Page 4: Health Canada – 2015–2016 – Supplementary Information Tables – Departmental Performance Report - Horizontal Initiatives
Federal Tobacco Control Strategy
Name of lead department
Federal partner organizations
- Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)
- Canada Revenue Agency (CRA)
- Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
- Public Safety Canada (PSC)
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)
Non-federal and non-governmental partner
Not applicable (N/A)
Start date of the horizontal initiative
End date of the Horizontal Initiative
Total federal funding allocated (start to end date) (dollars)
Description of the horizontal initiative
The Federal Tobacco Control Strategy (FTCS) was initiated in 2001. In 2012, the Strategy was renewed for five years to provide a focused federal presence to preserve the gains of the past decade and continue the downward trend in smoking prevalence. The renewed strategy focuses on the core areas of federal responsibility and invests in new priorities including populations with higher smoking rates.
To preserve the gains made over the past decade, and to continue the downward trend in smoking prevalence.
Health Canada remains the lead department with responsibility for the coordination and implementation of the FTCS. As part of the Health Portfolio, the PHAC will deliver a contribution program that will fund tobacco-related interventions that aim to reduce tobacco use as a chronic disease risk factor.
Federal partners manage the control of tobacco products through monitoring and assessing the illicit and licit tobacco markets.
- PSC - leads and works with federal partners to develop and coordinate strategic approaches and activities to monitor and combat contraband tobacco activity and related crime;
- RCMP - works with federal partners to identify and investigate criminal activities and to coordinate information on national and international contraband tobacco issues.
- CBSA - increases knowledge of contraband domestically and internationally by liaising with tobacco authorities at all levels and by monitoring and providing regular reports on both national and global contraband tobacco. The CBSA provides reports, information and guidance to the Department of Finance Canada on matters that will impact the future tax structure of tobacco.
- CRA - administers the Excise Act 2001, which governs federal taxation of tobacco products and regulates activities involving the manufacture, possession and sale of tobacco products in Canada.
- Public Prosecutions Service Canada - monitors federal fines imposed in relation to tobacco and other types of offences in order to enforce and recover outstanding fines. FTCS funding for the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions ended 2012-13.
Few other countries have been as successful as Canada in lowering smoking rates and shifting public attitudes about tobacco. Smoking prevalence is now at its lowest-ever overall rate. As of 2013, 15% of Canadians were current smokers, down from 22% in 2001 and the lowest national smoking rate ever recorded. Further, six percent of teens aged 15-17 are current smokers.
Working in its core area of responsibility, and building on past activities, the federal government has refocused the 2012-17 Strategy to concentrate on two groups with higher rates of smoking than most Canadians - on-reserve First Nations and Inuit people and young adults (aged 20-24) - as well as tobacco as a risk factor for serious disease.
Results achieved by non-federal partners
Tobacco Control Directorate, Health Canada
|Federal organizations||Link to the organization's programs||Contributing programs and activities||Total allocation (from start to end date)
Actual results achieved against targets
|Health Canada||Substance Use and Abuse||FTCS||180,899,699||36,148,999||33,628,912||Link 17.1||Link 18.1|
|Public Health Agency of Canada||Health Promotion and Disease Prevention||FTCS||10,884,958||2,455,000||1,427,123||Link 17.1||Link 18.1|
|Public Safety Canada||Countering Crime||FTCS||3,050,000||610,000||621,606*||Link 17.2||Link 18.2|
|Royal Canadian Mounted Police||Police Operations (Tech Ops) Criminal Intelligence||FTCS||8,859,820Table 1 note *||1,798,964Table 1 note *||1,798,964||Link 17.3||Link 18.3|
|Canada Border Services Agency||Criminal Investigations||FTCS||15,192,277||2,878,753||2,878,753||Link 17.4||Link 18.4|
|Canada Revenue Agency||Taxpayer and Business Assistance||FTCS||4,444,500||888,900||888,910||Link 17.5||Link 18.5|
|Public Prosecutions Service Canada||Regulatory offences and economic crime prosecution program||FTCS||2,000,000||Nil||Nil|
|Total for all federal organizations||225,331,254||44,780,616||41,244,268||N/A|
Link 17.1 Health Portfolio:
The Health Portfolio will achieve results in the following areas:
- Regulations and Compliance - Conduct compliance monitoring activities and undertake enforcement measures with respect to the Tobacco Act and its regulations;
- Research - Conduct research and surveillance to support decision making and the development of anti-tobacco policies and programs;
- Policy - Lead the development of policies supporting the renewal of the FTCS in 2017 and facilitate stakeholder engagement. This includes coordinating and supporting policies associated with Canada's membership in the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), as well as collaborating with provinces and territories in tobacco control activities;
- Litigation - Provide base funding for tobacco litigation and for the defense of the Tobacco Act and its regulations; and,
- Community interventions - Funding will be used to leverage existing networks and seek innovative partnerships that: contribute to an integrated approach to chronic disease prevention; support interventions and programming that aim to reduce tobacco use, particularly among young adults, First Nations on-reserve and Inuit in recognized Inuit communities; and, work with partners from the public and private sectors to promote healthy living and prevent chronic diseases caused by risk factors such as tobacco use.
Link 17.2 Public Safety Canada:
- Enhance partnership arrangement with Akwesasne Mohawk Police through the administration of contribution funding for the monitoring activities in connection with determining trends and levels of contraband tobacco activity;
- Lead interdepartmental efforts to analyse the likely implementation costs and benefits to Canada associated with the Protocol to Eliminate the Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products under WHO FCTC and,
- Provide policy leadership and strategy development to support law enforcement efforts to combat organized crime involved in the contraband tobacco market, including leading meetings of the inter-departmental Strategic Level Forum, supporting participation to the WHO, and establishing the plans and implementation of agreements to support up to five First Nations officers to address organized crime activities in First Nation communities.
Link 17.3 Royal Canadian Mounted Police:
Federal Policing conducts a wide range of activities that support the objectives of the FTCS. While several of these activities are not funded under the FTCS, they do represent an investment by RCMP to contribute to the Government of Canada's efforts to enhance control of tobacco products and contribute the FTCS' intermediate and ultimate outcomes.
