The risks posed by a substance are determined by both its hazardous properties (potential to cause adverse human health or ecological effects) and the amount or extent of exposure to people or the environment.
When needed, the Government implements risk management measures under CEPA 1999 and other federal acts to help prevent or reduce potential harm.
As a result of the final screening assessment, the Government has concluded that the 4 substances in the Protein Derivatives and Yeast Extract Group are not harmful to human health or to the environment at levels of exposure considered in the assessment.
About these substances
The screening assessment focused on 4 substances, referred to collectively as the Protein Derivatives and Yeast Extract Group under the third phase of the Chemicals Management Plan. The substances assessed were: yeast extract, protein hydrolyzates, collagen hydrolyzates, and isostearoyl hydrolyzed collagen (which is also referred to as "protein hydrolyzates, leather, reaction products with isostearoyl chloride'').
All 4 substances are derived from naturally occurring materials.
According to information gathered by the Government, substances in this group may be used in Canada in building or construction materials, in food, for nutritional purposes in products such as protein supplements and infant formula, and in a number of products available to consumers, including cosmetics and natural health products. In addition, yeast extract and collagen hydrolyzates are formulants (intentionally added substances other than an active ingredient) in pest control products.
Human and ecological exposures
Canadians may be exposed to these substances from food and from products available to consumers, including cosmetics and natural health products.
According to the information considered under the ERC Approach, the 4 substances were identified as having low ecological exposure potential.
Key health and ecological effects (hazard)
The 4 substances in the Protein Derivatives and Yeast Extract Group were considered to have low potential to be hazardous to human health.
According to information considered under the ERC Approach, yeast extract, protein hydrolyzates, and collagen hydrolyzates were identified as having a low ecological hazard potential. Isostearoyl hydrolyzed collagen was identified as having a high ecological hazard potential based on its high level of ecotoxicity.
Consideration of vulnerable populations
There are groups of individuals within the Canadian population who, due to greater susceptibility or greater exposure, may be more likely to experience adverse health effects from exposure to substances.
Certain subpopulations are routinely considered throughout the screening assessment process, such as infants, children, and people of reproductive age. For instance, developmental and reproductive toxicity studies are evaluated for potential health effects. These subpopulations were taken into account in the screening assessment.
Risk assessment outcomes
On the basis of the information presented in the final screening assessment, the risk to human health from substances in the Protein Derivatives and Yeast Extract Group is considered to be low.
Based upon the outcome of the ERC Approach, these 4 substances are considered unlikely to be causing ecological harm.
Screening assessment conclusions
The Government has concluded that yeast extract, protein hydrolyzates, collagen hydrolyzates, and isostearoyl hydrolyzed collagen are not harmful to human health at levels of exposure considered in the assessment, and that these 4 substances are not entering the environment at levels that are harmful.
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