Page 5 - Fifth Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada

14 Summaries and results for plasticizers

14.1 Phthalates

Diesters of phthalic acid, commonly called phthalates, are a class of high-production volume industrial chemicals that are used in the manufacture of a variety of consumer products. Table 14.1.1 lists phthalates commonly found in commerce and their major metabolites measured in cycle 5 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS).

Table 14.1.1: Phthalate metabolites measured in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017) and their parent phthalate compounds
Phthalate CASRN Metabolite CASRN
Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) 131-11-3 Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) 4376-18-5
Diethyl-phthalate (DEP) 84-66-2 Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) 2306-33-4
Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) 84-74-2 Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) 131-70-4
Mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (3OH-MBP)
Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) 84-69-5 Monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) 30833-53-5
Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) 84-61-7 Monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP) 7517-36-4
Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) 85-68-7 Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) (some MnBP) 2528-16-7
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) 117-81-7 Mono[2-(carboxymethyl)hexyl] phthalate (MCMHP) 82975-93-7
Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) 4376-20-9
Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) 40809-41-4
Mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) 40321-98-0
Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) 40321-99-1
Di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) 117-84-0 Mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) 66851-46-5
Mono-carboxy-n-heptyl phthalate (MCHpP)
Mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) 5393-19-1
Diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) 28553-12-0,
68515-48-0
Mono(carboxyisooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP) 898544-09-7
Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) 519056-28-1
Monooxoisononyl phthalate (MOiNP)
Monohydroxyisononyl phthalate (MHiNP)
Di-isodecyl phthalate (DiDP) 26761-40-0 Monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCiNP)
Monoisodecyl phthalate (MiDP)
Monooxoisodecyl phthalate (MOiDP)
Monohydroxyisodecyl phthalate (MHiDP)

Phthalates are primarily used as plasticizers to impart flexibility and resilience to plastics (Frederiksen et al., 2007; Graham, 1973; Health Canada, 2019). They are also used as solvents in household products, including self-care products, construction and renovation products, and textiles (Health Canada, 2019). In particular, BBP, DnBP, DMP, and DEP are found in self-care products, such as cosmetics (e.g., hair-care products and fragrance) and non-prescription drugs (Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, 2005; Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2000; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015e). DiNP, DiBP, DCHP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP are used in construction and renovation products, such as lubricants and greases, adhesives and sealants, paints and coatings, and building materials (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2000; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015b; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015d; Health Canada, 2019). DOP, BBP, DMP, DnBP, DiDP, DiBP, and DiNP are used in electrical items and electronics (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015b; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015c; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015d; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015e; Health Canada, 2019). Phthalates can also be used in the automotive sector (e.g., BBP, DEHP, DiBP, and DCHP), in printing ink (e.g., DiNP and BBP), and in the formulation of pesticides (e.g., BBP) (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015d; Health Canada, 2019). Finally, certain phthalates, including BBP, DEHP, DiDP, and DMP, can be found in food-packaging materials (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015c; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015e; Health Canada, 2019). Prior to restrictions enacted in 2010 (see below), phthalates, namely BBP, DnBP, DiNP, and DEHP, were used in Canada as plasticizers in soft vinyl toys and child-care articles.

There are no known major natural sources of phthalates. Releases to the environment are associated with anthropogenic activities (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017). Releases may occur during the manufacture and processing of phthalates, including transportation and storage, as well as during the production, use, and disposal of products that contain phthalates (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017). Although release into air may occur, water is expected to be the primary receiving medium for phthalates, and occurs through wastewater effluents from industrial sources and disperse releases from consumer products (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017; Environment Canada and Health Canada 2015d).

Phthalates have been detected in food, water, air, soil and dust (Clark, 2003; Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017). The general population can be exposed to phthalates through the inhalation of indoor air; through the ingestion of water, food, beverages, soil, and dust; and through the use of consumer products (Health Canada, 2019). Other potential sources of exposure are breast milk and the mouthing of children's toys and articles (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017).

