0.54 0.17
Netherlands
62 27 0.08 0.03
Sweden 31 18 0.08 0.04
Norway 19 15 0.07 0.05
Ireland
55 13 0.26 0.04
Lithuania
22 13 0.31 0.16
Austria
23 13 0.07 0.03
Denmark 27 10 0.11 0.04
Switzerland 11 5 0.03 0.01
Slovenia 16 5 0.27 0.08
Latvia 8 4 0.17 0.09
Luxembourg 2 1 0.05 0.02
Israel 186 n/a 0.94 n/a
Korea 403 n/a 0.30 n/a
Mexico n/a n/a n/a n/a
Note: n/a = not available.
Download data file (Excel/CSV; 2.10 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Definitions of pollution sources and estimation methods may differ from country to country. Comparisons should be made with caution. Gross domestic product values are in millions of constant United States dollars, constant purchasing power parity, for the base year 2010. The use of purchasing power parity facilitates international comparison of gross domestic product by creating an equivalent purchasing power basis for each country compared.
Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019) OECD.Stat.

Although Canada's SOX emissions declined by 951 kilotonnes from 2007 to 2017, Canada ranked as one of the highest emitters among OECD member countries, behind the United States, Turkey and Australia. Of the top 10 emitters, the United States experienced the largest decrease by 8 074 kilotonnes, or 76%.

All of the top 10 emitting member countries experienced declines in emissions between 2007 and 2017.

In terms of the ratio of SOX emissions to gross domestic product, all top 10 emitting member countries reported declines ranging between 27% and 80% from 2007 to 2017.

Nitrogen oxides

Nitrogen oxides

Key results

In 2017, Canada:

  • saw a decrease of 24% in nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from 2007 levels
  • ranked third highest in NOX emissions among OECD member countries
  • had the second highest ratio of NOX emissions to gross domestic product among the top 10 emitting OECD member countries

Nitrogen oxides emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017

Nitrogen oxide emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006 and 2016 (see data table below for the long description)
Data tables for the long description
Nitrogen oxides emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 nitrogen oxides emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 nitrogen oxides emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 nitrogen oxides emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 nitrogen oxides emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
United States 16 335 9 668 1.09 0.56
Australia 2 224 2 665 2.51 2.34
Canada 2 270 1 728 1.69 1.09
Japan 1 780 1 378 0.39 0.29
Germany 1 504 1 184 0.47 0.33
United Kingdom 1 634 888 0.70 0.34
France 1 272 805 0.54 0.32
Poland 892 803 1.24 0.80
Turkey 741 783 0.61 0.40
Spain 1 313 741 0.86 0.47
Nitrogen oxides emissions and emissions intensity of the other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 nitrogen oxides emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 nitrogen oxides emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 nitrogen oxides emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 nitrogen oxides emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
Italy 1 160 712 0.53 0.34
Greece 484 270 1.39 1.04
Netherlands 363 234 0.48 0.29
Chile 164 180 0.57 0.47
Belgium 291 172 0.67 0.36
Portugal 255 168 0.88 0.58
New Zealand 162 168 1.20 1.00
Czech Republic 269 163 0.93 0.48
Norway 217 162 0.76 0.51
Austria 213 143 0.60 0.37
Finland 205 125 0.94 0.57
Sweden 174 125 0.44 0.27
Hungary 164 119 0.72 0.47
Denmark 190 111 0.77 0.42
Ireland 161 109 0.75 0.34
Slovak Republic 96 65 0.75 0.40
Switzerland 85 60 0.21 0.13
Lithuania 61 52 0.87 0.65
Latvia 44 37 0.95 0.80
Slovenia 53 34 0.91 0.55
Estonia 45 33 1.29 0.89
Iceland 31 22 2.26 1.36
Luxembourg 43 18 0.98 0.35
Israel 196 n/a 0.99 n/a
Korea 1 188 n/a 0.87 n/a
Mexico n/a n/a n/a n/a
Note: n/a = not available.
Download data file (Excel/CSV; 2.13 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Definitions of pollution sources and estimation methods may differ from country to country. Comparisons should be made with caution. Gross domestic product values are in millions of constant United States dollars, constant purchasing power parity, for the base year 2010. The use of purchasing power parity facilitates international comparison of gross domestic product by creating an equivalent purchasing power basis for each country compared.
Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019) OECD.Stat.