- Technical Investigations (FTCS Funded) - Improve border through the use of sophisticated technology which permits detection and monitoring of illegal border intrusions, resulting in vital intelligence in support of criminal investigations. Investigators rely heavily on this technology in the fight against well-orchestrated organized crime networks that target the shared border to move illicit tobacco products.
- Criminal Intelligence (FTCS Funded) - Collect, collate, and analyze statistical data and criminal intelligence relevant to contraband tobacco manufacture and trade, and prepare and provide regular reports to partner law enforcement, government and non-governmental agencies in respect to the contraband tobacco manufacturing and trade market within Canada. Attend joint agency group conferences/meetings and present to other partners and key Ministerial entities, as well as participate in information and intelligence sharing with domestic and international law enforcement. Provide support and subject matter expertise to criminal investigations and prosecutions, including developing and delivering training and outreach initiatives relevant to new and existing legislation and Criminal Code penalties for trafficking in contraband tobacco.
- Project-based Investigations (Internally Funded) - Federal Policing focuses on larger organized crime investigations relating to tobacco trafficking. While these investigations tend to be lengthier, they target and disrupt higher levels of the distribution chain within the illicit tobacco market. Under the newly established RCMP's Federal Policing (FP)'s Service Delivery Model, the resources are prioritized based on the scope and scale of the threat and are being delivered through broader FP teams across the country. This flexible model allows FP to better align resources to highest priorities thereby being more efficient in the conduct of its business.
- General Investigations (Internally Funded) - RCMP will continue to investigate and respond to calls for service from partner agencies and the general public related to the illicit tobacco market. To support and advance these general investigations, RCMP will continue to work with partner agencies (CBSA, Canada police, and provincial/territorial government agencies) to combat the illicit tobacco market. In 2015-16, the enactment of Bill C-10 (Tackling Contraband Tobacco Act) will also give RCMP a new ability to investigate offences relating to contraband tobacco trafficking and charge individuals who commit this offence.
Link 17.4 Canada Border Services Agency:
- Provide advice to the Department of Finance Canada on matters that will impact the future tax structure on tobacco.
- Monitor and report on the contraband tobacco situation in Canada.
- Expand cooperation with international and national law enforcement partners.
- Collection of tobacco duties imposed on personal importations of returning Canadians.
Link 17.5 Canada Revenue Agency:
- Ensure compliance with legislative requirements imposed on the manufacture, possession and sale of tobacco products in Canada;
- Verify export activity;
- Work with stakeholders to monitor and assess the effectiveness of measures used to reduce contraband tobacco;
- Support RCMP and CBSA enforcement activities; and,
- Maintain accounts and provide services related to transactions (including refunds), and produce reports of tobacco-related activities.
Link 18.1 - The Health Portfolio:
The Health Portfolio strengthened its tobacco control efforts and advanced policy positions consistent with Canada's tobacco control agenda through membership in the WHO FCTC.
As Party to the Convention, Canada's contribution to the WHO FCTC helped advance the implementation of an international program of work. In 2015-16, this included working as a key facilitator for the development of further guidelines for the implementation of Article 9 and 10 of the FCTC (Regulation of tobacco products) which includes the issue of vaping products, and as a partner in the working group established to develop recommendations on sustainable measures to support the implementation of the Convention.
Canada also supported the implementation of the Convention by participating in bilateral meetings with like-minded countries to exchange information on lessons learned and current challenges, including working with tobacco control partners in the Americas region and with the informal network of countries that meet annually to discuss challenges on the implementation of the Convention. In addition, Canada was very active in negotiations of the Uruguay Declaration and the 2016 World Health Assembly resolution that aims at improving synergies with the Conference of the Parties to the FCTC.
PHAC has successfully put in place three projects that will build professional competencies amongst health professionals to enable better, more consistent and integrated tobacco cessation resources into community and healthcare settings. Two of these projects - the Canadian Network for Respiratory Care's accreditation project and the Ottawa Heart Institute's INSPIRE project - have come to a close. PHAC also implemented a large-scale national tobacco cessation project with public and private sector partners - Run to Quit - a program to help smokers quit by incorporating running into their daily lives. A second large-scale cessation project involving the construction trades is also under negotiation and will be launched in 2016-17. A project with the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, which focuses on building health professional capacity to concurrently address other risk factors for chronic disease prevention in conjunction with tobacco cessation, will also be launched in the coming year. These projects, which address cessation directly and indirectly, and in conjunction with other risk factors for chronic disease prevention, will significantly increase the resources being allocated to tobacco cessation in Canada.
Projects continue to be implemented to reduce tobacco product exposure in over 350 First Nations and Inuit communities south of 60°. Momentum is being built on the innovative activities under the initiative's intervention pillars. Projects have established baseline data to support their performance measurement efforts and are on track to achieve early successes and establish promising practices that can be shared with other First Nations and Inuit communities.
For 2015-16, the manufacturing sector was 100% compliant regarding minimum packaging requirements and the presence of prohibited additives. Compliance with tobacco product labelling requirements was 96% and the promotion of prohibited additives was 89%.
Health Canada has also undertaken marketing activities/results, which included:
- 41 experiential engagement events from April to August 2015
- Over 57,000 young adults were engaged on the topic of tobacco cessation
- Over 3,250 young adults participated in a collective video
- 770 post-event surveys were completed (out of 2,670 requested)
- 77% of survey respondents reported that information received at events motivated them to consider quitting smoking
- Over 22,000 web visits to Breakitoff.ca and jetelaisse.ca
- Over 2,100 downloads of the Break It Off and Je te laisse mobile applications
- Over 1.4 million impressions and 8,000 clicks were achieved through 34 promoted Tweets, including over 2,000 mobile app card engagements
- Over 575,000 impressions with Google AdWords and YouTube pre-roll promotions in less than 4 weeks
Link 18.2 - Public Safety:
Managed the Akwesasne Partnership Initiative contribution agreement to support Akwesasne Mohawk Police Service in combating organized crime in and around Akwesasne Mohawk Territory.
Continued to lead the development of domestic and international policy initiatives, including efforts toward implementation of the WHO Protocol to further address the contraband tobacco market; along with negotiations with First Nations Band Councils to build on existing law enforcement partnerships to address organized crime activities; as well as contraband tobacco.