In laboratory animals, phthalates have been observed to undergo rapid absorption following oral exposure and generally slow absorption following dermal exposure (ATSDR, 1995; ATSDR, 1997; ATSDR, 2001; ATSDR, 2002). Phthalate diesters are converted to their corresponding monoesters in the gastrointestinal tract or saliva prior to absorption (ATSDR, 1995; ATSDR, 1997; ATSDR, 2001; ATSDR, 2002; NRC, 2008). Phthalates are rapidly metabolized in the body to form hydrolytic and oxidative monoesters, which can either be excreted in the urine and feces unchanged, or can undergo phase II biotransformation to produce glucuronide conjugates with increased water solubility and, therefore, increased urinary excretion (Hauser and Calafat, 2005; Samandar et al., 2009). Although the metabolism and excretion of monoester phthalates varies based on a number of factors, they are generally characterized by rapid metabolism and short biological half-lives (ATSDR, 1995; ATSDR, 1997; ATSDR, 2001; ATSDR, 2002; Hauser and Calafat, 2005). Phthalates do not bioaccumulate in humans (CDC, 2009). Measurement of phthalate metabolites in urine has become the most common approach to assessing phthalate exposure in humans, and reflects relatively recent exposure (Blount et al., 2000; Calafat and McKee, 2006).

In laboratory animals, exposure to some phthalates adversely affects the male reproductive system. In particular, prenatal exposure to phthalates, such as DnBP, BBP, DEHP, DCHP, and DiNP, has been shown to disrupt the androgen-mediated development of the male reproductive tract (David, 2006; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015b; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015d; Foster, 2005; Gray et al., 2000; Howdeshell et al., 2007; Main et al., 2006; Mariana et al., 2016; Wine et al., 1997). This response is termed rat phthalate syndrome and is characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and external genitalia, among other effects (Lioy et al., 2015). Adverse effects on the testes have also been observed in mature laboratory animals, although these effects occurred at higher doses (David, 2006; Foster, 2005). There is also evidence from animal studies that phthalates exert adverse effects on the ovaries (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015b; Hannon and Flaws, 2015; Mariana et al., 2016). Other target organs identified in animal studies include the liver and kidneys, where phthalate exposure may lead to increased organ weights and peroxisome proliferation in the liver (David and Gans, 2003; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015b; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015c; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015d; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015e; Howdeshell et al., 2007; Main et al., 2006; Wine et al., 1997).

Numerous studies demonstrate exposure to phthalates in the human population, including prenatal exposure (Becker et al., 2009; Blount et al., 2000; Health Canada, 2016; Lioy et al., 2015; Marsee et al., 2006; NTP-CERHR, 2003a; NTP-CERHR, 2003b; NTP-CERHR, 2003c; NTP-CERHR, 2003d; NTP-CERHR, 2003e; NTP-CERHR, 2003f; NTP-CERHR, 2006; Praveena et al., 2018; Silva et al., 2003; Wittassek et al., 2011). An evaluation by Health Canada of 95 epidemiologic studies of phthalates and health outcomes — including endocrine system effects, reproductive parameters, and growth and development — determined that no health outcome had sufficient evidence of an association with any assessed phthalate (or its metabolite) based on the evaluation approach (Health Canada, 2016). There was only limited evidence of an association between exposure to DiNP/DEHP and sex hormone levels and semen parameters, and between DEHP exposure and birth measures. For effects detected in animal studies related to male reproductive development, the human data on relevant health outcomes were very limited and the quality of the studies was variable (Health Canada, 2016). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified DEHP as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) and BBP as not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3) (IARC, 1999; IARC, 2013).

Environment Canada and Health Canada assessed four phthalates (DBP, BBP, DEHP, and DOP) on an individual basis for the First or Second Priority Substances Lists (PSL1 and PSL2) (Environment Canada and Health Canada 1993, 1994a,b, 2000). DBP and BBP were determined not to present a risk to the environment or to human health. DOP was found not to present a risk to the environment; however, at the time of the assessment, the available information was not sufficient to allow a conclusion in terms of human health. A subsequent report concluded that DOP did not pose a risk to human health (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2003). DEHP was determined to present a risk to human health in Canada; however, there was insufficient information to conclude on the potential for risk to the environment. State of the Science reports were published in 2015 for the short-chain phthalate DMP, medium-chain phthalates (including DCHP and DiBP), long-chain phthalates (including DiDP), and DiNP (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015b; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015c; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015d; Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015e). In 2017, a draft screening assessment was released that proposed to conclude that 13 of the 14 substances in the Phthalate Substance Grouping (including DMP, DiBP, DiNP, and DiDP) are not harmful to the environment or to human health as set out in section 64 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), but that the remaining substance in the Grouping (B79P), along with DEHP, is harmful to the environment as set out in section 64(a) of CEPA 1999 (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017). In addition, a cumulative risk assessment using a conservative, lower-tiered hazard index approach indicated no concern for potential cumulative risk of medium-chain phthalates for the general Canadian population, specifically the more sensitive subpopulations (pregnant women and women of childbearing age, infants, and children) at current exposure levels (Environment Canada and Health Canada, 2015a; Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017).