In 2017, Canada ranked as one of the highest emitters among OECD member countries, behind the United States and Australia, despite a reduction of 542 kilotonnes in NOX emissions between 2007 and 2017. Of the top 10 emitting members, the United States experienced the largest reduction over that period (6 667 kilotonnes, or 41%). In 2017, emissions in Australia and Turkey were respectively 20% and 6% higher than in 2007.

Emissions intensity, the ratio of NOX emissions to gross domestic product, was lower in 2017 than it was in 2007 for all top 10 emitting member countries. The reductions in intensity were between 7% and 51%.

Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide

Key results

In 2017, Canada:

  • saw a decrease of 22% in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from 2007 levels
  • ranked second highest in CO emissions among OECD member countries
  • had the second highest ratio of CO emissions to gross domestic product among the top 10 emitting OECD member countries

Carbon monoxide emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017

Carbon monoxide emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006 and 2016 (see data table below for the long description)
Data tables for the long description
Carbon monoxide emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 carbon monoxide emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 carbon monoxide emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 carbon monoxide emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 carbon monoxide emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
United States 68 247 45 017 4.54 2.60
Canada 7 297 5 655 5.42 3.56
Germany 3 540 2 828 1.10 0.78
Australia 3 383 2 815 3.82 2.47
France 4 491 2 690 1.91 1.06
Japan 2 954 2 656 0.64 0.55
Poland 3 000 2 548 4.16 2.54
Chile 4 496 2 460 15.65 6.38
Italy 3 423 2 330 1.57 1.13
United Kingdom 2 748 1 550 1.18 0.60
Carbon monoxide emissions and emissions intensity of the other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 carbon monoxide emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 carbon monoxide emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 carbon monoxide emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 carbon monoxide emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
Spain 1 611 1 310 1.06 0.84
Czech Republic 939 819 3.24 2.43
New Zealand 747 746 5.57 4.44
Netherlands 726 556 0.97 0.68
Austria 577 527 1.63 1.36
Norway 570 436 2.00 1.37
Hungary 539 422 2.37 1.67
Sweden 498 385 1.27 0.85
Greece 673 366 1.94 1.41
Slovak Republic 506 365 3.95 2.24
Portugal 475 352 1.63 1.22
Finland 437 326 2.00 1.49
Belgium 652 292 1.51 0.62
Denmark 408 241 1.65 0.90
Switzerland 264 154 0.65 0.33
Lithuania 192 139 2.74 1.74
Estonia 157 138 4.52 3.69
Latvia 201 128 4.34 2.74
Iceland 79 121 5.75 7.53
Slovenia 147 105 2.49 1.67
Ireland 184 87 0.86 0.27
Luxembourg 39 22 0.89 0.42
Israel 225 n/a 1.13 n/a
Korea 802 n/a 0.59 n/a
Mexico n/a n/a n/a n/a
Turkey 2 400 n/a 1.99 n/a
Note: n/a = not available.
Download data file (Excel/CSV; 2.16 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Definitions of pollution sources and estimation methods may differ from country to country. Comparisons should be made with caution. Gross domestic product values are in millions of constant United States dollars, constant purchasing power parity, for the base year 2010. The use of purchasing power parity facilitates international comparison of gross domestic product by creating an equivalent purchasing power basis for each country compared.
Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019) OECD.Stat.

In 2017, the United States was the highest CO emitting country, followed by Canada. The top 10 emitting member countries of the OECD experienced declines in emissions between 10% and 45% in 2017 from 2007 levels.

Declines were also observed in the ratio of CO emissions to gross domestic product between 2007 and 2017; they ranged from 15% to 59% for the top 10 emitting countries.