In partnership with CRA, Public Safety co-chaired the Director General-level Strategic Level Forum, an interdepartmental working group whose mandate is to leverage the results and outcomes of all federal investments in contraband tobacco related initiatives/activities to inform and support future policy and program decision-making with a whole-of-government approach.
Link 18.3 - Royal Canadian Mounted Police:
- Technical Investigations (FTCS Funded) - During the reporting period (2015-16), funding for the deployment and maintenance of border surveillance technologies was provided to the following Divisions: E (British-Columbia), D (Manitoba), J (New-Brunswick), and O (Ontario). This was done in an effort to assist front-line police officers in fighting against well-orchestrated organized crime networks that target the border to move illicit products, including contraband tobacco. Across the funded divisions, a total of 111 ground sensors, 21 video cameras, and one license plate reader were deployed and/or maintained.
- Criminal Intelligence (FTCS Funded) - During the reporting period (2015-16), funding was provided to the following regions for criminal intelligence analysis with respect to contraband tobacco crime: E (British Columbia), D (Manitoba), J (New Brunswick), O (Ontario), C (Quebec) and HQ (Ottawa). This was done to enable the gathering and analysis of statistics relevant to contraband tobacco crime. Each region produced regional reports which were submitted to National Headquarters. National Headquarters prepared the annual RCMP FTCS report. The 2015 RCMP FTCS report indicated that National seizures of contraband tobacco are continuing a declining trend that began in 2011.
- Project-based Investigations (Internally Funded) - In 2015-16, Federal Policing has continued to focus on larger organized crime investigations. Under the newly established RCMP's Federal Policing (FP)'s Service Delivery Model, the resources are prioritized based on the scope and scale of the threat and are being delivered through broader FP teams across the country. This flexible model allows FP to better align resources to highest priorities thereby being more efficient in the conduct of its business.
- General Investigations (Internally Funded) - The RCMP has continued to investigate and respond to calls for service from partner agencies and the general public related to the illicit tobacco market. The RCMP has continued to work with partner agencies (CBSA, other Canadian police forces, and provincial/territorial government agencies) to combat the illicit tobacco market. In 2015-16, the enactment of the Tackling Contraband Tobacco Act provided for minimum penalties of imprisonment for repeat offenders.
Link 18.4 - Canada Border Services Agency:
- Provided status updates on the contraband tobacco market, as well as seizure statistics, at the Department of Finance chaired Tobacco Enforcement meetings.
- Produced an annual assessment of Canada's contraband tobacco market detailing characteristics and trends encountered by CBSA that year.
- Collaborated with other agencies, such as the RCMP and the Akwesasne Mohawk Police, which has resulted in an increase in referrals for examination for both commercial and travellers.
- Identified indicators and modus operandi not previously known; identified emerging trends and threats and shared this information with CBSA Regional Offices, and with domestic and international partners, including the World Customs Organization.
- Continued to collect duties and taxes at Ports of Entry on all personal importations of tobacco.
Link 18.5 - Canada Revenue Agency
- Processed returns and refunds to ensure correctness and maintained systems and reporting capabilities to meet program requirements.
- Audits and regulatory reviews were performed to ensure compliance with legislative requirements imposed on the manufacture, possession and sale of tobacco products in Canada.
- Information about specific tobacco transactions as well as expert testimony and affidavits, as required, were provided to support RCMP/CBSA enforcement activity.
- Officials participated on a number of committees dealing with the monitoring and control of tobacco products, including those dealing with interprovincial issues.
Comments on variance
Health Canada - The variance between planned and actual spending is mainly due to lower than anticipated provincial and territorial funding requirements for the pan-Canadian Quitline and the Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey.
Public Health Agency of Canada - The variance between the planned and actual spending is related to
- not all funds being expended in 2015-16 due to required timelines for negotiating projects with matched funds from private and not-for-profit sectors, as well as pay for performance milestones; and
- Canada's voluntary assessed contribution to the WHO FCTC is calculated and paid in US dollars, resulting in a $43,728 difference due to the depreciation of the Canadian currency against the US dollar.
Public Safety - The variance between planned and actual spending is due to the fact that the Full-time Equivalent working on the file left the Department, resulting in FTEs with a higher rate of pay working on the file during the transition period. These additional expenditures were funded through internal re-allocation.
Chemicals Management Plan
Name of lead departments
Health Canada (HC)/Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC)
Federal partner organization
Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
Non-federal and non-governmental partner
Not applicable (N/A)
Start date of the horizontal initiative
2011-12 (second phase)
End date of the horizontal initiative
2015-16 (second phase)
Total federal funding allocated (start to end date) (dollars)
Funding contributed by non-federal and non-governmental partners (dollars)
Description of the horizontal initiative
Originally launched in 2006, the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) enables the Government of Canada to protect human health and the environment by addressing substances of concern in Canada. It is a science-based approach that includes:
- setting priorities and government-imposed timelines for risk assessment and risk management of chemicals and other substances of concern;
- enhancing research, monitoring and surveillance;
- increasing industry stewardship and responsibilities for substances;
- collaborating internationally on chemicals assessment and management;
- communicating to Canadians the potential risks of chemical and other substances; and,
- engaging industry to inform risk assessment and risk management action while also enhancing trust in the program.
Jointly managed by Health Canada (HC) and Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), the CMP brings all existing federal chemical programs together under a single strategy. This integrated approach allows the Government of Canada to address various routes of exposure to chronic and acute toxic substances. It also enables use of the most appropriate management tools among a full suite of federal laws, which include the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA), the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act (CCPSA) - which replaced Part 1 and Schedule 1 to the Hazardous Products Act (HPA) in June 2011, the Food and Drugs Act (F&DA), the Pest Control Products Act (PCPA) and the Forestry Act.
Building on lessons learned in the first four years of the program, CMP priority setting was refined and, under the second phase of the CMP, the remaining substances were grouped to facilitate more efficient assessments, industry participation and risk management. Integration across government programs remains critical since many remaining substances are found in consumer, health, drug and other products.
The same core functions continued in phase two of the CMP: risk assessment; risk management, compliance promotion and enforcement; research; monitoring and surveillance; stakeholder engagement and risk communications; and, policy and program management.