DEHP is identified as being prohibited on the List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients (more commonly referred to as the Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist or simply the Hotlist), an administrative tool that Health Canada uses to communicate to manufacturers and others that certain substances, when present in a cosmetic, may not be compliant with requirements of the Food and Drugs Act or the Cosmetic Regulations (Health Canada, 2018). Health Canada has developed and implemented the Phthalates Regulations concerning the use of six phthalates (DEHP, DnBP, BBP, DiNP, DiDP, and DOP) in soft vinyl children's toys and child-care articles (Canada, 2010). Phthalates used in children's toys and child-care articles are also regulated in the United States and the European Union.

In the Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study of approximately 2,000 women from 10 sites across Canada, the following maximum-likelihood estimated geometric mean (GM) concentration (μg/L) of phthalate metabolites from first-trimester urine samples were reported (standardized for specific gravity): MnBP, 13.69; MEP, 37.73; MBzP, 6.14; MCPP, 1.02; MEHP, 2.63; MEOHP, 7.54; and MEHHP, 10.81, with non-detects reported for MMP, MCHP, MiNP, and MOP (Arbuckle et al., 2014).

Eleven monoester phthalate metabolites (MnBP, MEP, MBzP, MCHP, MEHP, MOP, MiNP, MMP, MCPP, MEHHP, and MEOHP) were measured in the urine of CHMS participants aged 6–49 years in cycle 1 (2007–2009), and aged 3–79 years in cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017). MiBP was measured in the urine of CHMS cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017) participants aged 3–79 years. MCMHP, MECPP, MCiNP, MHiDP, MiDP, MOiDP, MCiOP, MHiNP, MOiNP, 3OH-MBP, and MCHpP were measured in the urine of cycle 5 (2016–2017) participants aged 3–79 years. Data from these monoester phthalate metabolites are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine (Tables 14.1.2 to 14.1.47). Finding a measurable amount of monoester phthalate metabolites in urine is an indicator of exposure to diester phthalates and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 14.1.2: Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2559 27.8
(24.8–31.1)
<LOD <LOD 8.4
(7.9–8.8)
15Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(6.4–23)
5 (2016–2017) 2677 95.9
(93.0–97.6)
2.0
(1.8–2.3)
0.56
(0.38–0.74)
2.2
(1.8–2.5)
6.8
(5.4–8.1)
9.9
(7.6–12)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1280 35.3
(29.7–41.4)
<LOD <LOD 8.7
(6.0–11)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1335 96.2
(91.1–98.5)
2.1
(1.8–2.5)
0.64Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(0.32–0.95)
2.2
(1.7–2.7)
7.1
(5.2–8.9)
9.9
(7.5–12)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 20.4
(17.3–23.8)
<LOD <LOD 7.6
(6.2–9.0)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1342 95.6
(92.1–97.6)
1.9
(1.7–2.2)
0.53
(0.34–0.73)
2.1
(1.7–2.5)
6.2
(4.4–8.0)
9.9Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(5.3–15)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 58.4
(51.9–64.7)
<LOD <LOD
(<LOD–5.9)
20Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(11–28)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 549 100
(99.9–100)
3.6
(3.1–4.1)
1.1Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(0.66–1.6)
3.7
(3.2–4.2)
10
(9.1–11)
13
(9.9–16)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 34.0
(26.7–42.2)
<LOD <LOD 14Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(5.2–22)
25Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(15–34)
2 (2009–2011) 515 64.1
(54.9–72.3)
<LOD <LOD
(<LOD–6.5)
23
(17–29)
34Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(19–49)
5 (2016–2017) 533 99.7
(99.0–99.9)
3.7
(3.3–4.3)
1.1
(0.86–1.4)
3.7
(3.1–4.4)
12
(9.2–15)
16
(13–19)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 32.5
(25.4–40.5)
<LOD <LOD 9.3
(8.7–9.9)
11
(6.8–14)
2 (2009–2011) 512 46.0
(38.4–53.8)
<LOD <LOD 8.6
(7.6–9.7)
17Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(9.1–25)
5 (2016–2017) 533 99.3
(97.4–99.8)
3.1
(2.8–3.6)
0.85
(0.61–1.1)
3.1
(2.8–3.4)
9.0
(7.1–11)
13Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(4.4–22)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 17.0Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(10.8–25.7)
<LOD <LOD 6.9Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–9.4)
9.4
(8.1–11)
2 (2009–2011) 359 26.4
(20.3–33.4)
<LOD <LOD 7.7
(6.2–9.1)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 370 97.1
(93.7–98.7)
2.1
(1.7–2.7)