Volatile organic compounds

Volatile organic compounds

Key results

In 2017, Canada:

  • saw a decrease of 18% in volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from 2007 levels
  • ranked second highest in VOC emissions among OECD member countries
  • had the third highest ratio of VOC emissions to gross domestic product among the top 10 emitting OECD member countries

Volatile organic compound emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017

Volatile organic compound emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006 and 2016 (see data table below for the long description)
Data tables for the long description
Volatile organic compound emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 volatile organic compound emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 volatile organic compound emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 volatile organic compound emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 volatile organic compound emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
United States 14 681 12 488 0.98 0.72
Canada 2 194 1 809 1.63 1.14
Australia 1 217 1 334 1.37 1.17
Chile 2 306 1 272 8.03 3.30
Turkey 987 1 098 0.82 0.56
Germany 1 301 1 068 0.40 0.29
Italy 1 294 935 0.59 0.45
Japan 1 273 899 0.28 0.19
United Kingdom 1 090 810 0.47 0.31
Poland 733 691 1.02 0.69
Volatile organic compound emissions and emissions intensity of the other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 volatile organic compound emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 volatile organic compound emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 volatile organic compound emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 volatile organic compound emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
Spain 765 618 0.50 0.39
France 965 611 0.41 0.24
Netherlands 262 251 0.35 0.31
Czech Republic 247 207 0.85 0.62
New Zealand 183 192 1.36 1.15
Portugal 198 167 0.68 0.58
Norway 210 152 0.74 0.48
Greece 280 152 0.81 0.59
Sweden 199 147 0.51 0.32
Hungary 155 141 0.68 0.56
Austria 154 120 0.44 0.31
Ireland 120 113 0.56 0.36
Belgium 158 109 0.37 0.23
Denmark 137 102 0.55 0.38
Finland 148 101 0.68 0.46
Slovak Republic 145 89 1.13 0.55
Switzerland 101 78 0.25 0.17
Lithuania 60 46 0.86 0.57
Latvia 47 38 1.02 0.81
Slovenia 43 30 0.73 0.47
Estonia 28 22 0.81 0.59
Luxembourg 12 12 0.28 0.23
Iceland 7 7 0.53 0.42
Israel 248 n/a 1.25 n/a
Korea 844 n/a 0.62 n/a
Mexico n/a n/a n/a n/a
Note: n/a = not available.
Download data file (Excel/CSV; 2.19 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Definitions of pollution sources and estimation methods may differ from country to country. Comparisons should be made with caution. Gross domestic product values are in millions of constant United States dollars, constant purchasing power parity, for the base year 2010. The use of purchasing power parity facilitates international comparison of gross domestic product by creating an equivalent purchasing power basis for each country compared.
Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019) OECD.Stat.

Although Canada's VOC emissions declined by 385 kilotonnes between 2007 and 2017, Canada ranked as one of the highest emitters among the member countries of the OECD, behind the United States. Most of the top 10 emitting member countries experienced declines in emissions between 2007 and 2017, with the exception of Australia and Turkey whose emissions increased respectively by 10% and 11%.

The reductions in emissions intensity range from 15% to 59% between 2007 and 2017 for the top 10 emitting member countries.

Fine particulate matter

Fine particulate matter

Key results

In 2017, Canada:

  • saw an increase of 8% in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from 2007 levels
  • ranked second highest in PM2.5 emissions among OECD member countries
  • had the highest ratio of PM2.5 emissions to gross domestic product among OECD member countries

Fine particulate matter emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017