The following program areas are involved in CMP activities:
In Health Canada:
- Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch:
- Safe Environments Directorate;
- Consumer Product Safety Directorate; and,
- Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate.
- Health Products and Food Branch:
- Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate;
- Food Directorate;
- Policy, Planning and International Affairs Directorate; and
- Veterinary Drugs Directorate.
- Pest Management Regulatory Agency
- Regulatory Operations and Regions Branch:
- Consumer Product Safety Program; and
- Environmental Health Program.
In the Public Health Agency of Canada:
- Health Security Infrastructure Branch:
- Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response
In Environment and Climate Change Canada:
- Environmental Protection Branch:
- Industrial Sectors, Chemicals and Waste Directorate;
- Legislative and Regulatory Affairs Directorate;
- Energy and Transportation Directorate; and
- Environmental Protection Operations Directorate.
- Science and Technology Branch:
- Science and Risk Assessment Directorate;
- Wildlife and Landscape Sciences Directorate;
- Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate; and
- Water Science and Technology Directorate
- Enforcement Branch:
- Environmental Enforcement Directorate
- Strategic Policy Branch:
- Economic Analysis Directorate
For more information, see the Government of Canada's Chemical Substances Portal.
- Research knowledge on substances of concern is made available to HC and ECCC to inform risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and stakeholder engagement, monitoring and surveillance, and international activities;
- Information on the risks of substances is used by HC and ECCC recipients to inform risk management, risk communication and stakeholder engagement, and monitoring, surveillance and research activities;
- Data on the use, release, exposure and presence of substances of concern in humans, the environment, food and consumer products is used by HC and ECCC recipients or other stakeholders;
- Targeted sectors conform or comply with requirements of risk management measures; and,
- Targeted industry takes action to protect Canadians and the environment as a result of compliance promotion or enforcement actions.
- Risks associated with harmful substances in humans, the environment, food, pesticides, and consumer products are prevented, minimized or eliminated;
- Targeted industry understands its obligations to take action to protect Canadians and the environment;
- Canadians use information to avoid or minimize risks posed by these substances;
- Canadians and stakeholder groups understand information on the risks and safe use of substances of concern; and,
- Improved program decision-making and program performance.
- Reduced threats to health and the environment from harmful substances.
In the overall delivery of the CMP, HC and ECCC have a shared responsibility in attaining objectives and results. In meeting their obligations pursuant to the CMP, HC and ECCC deliver their responsibilities through established internal departmental governance structures, as well as a joint CMP governance structure to address shared responsibilities.
The CMP has a horizontal governance framework which ensures integration, co-ordination, joint decision making and clear accountabilities. Under the CMP Integrated Horizontal Governance Framework, the joint CMP Assistant Deputy Ministers Committee (CMP ADM Committee) reports to both the HC and ECCC Deputy Ministers. The ADM committee is supported by two main committees. The first is the Chemicals Management Executive Committee (CMEC) which consists of Directors General from all partner programs within HC and ECCC, and provides strategic direction, oversight and a challenge function for the CMP's overall implementation. Within the CMEC is a core group of Directors General who forms the CEPA DG Committee and have a lead role in directing, monitoring and providing a challenge function for the core elements of the CMP, namely the delivery of the chemicals agenda under CEPA.
These Director General level committees are supported by the CMP Steering Committee, which is a Director level committee intended to provide oversight on CMP issues related to the CEPA chemicals agenda.
In 2015-16, HC and ECCC continued to assess and manage the potential health and ecological risks from remaining priority existing substances. Screening Assessment Reports and Risk Management Strategies for most priorities were completed, and risk management measures continued to be developed, implemented, tracked and monitored. As well, all new substance notifications accepted from industry and due in 2015-16 were assessed, and risk management instruments developed, within mandated timeframes, as required for substances considered harmful to human health and the environment.
Health Canada continued to conduct risk assessments and develop and implement risk management measures to address risks posed by harmful substances in foods and food packaging materials, consumer products, cosmetics and drinking water while work continued on the re-evaluation of previously approved pesticides according to legislated timelines and requirements under the Pest Control Products Act.
The program continued to conduct research and monitoring programs to address existing and emerging substances of concern, and to inform risk assessment needs and risk management activities.
Compliance strategies and enforcement plans were also developed and delivered for CMP substances. The focus in 2015-16 was on delivering compliance promotion and enforcement activities for the highest priority instruments as determined by the compliance and enforcement priority setting processes. Regions conducted activities to support compliance promotion for stakeholders regarding their legal obligations related to CMP (e.g., reporting requirements reminders, information sessions, stakeholder database updates). Enforcement also undertook region specific activities in order to ensure compliance with the regulatory instruments. Work undertaken included a focus on tetrachloroethylene suppliers, import and export of hazardous waste, and environmental emergency prevention.
Stakeholder engagement and public outreach activities continued in 2015-16. The CMP Stakeholder Advisory Council finished its mandate under CMP 2 and a public call for nominations went out with a subsequent new council appointed for the third phase. A national public outreach strategy was developed for the next phase of the CMP and is now underway to increase public awareness of CMP and its achievements. Specific public outreach activities include: new plain language products; greater social media use; and, continued outreach by regional staff to front line service providers on chemical safety and ways to mitigate risks.