Table footnote F 2.3
(1.7–2.9)
6.5Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(4.1–9.0)
9.9Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(6.1–14)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 360 17.7
(12.4–24.6)
<LOD <LOD 8.1Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–13)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 350 94.2
(85.9–97.7)
1.6
(1.3–2.1)
0.45Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(<LOD–0.78)
1.7
(1.3–2.2)
4.8
(3.3–6.3)
7.1Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(2.8–11)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 290 17.8
(13.6–23.0)
<LOD <LOD 6.8
(5.3–8.3)
8.5
(7.5–9.4)
5 (2016–2017) 342 93.1
(89.4–95.6)
1.5
(1.4–1.7)
0.50Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(0.31–0.69)
1.5
(1.2–1.7)
4.9
(3.6–6.1)
7.8Table 14.1.2 footnote E
(4.1–12)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 5, 5, and 0.21 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.3: Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2549 27.8
(24.8–31.1)
<LOD <LOD 10
(9.6–10)
19
(17–22)
5 (2016–2017) 2645 95.9
(93.0–97.6)
2.0
(1.8–2.1)
0.66
(0.54–0.78)
1.9
(1.7–2.0)
6.2
(5.5–7.0)
9.1
(7.6–11)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1276 35.3
(29.7–41.4)
<LOD <LOD 9.7
(7.6–12)
19Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(<LOD–28)
5 (2016–2017) 1320 96.2
(91.1–98.5)
1.8
(1.6–2.2)
0.65Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(0.37–0.94)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
5.6
(4.0–7.1)
9.5Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(5.9–13)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1273 20.4
(17.3–23.8)
<LOD <LOD 10
(8.4–12)
19
(<LOD–22)
5 (2016–2017) 1325 95.6
(92.1–97.6)
2.1
(1.9–2.3)
0.68Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(0.43–0.93)
2.0
(1.8–2.2)
6.8
(5.8–7.9)
8.8
(7.4–10)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 58.4
(51.9–64.7)
<LOD <LOD 30
(23–37)
49Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(21–77)
5 (2016–2017) 538 100
(99.9–100)
6.2
(5.8–6.6)
2.5
(2.1–3.0)
6.1
(5.6–6.5)
14
(11–17)
22Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(14–30)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 34.0
(26.7–42.2)
<LOD <LOD 23
(16–30)
38
(25–50)
2 (2009–2011) 513 64.1
(54.9–72.3)
<LOD <LOD 26Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(16–36)
32Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(13–51)
5 (2016–2017) 525 99.7
(99.0–99.9)
4.3
(3.9–4.8)
1.9
(1.6–2.1)
3.8
(3.2–4.4)
11
(8.4–13)
18
(12–24)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 32.5
(25.4–40.5)
<LOD <LOD 9.2
(8.8–9.7)
10Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(5.7–14)
2 (2009–2011) 510 46.0
(38.4–53.8)
<LOD <LOD 9.0
(7.0–11)
12
(9.0–15)
5 (2016–2017) 526 99.3
(97.4–99.8)
2.4
(2.2–2.6)
1.0
(0.88–1.1)
2.2
(1.9–2.5)
6.1
(4.9–7.4)
8.2Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(4.1–12)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 17.0Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(10.8–25.7)
<LOD <LOD 9.1
(<LOD–9.8)
19Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(8.6–29)
2 (2009–2011) 357 26.4
(20.3–33.4)
<LOD <LOD 7.4Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(4.4–10)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 366 97.1
(93.7–98.7)
1.9
(1.6–2.3)
0.77Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(<LOD–1.1)
1.8
(1.6–2.1)
5.7
(3.7–7.8)
8.3Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(4.8–12)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 358 17.7
(12.4–24.6)
<LOD <LOD 9.6
(<LOD–13)
18Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(<LOD–31)
5 (2016–2017) 349 94.2
(85.9–97.7)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)
0.46
(<LOD–0.60)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)
3.9
(2.7–5.2)
7.0Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(4.0–10)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 289 17.8
(13.6–23.0)
<LOD <LOD 9.6
(6.6–13)
18Table 14.1.3 footnote E
(8.6–28)
5 (2016–2017) 341 93.1
(89.4–95.6)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
0.64
(0.49–0.80)
1.7
(1.5–2.0)
5.5
(4.9–6.1)
7.5
(5.8–9.1)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.4: Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.4 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2561 100 44
(36–54)
7.6
(6.0–9.2)
42
(35–50)
250Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(150–340)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 2712 99.2
(95.9–99.8)
22
(19–25)
3.8
(2.9–4.7)
19
(16–22)
150
(98–210)
280Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(100–450)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1282 100 45
(35–59)
8.8
(7.3–10)
38
(25–50)
270Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(130–400)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1350 99.5
(98.6–99.9)
21
(17–26)
3.7Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(2.1–5.3)
19
(15–22)
110Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(40–190)
240Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(100–370)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 100 43
(36–53)
6.9
(5.0–8.7)
45
(35–54)
230Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(98–350)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1362 98.8
(92.5–99.8)
23
(19–27)
3.9
(3.0–4.9)
19
(15–24)
180Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(120–250)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 100 21
(18–24)
6.8
(5.4–8.2)
19
(16–23)
80
(58–100)
120
(92–140)
5 (2016–2017) 553 100 13
(10–17)
3.5Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(2.1–4.9)
12
(11–13)
50
(37–63)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 100
(96.5–100)
26
(21–32)
6.3
(4.5–8.0)
23
(19–28)
120
(80–160)
200Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(120–290)
2 (2009–2011) 516 100 29
(23–37)
6.6
(4.4–8.8)
25Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(14–36)
120Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(60–180)
240Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(110–380)
5 (2016–2017) 536 99.5
(98.8–99.8)
18
(14–23)
4.0
(3.2–4.8)
15
(13–18)
110Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(34–190)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 100 65
(55–77)
14
(9.7–18)
60
(47–73)
340
(300–390)
550Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(320–780)
2 (2009–2011) 512 100 51
(43–61)
10
(7.1–14)
47
(38–57)
230
(150–310)
490Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(270–710)
5 (2016–2017) 537 99.0
(95.3–99.8)
25
(19–32)
5.4
(4.0–6.8)
21
(15–28)
130Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(61–200)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 100 62
(51–75)
11
(7.3–14)
51
(35–68)
440Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(130–740)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 359 100 48Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(31–73)
7.6
(4.8–10)
45Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(25–65)
320Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(120–520)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 374 97.9
(83.7–99.8)
20Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(13–32)
Table footnote F 17Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(11–24)
190Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(77–300)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 360 100 44Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(29–69)
6.9Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(3.1–11)
43Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(27–60)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 359 99.9
(99.4–100)
23Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(15–33)
3.6Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(2.1–5.0)
20
(15–26)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 291 100 49
(38–62)
9.1
(6.8–11)
44
(33–56)
240Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(82–390)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 353 99.8
(98.7–100)
25
(20–31)
5.6
(3.9–7.3)
20
(14–26)
110Table 14.1.4 footnote E
(31–180)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.5, 0.3, and 0.98 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.5: Monoethyl phthalate (MEP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.5 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2551 100 44
(38–52)
10
(8.5–12)
37
(30–44)
220Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(120–320)
410Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–620)
5 (2016–2017) 2680 99.2
(95.9–99.8)
21
(19–23)
5.3
(4.6–6.0)
16
(14–18)
110
(88–140)
200
(140–270)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1278 100 39
(31–49)
9.4
(8.0–11)
30
(23–38)
220Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(110–330)
390Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–600)
5 (2016–2017) 1335 99.5
(98.6–99.9)
18
(15–21)
4.9
(3.8–6.0)
14
(12–16)
86Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(45–130)
140Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(67–220)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1273 100 50
(41–60)
14