Fine particulate matter emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006 and 2016 (see data table below for the long description)
Data tables for the long description
Fine particulate matter emissions and emissions intensity of the top 10 emitting member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 fine particulate matter emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 fine particulate matter emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 fine particulate matter emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 fine particulate matter emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
United States 4 725 4 043 0.32 0.23
Canada 1 550 1 674 1.15 1.05
Turkey 360 388 0.30 0.20
Italy 203 165 0.09 0.08
France 222 165 0.10 0.07
Poland 158 147 0.22 0.15
Chile 358 132 1.25 0.34
United Kingdom 118 107 0.05 0.04
Spain 128 105 0.08 0.07
Germany 129 99 0.04 0.03
Fine particulate matter emissions and emissions intensity of the other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007 and 2017
Country 2007 fine particulate matter emissions
(kilotonnes)
2017 fine particulate matter emissions
(kilotonnes)
2007 fine particulate matter emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
2017 fine particulate matter emissions intensity
(tonnes per million United States dollars of gross domestic product)
Portugal 61 50 0.21 0.17
Hungary 40 48 0.18 0.19
Czech Republic 42 40 0.15 0.12
Norway 37 28 0.13 0.09
Greece 47 27 0.13 0.11
Belgium 34 23 0.08 0.05
Sweden 29 20 0.07 0.04
Denmark 29 20 0.12 0.08
Latvia 23 18 0.49 0.39
Slovak Republic 27 18 0.21 0.11
Finland 24 18 0.11 0.08
Austria 20 15 0.06 0.04
Netherlands 22 14 0.03 0.02
Ireland 18 12 0.09 0.04
Slovenia 13 11 0.22 0.18
Estonia 13 9 0.37 0.25
Lithuania 10 9 0.15 0.11
Switzerland 9 7 0.02 0.01
Luxembourg 2 1 0.05 0.03
Iceland 2 1 0.14 0.08
Australia n/a n/a n/a n/a
Israel n/a n/a n/a n/a
Japan n/a n/a n/a n/a
Korea n/a n/a n/a n/a
Mexico n/a n/a n/a n/a
New Zealand n/a n/a n/a n/a
Note: n/a = not available.
Download data file (Excel/CSV; 2.40 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Definitions of pollution sources and estimation methods may differ from country to country. Canada and the United States include open sources such as dust from roads, prescribed forest burning and agriculture in their PM2.5 emissions. These sources are not always reported by other OECD member countries. Comparisons should be made with caution. Gross domestic product values are in millions of constant United States dollars, constant purchasing power parity, for the base year 2010. The use of purchasing power parity facilitates international comparison of gross domestic product by creating an equivalent purchasing power basis for each country compared.
Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019) OECD.Stat.

Canada and Turkey experienced an increase in PM2.5 emissions in 2017 from 2007 levels, by 123 and 28 kilotonnes respectively. Despite these increases in emissions, all the top 10 member countries experienced declines in their emissions intensity, which varied between 8% and 73%, from 2007 to 2017.

Canada and the United States include open sources Footnote 1 such as dust from roads, prescribed forest burning and agriculture in their PM2.5 emissions. These sources are not always reported by other OECD member countries.

About the indicators

About the indicators

What the indicators measure

These indicators present total emissions and emissions intensity for member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The emissions of 5 pollutants are reported: sulphur oxides (SOX), nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The indicators focus on the top 10 emitting member countries of the OECD.

Why these indicators are important

These indicators help to inform Canadians about how Canada's emissions compare to those of other countries. The indicators report on key air pollutants that contribute to smog and acid rain and help the government to identify priorities, track progress, and develop strategies and policies for reducing or controlling air pollution.

Exposure to air pollutants on a daily basis can cause adverse health and environmental effects. Fine particulate matter is a key component of smog along with ground-level ozone (O3) and has been associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular health issues. While causing effects of their own, NOX (such as nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) and VOC are the main contributors to the formation of O3. Nitrogen oxides, SOX (such as sulphur dioxide [SO2]), and VOC also lead to the formation of PM2.5 in the air. This is in addition to the PM2.5 that is emitted directly from sources such as road dust and prescribed forest burning. Sulphur oxides and NOX can also lead to the formation of acid deposition that can harm the environment, materials, living organisms and humans.

Irrespective of downward trends observed in emissions, localized air quality issues may still arise when emission sources are spatially concentrated. 

Consult Air pollution: drivers and impacts for more information on the human health, environmental and economic impacts of air pollution.

Related indicators

The Air pollutant emissions indicators track emissions from human activities of 6 key air pollutants: sulphur oxides (SOX), nitrogen oxides (NOX), volatile organic compounds (VOC), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Black carbon, which is a component of PM2.5, is also reported. For each air pollutant, data are provided at the national, provincial/territorial and facility level and by major source.