Results achieved by non-federal and non-governmental partners
- Suzanne Leppinen
Director, Chemicals and Environmental Health Management Bureau
Safe Environments Directorate
Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch
269 Laurier Avenue West
Postal Locator: 4905B
- Greg Carreau
Executive Director, Program Development and Engagement
Program Development and Engagement
Science and Risk Assessment Directorate
Environment and Climate Change Canada
200, boul. Sacré-Cœur
Gatineau, QC, K1A 0H3
|Federal Organizations||Link to department's Program Alignment Architecture||Contributing programs and activities||Total allocation (from start to end date)
|Health Canada||2.1 Health Products||Risk Management, Compliance Promotion and Enforcement||10,388,591||2,077,718||1,813,186||ER 1.1
See Note 17.1
See Note 18.1
|2.2 Food Safety and Nutrition||Risk Assessment||5,847,961||1,169,591||1,266,662|
|Risk Management, Compliance Promotion and Enforcement||5,261,930||1,052,386||1,002,684|
|Monitoring and Surveillance||5,418,614||1,083,724||782,978|
|Stakeholder Engagement and Risk Communications||1,024,405||204,881||10,601,264|
|2.3 Environmental Risks to Health||Risk Assessment||57,469,134||11,493,827||10,601,264|
|Risk Management, Compliance Promotion and Enforcement||63,158,441||11,358,550||9,544,041|
|Monitoring and Surveillance||43,316,924||8,663,385||7,815,640|
|Stakeholder Engagement and Risk Communications||10,137,982||2,027,596||1,596,621|
|Policy and Program Management||12,118,469||2,822,035||455,727|
|2.4 Consumer Product and Workplace Safety||Risk Assessment||12,780,412||2,556,082||2,752,261|
|Risk Management, Compliance Promotion and Enforcement||12,928,576||2,585,715||2,288,642|
|2.7 Pesticides||Risk Assessment||20,903,463||4,180,693||4,044,083|
|Risk Management, Compliance Promotion and Enforcement||4,411,229||882,246||1,146,634|
|Public Health Agency of Canada||1.3.2 Border Health||Risk Management, Compliance Promotion and Enforcement||9,548,663||3,182,851||3,066,963||ER 2.1||AR 2.1|
|Environment and Climate Change Canada||3.1 Substances and Waste Management||Risk Assessment||17,419,056||3,483,811||3,764,398||ER 3.1||AR 3.1|
|Monitoring and Surveillance||24,584,760||4,916,952||3,358,089|
|3.3 Compliance Promotion and Enforcement - Pollution||Compliance Promotion||4,337,745||867,549||671,577|
Note: 13% PWGSC Accommodations funding is included in the above table.
ER 1.1 - Expected Results: Health Canada
- Information on risks of substances to inform risk management, monitoring and surveillance and research activities (Risk Assessment);
- Risk management measures under CEPA, PCPA, HPA/CCPSA and F&DA (Risk Management, Compliance Promotion and Enforcement);
- Drinking water quality guidelines/guidance documents (Risk Management, Compliance Promotion and Enforcement);
- Science-based information on the risks posed by substances, in accordance with annual research plans (Research);
- Data generated on the use, release, exposure and presence of substances of concern in humans, the environment, food and consumer products (Monitoring and Surveillance); and
- Engagement, consultation and communication products to inform the public and stakeholders (Stakeholder Engagement and Risk Communications).
ER 2.1 - Expected Results: Public Health Agency of Canada
- Risk management measures under CEPA, PCPA, HPA/CCPSA and F&DA (Risk Management, Compliance Promotion and Enforcement).
ER 3.1 - Expected Results: Environment and Climate Change Canada
- Information on risks of substances to inform risk management, monitoring and surveillance and research activities (Risk Assessment);
- Risk management measures under CEPA and/or Fisheries Act (Risk Management);
- Science-based information on the risks posed by substances, in accordance with annual research plans (Research);
- Data generated on the use, release, exposure and presence of substances of concern in humans, the environment, food and consumer products (Monitoring and Surveillance);
- Information on obligations to conform or comply with risk management control measures (Compliance Promotion); and,
- Targeted enforcement activities (inspections and investigations) are undertaken to increase compliance in specific sectors identified as highest risk through Intelligence work and planning processes (Enforcement).
Risk Assessment/Risk Management
A key component of the CMP has been to assess, and manage as appropriate, the potential risks of approximately 4,300 priority existing substances by 2020. Some 1,100 chemicals were addressed in the first phase of the CMP, including the assessment of 200 of the highest priority substances in the Challenge to industry and, as required, risk management actions were initiated. The second phase of the CMP involved the continued assessment and management of the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 1,500 substances by 2016 through the Substance Groupings Initiative, Rapid Screening, and other approaches. As of March 31, 2016, draft decisions have been published for approximately 2,740 of those 4,300 substances.
In 2015-16, HC and ECCC continued to assess and manage the potential health and ecological risks from the remaining high priorities, which includes substances from the Challenge to industry, the Petroleum Sector Stream Approach and the Substance Groupings Initiative, as well as the assessment of other substances deemed to be a priority. Draft risk assessments for 48 substances (selenium (29) and Rapid Screening Pesticides (19)), and final risk assessments for 75 substances (azo direct and reactive dyes (69) and azo metal complexes (6)) were published as part of these initiatives, representing eight percent of the 1,500.
In 2015-16, ECCC and HC also jointly performed the screening assessment of micro-organisms listed on the Domestic Substances List. Draft Screening Assessments for seven microorganisms were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I for a 60-day public comment period. The final Screening Assessment for 15 micro-organisms was also published in the Canada Gazette, Part I. Work continues on the remaining screening assessments for several other micro-organisms of high and medium priority that are on the Domestic Substances List.
Risk management measures continued to be developed, implemented, tracked and monitored. Work with other jurisdictions bilaterally and in multinational fora to undertake regional and multilateral efforts to manage chemicals of concern also continued. Targeted risk management activities were published in 2015-16 for substances that were deemed harmful to human health and/or the environment. For the Challenge and Legacy substances assessed to be harmful to human health, as part of the CMP, one final instrument and a number of proposed instruments were published in 2015-16. The final risk management instrument was the application of Significant New Activity Provisions to quinolone.
Proposed risk management instruments include:
- an amendment to repeal the federal Vinyl Chloride Release Regulations, 1992;
- a Code of Practice for 2-(2-Methoxyethoxy) ethanol (DEGME);
- a proposed Pollution Prevention Planning Notice for hydrazine; and,
- amendments to the Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances Regulations, 2012 to add five substances [Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA), Long-Chain Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (LC-PFCAs), Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)].
Risk Management documents were also published in 2015-16, and include:
- a RM Scope for 29 selenium substances;
- a Notice of Intent indicating that the development of proposed regulations under CEPA had been initiated to prohibit the manufacture, import, sale and offer for sale of microbead-containing personal care products that are used to exfoliate or cleanse; and,
- a subsequent consultation document for public comment on the key elements of proposed microbeads regulations.