(11–17)
43
(38–49)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1345 98.8
(92.5–99.8)
25
(22–29)
5.6
(4.8–6.4)
20
(17–24)
130Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(79–170)
230Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–320)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 100 36
(32–41)
14
(12–16)
30
(25–35)
110
(82–140)
180
(120–230)
5 (2016–2017) 542 100 23
(19–28)
7.6
(5.7–9.6)
18
(13–22)
72Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(28–120)
170
(110–230)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 100
(96.5–100)
40
(33–48)
14
(12–17)
33
(27–38)
130Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(80–190)
210Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(97–320)
2 (2009–2011) 514 100 34
(27–42)
10
(8.2–12)
27
(20–35)
130Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(60–200)
230Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(130–330)
5 (2016–2017) 528 99.5
(98.8–99.8)
21
(17–27)
6.9
(6.2–7.6)
15
(12–18)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 100 55
(49–62)
14
(13–16)
49
(41–57)
250
(200–300)
420
(350–480)
2 (2009–2011) 510 100 39
(34–45)
10
(8.7–12)
33
(26–39)
160Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(100–220)
300Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(190–410)
5 (2016–2017) 530 99.0
(95.3–99.8)
19
(15–23)
6.1
(5.2–7.0)
13
(11–16)
85Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(38–130)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 100 65
(55–75)
14
(13–16)
54
(45–64)
340Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(190–490)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 357 100 42
(30–59)
9.9
(7.2–13)
34Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(16–52)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 370 97.9
(83.7–99.8)
18
(14–24)
3.8Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–5.4)
15
(11–19)
100Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(58–140)
150Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–240)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 358 100 45
(32–64)
9.7Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(5.4–14)
39
(27–50)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 358 99.9
(99.4–100)
21
(16–27)
5.4
(4.3–6.4)
15
(10–20)
120Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(62–190)
200Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–340)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 290 100 57
(47–70)
14
(9.7–18)
47
(33–62)
Table footnote F 570Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(220–910)
5 (2016–2017) 352 99.8
(98.7–100)
28
(24–34)
7.4
(5.4–9.4)
23
(18–27)
130Table 14.1.5 footnote E
(65–190)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.6: Mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.6 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2543 98.1
(95.7–99.2)
1.9
(1.8–2.1)
0.45
(0.36–0.54)
2.0
(1.7–2.2)
7.0
(6.1–7.8)
11
(9.0–12)
5 (2016–2017) 2670 90.5
(86.8–93.3)
0.73
(0.61–0.86)
0.15Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.20)
0.75
(0.63–0.88)
2.8
(2.2–3.4)
4.5
(3.4–5.5)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1273 98.6
(95.2–99.6)
2.1
(1.8–2.5)
0.53Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.33–0.72)
2.0
(1.6–2.4)
7.8
(5.1–10)
12
(9.0–15)
5 (2016–2017) 1331 92.2
(88.4–94.9)
0.72
(0.60–0.85)
0.16
(<LOD–0.20)
0.75
(0.58–0.92)
2.7
(1.8–3.6)
4.1
(2.9–5.4)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1270 97.7
(92.9–99.3)
1.7
(1.5–2.0)
0.39
(0.26–0.53)
1.9
(1.6–2.2)
6.7
(5.2–8.2)
8.6
(6.4–11)
5 (2016–2017) 1339 88.8
(83.2–92.8)
0.74
(0.58–0.95)
<LOD 0.75
(0.58–0.92)
3.2
(2.3–4.2)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 517 99.8
(99.4–100)
3.2
(2.8–3.7)
0.94
(0.63–1.2)
3.1
(2.6–3.6)
9.3
(6.5–12)
14Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(8.5–19)
5 (2016–2017) 550 97.2
(91.8–99.1)
1.3Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.92–1.9)
0.37Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.22–0.51)
1.3Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.66–2.0)
4.2Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(1.2–7.2)
6.4Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(3.1–9.8)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 97.3
(94.9–98.6)
2.7
(2.2–3.2)
0.70Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.41–0.99)
3.1
(2.5–3.7)
8.8
(7.5–10)
12
(9.8–15)
2 (2009–2011) 515 99.6
(98.3–99.9)
3.3
(2.8–4.0)
1.0
(0.80–1.2)
3.4
(2.9–3.9)
11Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(7.0–15)
15
(11–19)
5 (2016–2017) 531 97.4
