Turkey Lakes Watershed Study reference list: 1993

93-01 Semkin, R.G., D.S. Jeffries, R. Neureuther, G. Lahaie and F. Norouzian. National Wat. Res. Institute Rep.: A summary of hydrometeorological data at the Turkey Lakes Watershed, Ontario, Canada 1980-1990.


Replaced by 01-03.

93-02 Semkin, R.G., D.S. Jeffries, and T.A. Clair. Chapter 7 - Hydrochemical methods and relationships for study of stream output from small catchments. In: Moldan, Bedrich and Jiri Cerny (eds.), Biogeochemistry of small catchments: A tool for environmental research. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 163-187, 1994.


Various hydrochemical methods are documented to describe the physical and biogeochemical processes operating in small catchments, and to calculate the stream mass export. Sampling frequency is discussed, and the variability in streamwater chemistry is explained in terms of basin characteristics and streamflow regime.

93-03 Christophersen, N., T.A. Clair, C.T. Driscoll, D.S. Jeffries, C. Neal, and R. G. Semkin. Chapter 12 - Hydrochemical studies. In: Moldan, Bedrich and Jiri Cerny (eds.), Biogeochemistry of small catchments: a tool for environmental research. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 285-297, 1994.


Hydrochemical studies from established catchments in Canada, Norway, the U.K. and the U.S.A. show the interplay between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Emphasis is placed on carbon cycling and the episodic acidification of streamwaters. The role of mathematical models in integrating the various short- and long-term processes controlling streamwater chemistry is discussed.

93-04 Morrison, I.K., N.W. Foster, and P.W. Hazlett. Carbon reserves, carbon cycling, and harvesting effects in three mature forest types in Canada. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 23, 403-412, 1993.


Carbon reserves in 3 forest ecosystems northeast of Lake Superior were contrasted in terms of content and distribution. The youngest stand, a 62-year old jack pine forest contained the lowest reserves. The oldest, a 300-year old sugar maple forest in the TLW had a carbon turnover 3 times that of the jack pine forest floor, and residual carbon was likewise 3 times greater in the sugar maple forest floor. Intensive harvesting of pine can remove up to 44% of the total carbon. Jack pine and black spruce stands could become infertile through full-tree harvesting because carbon and nutrients are stored in the forest floor.

93-05 Morrison, I.K. Indirect effects and long-term risks of air pollution on tolerant hardwood forest ecosystems in central Canada. In: R.Schlaepfer (ed.), Long term implications of climate change and air pollution on forest ecosystems. Progress report of the IUFROM task force "Forest, Climate Change and Air Pollution". IUFRO World Series, vol. 4, Vienna, 1993.


This one-page report summarizes the effects of SO4 and NO3 air pollutants on central Canadian forests. Atmospheric acidity is seen to be small compared to soil acidity and reserves of base cations in trees and soil. On the long term, air pollution may result in changes to surface waters. Information gaps and relevant publications are listed.

93-06 Yin, X, N.W. Foster, and P.A. Arp. Solution concentrations of nutrient ions below the rooting zone of a sugar maple stand: relations to soil moisture, temperature, and season. Can. J. For. Res. 23: 617-624, 1993.


Ion concentrations in soil solutions from the TLW forest floor were analyzed with respect to soil water characteristics, temperature and season. During the foliage period, NO3 concentrations responded to forest floor percolation, soil water content and season, and during the nonfoliage periodrelated to season only. SO4, Ca2+, and Mg2+ varied with NO3 concentrations, and to season to a lesser extent. K+ and NH4+ were only weakly correlated to the other variables, reflecting an affinity with the soil colloids.

93-07 Sirois, A. Temporal variation of sulphate and nitrate concentration in precipitation in eastern North America: 1979-1990. Atmospheric Environment 27A, 945-963, 1993. 94-01 Jeffries, D.S., I.K. Morrison, and J.R.M Kelso. The Turkey Lakes Watershed Study. Proc. Parks Can. Ecol. Monitor. Workshop, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., 65-73, January 1994.


Precipitation chemistry data from 24 sites in both the U.S.A. and Canada including the TLW CAPMoN site (Algoma) were modelled to investigate temporal variations. Two techniques, kernel smoothing regression and least-squares regression were used, and gave similar results. It was seen that long-term trends were monotonic at only two sites. All sites showed statistically significant long-term trends for SO4, (decreasing at TLW), but only 13 had significant trends for NO3. (TLW NO3 showed no trend). Complicated seasonal cycles at most sites dictate that long-term trend models need to be more complex than those used previously, and should be done in two stages, using first a smoothing technique and then a test for statistical significance. (See 97-07 for similar analysis of 1979-1994 air concentrations).

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