All 465 new substance notifications accepted from industry and due in 2015-16 were assessed, including those for living organisms. Of the 465 substances, 333 were chemicals and polymers, 31 were products of biotechnology, 6 were nanomaterials, and 95 were substances regulated as F&DA products. Two (2) Significant New Activity (SNAc) Notices and seven Ministerial Conditions were issued in 2015-16, with no prohibitions.
ECCC and HC continued to conduct a review of all SNAc Notices and Orders in force. Since publication of the first order in 2001, policies and practices have evolved, particularly with respect to the nature and scope of SNAcs, as well as the wording used to identify "significant new activities". This review was initiated to ensure that everything is in step with current policies, including the Policy on the Use of Significant New Activity Provisions of CEPA 1999 (published in December 2013). SNAc Notices and Orders are reviewed between 2014 and 2017 in groups of similar chemistry (for example, nanomaterials) or common elements (for example, notices and orders with consumer product references). As a result of the review, SNAc Notices or Orders may be rescinded, amended or left unchanged.
HC has completed prioritization of the Revised "In Commerce List" of substances in products regulated under the F&DA that were in Canadian commerce between January 1, 1987 and September 13, 2001, as well as processing new nominations to this list. Fifteen nominations to the Revised In Commerce List (R-ICL) were received and 14 substances that were found eligible were added to the list. The list, which is available on the HC website, was updated throughout 2015-16 in order to capture additions to the list and to correct errors. The R-ICL approach to prioritization document was also published on the CMP Website on November 27, 2015. A total of 1,000 substances on the R-ICL underwent prioritization during 2015-16 to identify those substances that require further consideration. Substances identified for further consideration will undergo a more rigorous evaluation to determine whether they pose a potential risk.
Information gathering activities (voluntary data requests) were initiated for three groups of substances that will be addressed in the third phase of CMP, including Polymers (302 substances), Petroleum substances (70 substances) and Nanomaterials (206 substances). Voluntary data requests were launched for Polymers and Petroleum substances and were followed by the publication of CEPA section 71 Notices in the summer of 2015 to complete the data gathering needs for all three initiatives.
Information received by HC and ECCC during the first and second phase of the Domestic Substances List Inventory Update (DSL IU) was critical to inform priority setting for the CMP. Maintaining up-to-date knowledge of commercial activities of chemical substances in Canada continues to be important for the delivery of the Government's domestic and international commitments and to support priority setting and decision making for work post-CMP. Starting in April 2016, the Program will introduce an on-going, cyclical approach for the Inventory Update, with reporting done every four years. Since early 2015, the Program has been working with the risk assessment and risk management teams, and engaging with key stakeholders to discuss the design of, and information gathering approach for the next phase of the Inventory Update, which is expected to be published under section 71 of CEPA in 2016.
The program also contributed to risk management activities related to drinking water quality in 2015-16. These activities are described elsewhere under Section II, Sub-Program 2.3.3: Water Quality in the 2015-16 DPR, as well as under Goal 3, Target 3.2: Drinking Water Quality, in the 2015-16 Sustainable Development Supplementary Information Table.
Highlights for work related to consumer products and cosmetics in 2015-16 included: completing method development and testing of CMP substances, such as flame retardants (i.e. tris(chloropropyl)phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP) and melamine) in polyurethane foam-based consumer products, electronic boards and formaldehyde in textile products, to support risk assessment activities and risk management actions. Consumer Product Safety risk assessors and risk managers reviewed assessment documents from Petroleum Streams 1-4, legacy substances and Challenge substances. Risk assessors also completed product risk assessments, such as completing the draft risk assessment for diethyl phthalate, which will feed into the second phase of CMP Phthalate grouping, and the review of Cosmetic Hotlist ingredients, which includes boric acid in cosmetic products. Risk managers were also involved with review of proposed risk management measures for ethylbenzene, boric acid, MDI/MDA and triclosan.
Highlights for food and food packaging include the publication of 12 new Total Diet Study data sets in February 2016. The Health Products and Food Branch of HC also provided timely input into the risk management of CMP priority chemicals, with leadership on substances where food is the primary source of exposure, including the development of proposed risk management strategies for ethyl carbamate, and continued to contribute to the assessment of priority chemicals under CMP. The program also completed trend analysis for foods containing high concentrations of acrylamide and reviewed the health effects of food contaminants in organic flame retardants and phthalates and the nanomaterials carbon black and nanozinc oxide.
In 2015-16, HC also completed the re-evaluation of five active ingredients used in previously approved pesticides. As well, HC completed the proposed decisions for the re-evaluation of 20 active ingredients, the proposed decisions for the special review of six active ingredients and the special review of three active ingredients used in previously approved pesticides. Overall, for 2015-16, HC met all its targets, as per the five year work plan for the Pesticide Re-evaluation and Special Review Programs.
Stakeholder Engagement and Public Outreach
The CMP Stakeholder Advisory Council met twice in 2015-16. The purpose of the Council is to obtain stakeholder input on the implementation of the CMP, and to foster dialogue on issues pertaining to the CMP between stakeholders and government, and also among different stakeholder groups. Issues may include risk assessment, risk management, risk communications, monitoring, research, indicators of success, stakeholder engagement, chemical policy and other cross-cutting integrated activities. Some examples of topics that were discussed in 2015-16 include: Science Committee updates; discussions on communicating uncertainty in screening assessments; approaches for implementing section 75 of CEPA '1999; evaluation and progress made under CMP2; Risk Management - substance-based RM performance management, public outreach strategy for CMP3, a debrief from the international conference on chemicals management; and a discussion on post 2020 chemicals management.
To reflect priorities under the latest phase of the CMP, Council membership was renewed with a five year mandate through an open nomination process.
In May and November 2015, the government hosted multi-stakeholder workshops to engage and receive input from stakeholders on the planning for the next steps of the CMP. Topics discussed included, remaining priorities for risk assessment and risk management in the next phase of the CMP, research and monitoring, stakeholder engagement and risk communications as well as early thinking and next steps for information gathering for CMP3 substances, including nanomaterials.
Two issues of the CMP Progress Report were published in June and December 2015. The CMP Progress Report has been created to keep stakeholders and other interested parties up to date on the activities and programs related to the CMP. The report is produced jointly by ECCC and HC and is published twice a year. It reports on advances in major initiatives and highlights key activities related to the Government of Canada's recent work under the CMP. It provides information about up-coming events, dates of interest and how to get involved.