(94.7–98.8)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
0.40
(0.26–0.54)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
4.0
(3.3–4.7)
6.3Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(3.4–9.2)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 96.2
(94.7–97.2)
2.2
(1.9–2.6)
0.40Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.60)
2.6
(2.3–2.9)
8.0
(6.4–9.6)
11Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(6.5–15)
2 (2009–2011) 509 99.7
(98.8–99.9)
2.6
(2.2–3.1)
0.65Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.33–0.98)
2.5
(2.2–2.8)
9.6
(6.3–13)
16Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(8.0–24)
5 (2016–2017) 532 92.0
(88.3–94.6)
0.88
(0.73–1.0)
0.17Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.26)
0.94
(0.84–1.0)
3.0
(2.4–3.5)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 90.5
(86.3–93.5)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
<LOD 1.5
(1.2–1.8)
5.6
(4.1–7.2)
8.4
(5.8–11)
2 (2009–2011) 359 96.8
(91.4–98.9)
1.9
(1.5–2.5)
0.43Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.19–0.66)
2.0
(1.3–2.7)
7.1
(5.2–9.0)
10
(6.9–13)
5 (2016–2017) 365 92.0
(80.4–97.0)
0.70
(0.50–0.97)
<LOD 0.71
(0.49–0.93)
2.3Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.89–3.8)
4.3Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(2.4–6.2)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 359 98.2
(95.1–99.4)
1.6
(1.4–1.9)
0.42Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.20–0.64)
1.8
(1.4–2.1)
5.3Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(2.9–7.7)
8.7Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(3.4–14)
5 (2016–2017) 348 86.8
(76.3–93.1)
0.66
(0.48–0.90)
<LOD 0.69Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.41–0.97)
2.7
(2.1–3.3)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 284 98.3
(94.4–99.5)
1.5
(1.2–1.7)
0.39Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(0.24–0.54)
1.5
(1.3–1.7)
5.1Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(2.7–7.5)
8.7Table 14.1.6 footnote E
(5.5–12)
5 (2016–2017) 344 89.5
(83.7–93.4)
0.61
(0.50–0.73)
<LOD 0.64
(0.52–0.76)
2.6
(2.0–3.3)
4.4
(2.9–5.9)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.2, 0.06, and 0.14 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.7: Mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.7 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2533 98.1
(95.7–99.2)
1.9
(1.7–2.0)
0.66
(0.58–0.74)
1.7
(1.6–1.9)
5.9
(4.8–7.0)
9.1
(7.3–11)
5 (2016–2017) 2639 90.5
(86.8–93.3)
0.70
(0.62–0.78)
0.22
(<LOD–0.25)
0.62
(0.54–0.70)
2.3
(1.6–3.0)
4.1
(3.1–5.2)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1269 98.6
(95.2–99.6)
1.8
(1.6–2.0)
0.60
(0.48–0.71)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
6.4
(4.7–8.2)
9.9
(6.6–13)
5 (2016–2017) 1317 92.2
(88.4–94.9)
0.61
(0.54–0.70)
0.20
(<LOD–0.24)
0.58
(0.51–0.65)
1.9
(1.6–2.3)
3.2Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(1.9–4.5)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1264 97.7
(92.9–99.3)
1.9
(1.7–2.2)
0.69
(0.57–0.82)
1.9
(1.7–2.2)
5.5
(4.4–6.6)
8.4
(7.0–9.9)
5 (2016–2017) 1322 88.8
(83.2–92.8)
0.79
(0.65–0.96)
<LOD 0.71
(0.56–0.87)
2.8Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(1.2–4.5)
5.8Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(3.0–8.7)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 516 99.8
(99.4–100)
5.6
(4.8–6.4)
2.4
(2.0–2.8)
5.5
(4.6–6.4)
13
(10–17)
21Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(12–30)
5 (2016–2017) 539 97.2
(91.8–99.1)
2.3
(1.8–3.0)
0.94
(0.70–1.2)
2.2
(1.7–2.8)
5.6Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(3.2–8.0)
8.7Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(4.0–13)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 97.3
(94.9–98.6)
4.1
(3.6–4.6)
1.4
(1.1–1.7)
3.9
(3.4–4.3)
12
(8.6–15)
16
(11–20)
2 (2009–2011) 513 99.6
(98.3–99.9)
3.8
(3.4–4.3)
1.5
(1.1–1.8)
3.7
(3.3–4.1)
10Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(6.3–14)
15
(11–20)
5 (2016–2017) 523 97.4
(94.7–98.8)
1.5
(1.3–1.9)
0.67
(0.57–0.76)
1.4
(1.2–1.7)
3.7
(2.6–4.8)
6.0Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(3.6–8.4)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 96.2
(94.7–97.2)
1.9
(1.7–2.1)
0.69
(<LOD–0.81)
1.7
(1.6–1.9)
5.5
(4.3–6.7)
8.3
(5.3–11)
2 (2009–2011) 507 99.7
(98.8–99.9)
2.0
(1.8–2.3)
0.79
(0.59–0.99)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
6.1Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(3.5–8.7)
11Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(4.0–18)
5 (2016–2017) 526 92.0
(88.3–94.6)
0.66
(0.54–0.82)
0.22