The Air quality indicators track ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ground-level ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) at the national, regional and urban level and at local monitoring-stations.

The International comparison of urban air quality indicators present and compare the air quality in selected Canadian urban areas with a population greater than one million to the air quality in selected international urban areas having comparable data.

Data sources and methods

Data sources and methods

Data sources

Air pollutant emissions data for the indicators come from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD.Stat database, specifically the Air emissions by source table under the Environment (Air and Climate) grouping.

The gross domestic product data were obtained from the Main aggregate tables of the National accounts (Annual national accounts) in the same database.

More information

At the time of this update the OECD.Stat database contained emissions data up to the end of 2017, reflecting delays in the collection and aggregation of international data. Data are collected for each member country from the following sources:

The OECD.Stat database indicates the source used to report emissions for each country, pollutant and year.

Methods

Two (2) years of data are used to compare the emissions from 36 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): 2017, which is the latest year with available information, and 2007, 10 years prior.

For each air pollutant, 2007 and 2017 emissions are compiled and ranked in relation to total emissions in 2017. While the focus is on the top 10 emitting OECD member countries, emissions for all 36 member countries are provided.

The emission intensity indicators are calculated by dividing a country's emissions by its gross domestic product value for that year.

More information

Air pollutant emissions indicators

Emissions for each member country are estimated or measured using one or several of the following methods:

  • continuous emission monitoring systems
  • predictive emission monitoring
  • source testing
  • mass balance
  • site-specific emission factors
  • published emission factors
  • engineering estimates
  • special studies

Generally, each country compiles and estimates its air pollutant emissions combining facility-level emissions (aka point sources) with sector-level emissions (or area sources).

Canada's data are derived from the annual Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution submission to the Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections database. The submitted air pollutant emission data are based on Canada's Air Pollutant Emission Inventory. This includes information reported by facilities to the National Pollutant Release Inventory as well as emission estimates compiled for non-reporting facilities, non-reporting sources such as motor vehicles or non-reported pollutants (in-house emissions estimates).

Air pollution emissions per unit of gross domestic product

The emissions intensity indicators are expressed in tonnes of pollutants emitted per million United States dollars using constant gross domestic product at purchasing power parity for the base year 2010. Purchasing power parity is a weighted average of the relative prices, quoted in national currency, of comparable items between countries. Using purchasing power parity facilitates international comparison of gross domestic product by creating an equivalent purchasing power basis for each country compared.

Countries included in the comparison

The indicators include all member countries of the OECD as of September 2019. The data presented in the indicator reflect data completeness in the OECD.Stat database at the time of reporting.

Caveats and limitations

Air pollutant emission inventories from different countries are estimated with the best data, measurements and methodologies available. While national emission inventories follow a common reporting structure, emissions estimation methodologies and coverage among countries may differ. Users should be cautious when comparing the data.

The indicators generally exclude non-anthropogenic (natural sources) emissions and emissions from international aviation and maritime transport. However, estimation methodologies used by Canada currently includes emissions from international maritime navigation.

Emissions from sources such as dust from roads, prescribed forest fires and agriculture are also included in Canada's values. These sources are not always reported by other countries.

Emissions reported for Canada in this indicator may be slightly different from the emissions reported in the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators' Air pollutant emissions. Those indicators are based on data from Canada's Air Pollutant Emission Inventory.

Adjustments may be made to Canada's national totals after the final submission to the database OECD.Stat, which may result in slight differences in the values reported.

Resources

Resources

References

Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections, European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (2019) Submissions 2019. Retrieved on September 4, 2019.

Environment and Climate Change Canada (2019) Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report. Chapter 2.1 Particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5). Retrieved on September 10, 2019.

Environment and Climate Change Canada (2019) Canada’s Air Pollutant Emissions Inventory Report. Executive summary. Retrieved on September 10, 2019.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019) OECD.Stat. Retrieved on September 4, 2019.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (2019) National Inventory Submissions 2019. Retrieved on September 4, 2019.

Related information

Air pollution: drivers and impacts

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