The CMP Science Committee held its third and fourth meetings this fiscal year. On June 2-3, 2015 the Committee met to provide feedback on the implementation of a framework for risk assessment and on November 18-19, 2015 the Committee met to discuss considerations for determining when a cumulative risk assessment is appropriate. Members engaged in constructive discussions as they developed their reports for the Government of Canada on the two topics. This input ensures a strong science foundation to the CMP by providing external, scientific expertise to HC and ECCC on scientific issues.
Stakeholder awareness activities were undertaken in 2015-16, focusing on targeted stakeholders, in order to facilitate information sharing. These activities included the continuation of the webinar series with non-industry health and environment stakeholders with sessions on risk management, public outreach, and enforcement under the CMP. The regions delivered 137 stakeholder engagement activities related to chemical effects on health and approximately 15,786 brochures were distributed. The number of interactions with stakeholders was approximately 10,425 throughout the country. The renewal of regional stakeholder inventories was also undertaken to enhance information gathering, compliance promotion and industry outreach.
In 2015-16, a number of public outreach activities were conducted nationally and in the Regions to increase public awareness of the CMP and its achievements, and broader environmental health issues. This included the development of plain language summaries and social media posts for high profile CMP substances, including the publication of one on Selenium in July 2015 and petrolatum in May 2015. A number of articles on a variety of CMP topics were developed and sent to media outlets across Canada to be published for national pick up by community newspapers and bloggers. Regional staff delivered 48 chemical awareness learning sessions (CALM), to over 1,000 participants to help increase awareness of the CMP and provide advice to frontline service providers - including First Nations and early childhood educators - on ways to mitigate chemical-related health risks. Some early results indicate that participants reported that their understanding of the subject had improved as a result of attending the session. An environmental health outreach strategy was also developed for the next phase of the CMP, with consultation with departmental partners and stakeholders. Environmental health guides for seniors were distributed across Canada to increase awareness of health risks in the home as well.
Research in support of CMP themes continued, in order to better understand the exposure and effects of chemicals and to contribute to the development of better methods for chemical hazard and exposure assessment. Research also focused on the development of novel methods to investigate toxicity and mechanisms of action of chemicals in order to support the use of new scientific approaches as lines of evidence in risk assessments. Additional CMP research was also directed towards providing information on some of the remaining information gaps.
In 2015-16 research continued to address priorities identified under the following themes: a) Effects, b) Exposure, and, c) Methods and Tools Development, in order to better understand the exposure and effects of chemicals and to contribute to the development of better methods for chemical hazard and exposure assessment. Research was also initiated on the exposure and toxicity of CMP priority chemicals such as potential reproductive and endocrine disrupting compounds, metals, flame retardants and nanomaterials.
Some examples of HC research areas include: exposure to inorganic and organic chemicals of emerging concern in utero and in children under three years of age, development of concepts and tools to evaluate the ability of environmental toxicants to induce heritable genetic effects, computational toxicology modelling, nationally representative levels of exposure to metals and chemicals through phase 2 of the Canadian House Dust Study, health effects of complex mixtures, and the development of methods to interpret the results of genetic toxicity assessments employed to screen new and existing substances.
In 2015-16, HC initiated five new targeted research/monitoring and surveillance projects to generate data to help meet 2020 CMP risk assessment commitments. The new projects include: the development of genetic toxicity testing strategies for prioritized data-poor CMP chemicals; a toxicokinetics study of four rare earth metals to develop methods to interpret biomonitoring measures; a study to develop biomonitoring equivalents for organics and inorganics; a study to analyze exposure to selected flame retardants and chlorinated paraffins using the Canadian House Dust Study samples; and, an in vitro pharmacokinetics study for high throughput data interpretation.
ECCC completed 16 research projects on environmental exposure and toxicity of priority chemicals such as, flame retardants, benzotriazoles and benzothiazoles, amine antioxidants, phthalates, hindered phenols, platinum group elements, lanthanides and organometalics. ECCC also continued five nanomaterials research projects to address chemical-physical properties characterization and toxicity data gaps for manufactured nanomaterials. ECCC scientists published approximately 70 research papers related to these projects in 2015-16.
Monitoring and Surveillance
HC and ECCC continued to conduct monitoring programs to address existing and emerging chemicals of concern, and to inform risk assessment needs and risk management activities.
At HC, in total, 13 two-year monitoring and surveillance studies were completed under the themes of targeted population, biomonitoring supportive research, and targeted environmental monitoring. Health Canada's human biomonitoring efforts continued in 2015-16 with the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study.
As part of the CHMS, HC released the Third Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals which presents national biomonitoring data on the Canadian population's exposure to chemicals. The fourth cycle (2014-15) of the CHMS completed sample collection in December 2015. Sample collection for cycle 5 began in January 2016 and will continue until December 2017. The MIREC study continued to monitor mothers and infants by measuring their exposure to environmental chemicals. In 2015-16, eight MIREC journal articles were published on the results of BPA, phthalates, triclosan, perfluroalkyl substances, metals and organophosphate pesticides. Several non-PBDE emerging flame retardants were also measured in paired human milk and serum samples. Other monitoring activities included measurement of chemicals in household dust, volatile organic compounds in drinking water and a selection of chemicals in indoor air. HC also supported eight biomonitoring, health effects and risk communications projects related to heavy metals (e.g., mercury) and persistent organic pollutants (e.g., PCBs) in the Canadian Arctic.
Compliance and Enforcement
ECCC continued to develop compliance strategies, compliance promotion plans and deliver related activities, to promote regulatees' awareness and understanding of, and compliance with, regulatory requirements for CMP substances. Focusing on small- to medium-sized enterprises, compliance promotion activities reached approximately 8,000 regulatees related to CMP substances, including five priority regulations, as determined by the compliance priority setting process. The five regulations were:
- Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations;
- PCB Regulations;
- Products Containing Mercury Regulations;
- Prohibition of Certain Toxic Substances Regulations; and,
- Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) Regulations (Use in Dry Cleaning and Reporting Requirements).
