Turkey Lakes Watershed Study reference list: 1997

97-01 Newell, A.D., and B.L. Skjelkvåle. Acidification trends in surface waters in the international program on acidification of rivers and lakes. Wat. Air Soil Pollut. 93: 27-57, 1997.


Trend analyses were applied to surface-water chemistry data from both Europe and North America (including the TLW). SO4 concentrations were decreasing at many sites from both continents, Ca2+ decreased at many European sites, and NO3 increased at several sites in southern Norway and in eastern New York State. The declining base cation concentrations and increasing NO3 may account for the lack of recovery from acidification. No correlations were found between surface water trends and changes in deposition.

97-02 1997 Canadian Acid Rain Assessment Volume 2: Atmospheric Science Assessment Report. Department of Environment, 260p (+4 appendices), 1997.


An assessment of the adequacy of the scientific information needed to establish current and future source-receptor relationships and to determine whether further control of acid gas emissions (beyond those required by the Canada/US Air Quality Agreement) is needed to reduce acidic deposition to acceptable levels. This is the first national assessment since1990 (cf. 90-05). Data from the TLW CAPMoN site was extensively used and commonly referenced as "Algoma" in the report.

97-03 Jeffries, D.S. (ed.). 1997 Canadian Acid Rain Assessment Volume 3: The Effects on Canada's Lakes, Rivers and Wetlands. Department of Environment, 213p, 1997.


An national assessment of the aquatic effects of acid rain (the first since 1990, (cf. 90-06) prepared in support of development of a national strategy for acid gas emission control, post 2000. Chemical and biological changes in aquatic effects since the 1980's, interactions between atmospheric stressors, effectiveness of existing critical and target loads, and the probable effect of planned SO2 controls on aquatic ecosystems were evaluated. Information from the TLW (sometimes called "Algoma") was extensively cited, including a case study section.

97-04 Doka, S.E., M.L. Mallory, D.K McNicol, and C.K. Minns. Species richness and species occurrence of five taxonomic groups in relation to pH and other lake characteristics in southeastern Canada. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2179, 57p., 1997.


Data from many sources were used to model the relationship between species richness and lake pH from Ontario to the Atlantic provinces. TLW data from the CWS northeastern Ontario biomonitoring program were included. Zooplankton and fish showed loss of taxanomic richness as pH decreased to less than 5.5, and benthic organisms were affected at pH <5.3. Overall evidence indicates damage (loss of species) to aquatic ecosystems at pH < 6. Maximum species diversity occurs at a pH of ~6. Knowledge of the effects of acidic precipitation is essential when assessing the combined effects of environmental stressors such as UV-B, toxics, and climate change. Results of the study were used in the 1997 Canadian Acid Rain assessment.

97-05 Hall, P., W. Bowers, H. Hirvonen, G. Hogan, N. Foster, I. Morrison, K. Percy, R. Cox, and P. Arp. Canadian Acid Rain Assessment Volume 4: The Effects on Canada's Forests. Department of Environment, 46p, 1997.


In this report (the first since the 1990 Acid Rain Assessment), the effect of acidic deposition on forest soils and vegetation is reassessed in the light of improved knowledge of soil processes. Revised strategies for long-term forest management are indicated, as current target loads for deposition are seen to be too high for sensitive forest ecosystems. Effects on tree physiology and soil chemistry are examined, (data from TLW is used extensively), and new critical loads for forest soils and vegetation have been developed.

97-06 Oja, T. and P.A. Arp. A forest soil vegetation atmosphere model (ForSVA) II: Application to northern tolerant hardwoods. Ecological Modelling 95: 225-247, 1997.


The forest soil-vegetation-atmosphere model (ForSVA) was used to simulate biomass growth and nutrient cycling at 3 sites, including the TLW. The model shows that acidifying compounds from current atmospheric deposition will increase base cation leaching at all 3 sites. This will lead to a decrease in soil pH and biomass growth, and reduce the longevity of the forest stands.

97-07 Sirois, A. Temporal variation of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in ambient air in eastern Canada: 1979-1994. Tellus, 49B, 270-291, 1997.


A model to predict long-term trends and cycles was fitted to daily concentrations of six particulate and gaseous sulphur and nitrogen compounds using data from 8 CAPMoN sites, including the TLW (called Algoma in the paper). The analysis showed that long-term trends are neither linear or monotonic. At TLW the statistically significant long-term trend explained between 0.8% (particulate SO4) and 3.3% (HNO3) of the total variance. Seasonal cycles were observed for all variables explaining between 0.9% (HNO3) and 13.3% (SO2) of the total variance. Auto-correlation is also an important component of the variance. SO2 concentration declined throughout the time period although more steeply during the 1980's. Particulate NO3 and SO4 decreased during the first part of the record and then increased. (See also 93-07)

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