In order to bring awareness to importers of products containing mercury, ECCC actively engaged this regulated community using behavioural insights ("nudge") techniques when mailing out an information package. Approximately 2,000 potential importers received this package, which was developed to provide specific information importers needed and to present the benefits of engaging with ECCC. Additional efforts undertaken in British Columbia and Yukon by providing personalized information into the packages, resulted in a 50% response rate from importers. The information garnered from the responses received and follow-up conversations has enabled ECCC to further its understanding of this community and will enable ECCC to provide tailored information for the importer sector when promoting compliance with the Products Containing Mercury Regulations. This importer engagement work also resulted in some reaction in the Twittersphere, leading some customs brokers and freight companies to tweet some of the Department's information to their clients.
In 2015-16, ECCC conducted enforcement activities under CMP regulations. Progress was made on several projects relating to dry cleaning, polychlorinated biphenyls, and storage tank systems for petroleum products:
ECCC has been working on a compliance rate project on the Tetrachloroethylene (Use in Dry Cleaning and Reporting Requirements) Regulations since 2012-13. Tetrachloroethylene, also known as PERC, is a chemical used in Canadian dry cleaning. PERC is on the List of Toxic Substances, Schedule 1 of CEPA, as it poses a risk to the environment and human health. The project's objective was to increase the compliance rate with the environmental provisions of the regulations in 2012-13 by ten percent. In 2012-13, inspections at 316 randomly selected facilities yielded a compliance rate of 51%. This was followed by an intensive campaign to increase regulatee's awareness of the regulations in 2013-14 and 2014-15.
In 2015-16, ECCC inspected another set of randomly selected facilities (325). The result was a 63% compliance rate with the environmental provisions of the regulations. As the project resulted in an increase in compliance rate of 12%, the project's objective was met.Footnote 1
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
PCBs are persistent, toxic substances that pose a risk to human health and the environment. The PCB Regulations set specific deadlines for ending the use of PCBs in concentrations at or above 50 mg/kg, eliminating all PCBs and equipment containing PCBs currently in storage, and limiting the period of time PCBs can be stored before being destroyed. A number of known PCB-containing equipment with PCB concentrations greater than 500 mg/kg, were set to be removed from service and sent to be destroyed by December 31, 2014. In 2015-16, inspections were conducted at 44 companies to ensure that equipment had been removed and destroyed or on its way to being destroyed. By March 2016, confirmation had been received regarding the removal and/or destruction of equipment at 89% of the facilities. Follow up will occur in fiscal year 2016-17 to ensure compliance with the regulations at the remaining facilities.
The Storage Tank Systems for Petroleum Products and Allied Petroleum Products Regulations establish technical standards for the design and installation of storage tank systems in order to reduce the risk of contaminating soil and groundwater as a result of spills and leaks of petroleum products and allied petroleum products from storage tank systems.
In 2014, a total of 331 petroleum products storage tank systems were identified as being at high risk of leaking and contaminating soil and groundwater. A project was launched to address the issue. At the end of March 2016, 86% (283 systems of 331) had been inspected. Of those, 60% (169 of 283) were either in compliance with the regulations, or had returned to compliance. During the reporting period, 40 written warnings and 33 environmental protection compliance orders were delivered under this project. The work continues to ensure the remaining systems will be inspected and returned to compliance by the end of 2017.
Additional enforcement activities
Other highlights included enforcement activities under the following regulations: 60 inspections under the Chromium Electroplating, Chromium Anodizing and Reverse Etching Regulations; 319 inspections under the Environmental Emergency Regulations; and 340 inspections and three investigations under the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations.
In total, under the CMP regulations, ECCC completed 21 investigations and 2,708 inspections, leading to 2,379 written warnings, 550 environmental protection compliance orders, and 13 convicted subjects.Footnote 2
In addition, the Enforcement Branch's Regulatory Analysis Division reviewed and analyzed six proposed CMP regulations for enforceability. The Division worked to ensure that the proposed CMP regulations are enforceable and do not interfere with the enforceability of legislation and other regulations, nor result in officially induced error.
Cyclical Enforcement (CE) CMP related projects for consumer products and cosmetics were put in place to determine compliance levels for rattles, liquid filled teethers, children's polyurethane foam (PUF) products, and cosmetics. For the products tested, there was 100% compliance to the respective phthalate requirements and 95% compliance to the targeted cosmetics, PUF, and lead requirements. In total, four actions were taken: two recalls (for a non-compliant cosmetic and non-compliant PUF product) and two stop distributions (for a children's product and cosmetic).
AR 2.1 - Actual Results: Public Health Agency of Canada
During 2015-16, the Public Health Agency of Canada's (the Agency) Environmental Health Officers (EHOs) continued to work with passenger conveyance industry stakeholders, including airlines, railways, cruise ships, ferries, buses and ancillary services such as flight kitchens and terminals, in order to identify and address potential risks to travellers. Activities were targeted using a public health risk assessment tool, and the Agency completed 442 public health inspections, 22 outbreak investigations, 68 outreach and awareness activities, and took 1,313 water samples. When public health risks were identified, EHOs worked with operators to mitigate them. For example, conveyance and facility operators successfully resolved 95% of critical public health violations that were identified - above the target of 90%.
In addition, the Agency's Potable Water on Board Train, Vessels, Aircraft and Buses Regulations were finalized and published in the Canada Gazette, Part II on March 23, 2016. The new regulations will come into effect in September 2016 and replace the existing Potable Water Regulations for Common Carriers. The modernized Regulations will require operators of passenger conveyances to meet water quality requirements and take measures to prevent contamination of water supplies, maintain on board potable water systems, conduct routine water sampling, maintain accessible records, and complete corrective measures should contamination be suspected or confirmed. EHOs also received new designations to administer and enforce food safety provisions of the Food and Drugs Act on board passenger conveyances and at ancillary services, on behalf of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The new Regulations and authorities strengthen the Agency's ability to identify and address public health risks, and will help ensure the continued health protection of the travelling public in Canada.
Comments on variances
The variance between planned and actual spending is mainly due to lower than anticipated laboratory maintenance costs and delays in securing required goods and services.
The variance between planned and actual spending is mainly due to the need to carry out focussed screening and prevention activities related to Ebola.
The variance between planned and actual spending is mainly due to internal reallocation to other priorities.
Results achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable)
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