(<LOD–0.28)
0.58
(0.41–0.76)
1.8
(1.3–2.3)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 90.5
(86.3–93.5)
1.4
(1.2–1.6)
<LOD 1.3
(1.1–1.5)
4.2
(2.9–5.4)
5.5Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(3.5–7.5)
2 (2009–2011) 357 96.8
(91.4–98.9)
1.6
(1.4–1.9)
0.58
(0.43–0.73)
1.4
(1.1–1.8)
5.3Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(2.9–7.7)
7.8Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(3.4–12)
5 (2016–2017) 361 92.0
(80.4–97.0)
0.63
(0.54–0.73)
<LOD 0.62
(0.44–0.79)
1.8Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(1.1–2.4)
2.5Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(0.89–4.1)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 357 98.2
(95.1–99.4)
1.6
(1.5–1.8)
0.60
(0.47–0.73)
1.7
(1.4–2.0)
4.4
(3.8–5.0)
7.0Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(3.7–10)
5 (2016–2017) 347 86.8
(76.3–93.1)
0.59
(0.47–0.74)
<LOD 0.54
(0.45–0.64)
Table footnote F 4.1Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(<LOD–6.0)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 283 98.3
(94.4–99.5)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
0.68Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(0.37–0.99)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
5.0
(3.9–6.2)
6.1Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(3.2–9.0)
5 (2016–2017) 343 89.5
(83.7–93.4)
0.68
(0.58–0.81)
<LOD 0.58
(0.47–0.70)
2.0
(1.5–2.5)
4.6Table 14.1.7 footnote E
(1.3–7.9)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.8: Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.8 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2555 100 20
(18–22)
5.7
(4.3–7.1)
20
(18–22)
67
(57–77)
87
(74–100)
5 (2016–2017) 2711 99.9
(97.9–100)
12
(11–14)
3.7
(2.7–4.6)
12
(10–14)
38
(31–44)
54
(36–71)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 100 21
(18–24)
6.4
(4.7–8.1)
21
(18–24)
69
(49–90)
96
(70–120)
5 (2016–2017) 1350 99.7
(95.9–100)
12
(10–15)
3.6
(2.3–4.8)
12
(9.1–14)
39
(27–51)
59Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(26–92)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1276 100 19
(17–22)
5.2Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(3.3–7.2)
19
(16–22)
64
(50–78)
86
(70–100)
5 (2016–2017) 1361 100 13
(11–14)
3.7
(2.9–4.6)
13
(11–15)
36
(32–41)
54
(47–60)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 100 32
(28–37)
11
(8.0–14)
30
(26–34)
110
(75–150)
130
(110–150)
5 (2016–2017) 555 100 20
(16–25)
5.9
(4.4–7.4)
19
(14–25)
66Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(36–95)
85
(67–100)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 100 33
(29–38)
8.6
(6.4–11)
32
(27–38)
110
(89–130)
160
(130–200)
2 (2009–2011) 515 100 36
(30–43)
9.7
(7.7–12)
32
(26–37)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 536 100 20
(18–23)
6.9
(5.7–8.1)
19
(16–22)
65
(47–84)
84
(71–98)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 100 32
(29–35)
9.1
(7.4–11)
33
(29–36)
98
(81–120)
140
(130–140)
2 (2009–2011) 512 100 28
(25–33)
9.1
(7.0–11)
28
(23–33)
77
(67–88)
110
(81–130)
5 (2016–2017) 537 100 16
(14–18)
4.6
(3.5–5.7)
18
(16–20)
39
(33–46)
58
(37–79)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 99.9
(99.6–100)
22
(20–25)
6.0
(4.2–7.8)
22
(18–27)
69
(48–90)
100Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(34–170)
2 (2009–2011) 358 100 20
(16–25)
6.3Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(3.9–8.7)
21
(16–26)
54
(47–61)
77
(56–99)
5 (2016–2017) 372 99.6
(93.2–100)
12
(9.4–15)
3.3Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(1.1–5.5)
11
(7.7–14)
44
(29–58)
58Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(17–99)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 357 100 17
(14–21)
4.0Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(1.8–6.2)
17
(15–20)
61Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(31–91)
83
(57–110)
5 (2016–2017) 358 100 11
(8.8–14)
3.3Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(1.9–4.7)
12
(8.5–15)
30
(23–37)
39Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(15–64)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 291 100 17
(14–21)
5.3
(3.6–7.0)
16
(12–19)
63
(48–79)
81Table 14.1.8 footnote E
(34–130)
5 (2016–2017) 353 100 11
(9.8–12)
3.5
(3.0–4.1)
10
(9.5–11)
28
(22–35)
41
(29–54)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.2, 0.2, and 0.60 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.9: Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.9 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2545 100 20
(18–21)
8.7
(7.7–9.8)
17
(15–19)
48
(42–55)
78
(65–91)
5 (2016–2017) 2679 99.9
(97.9–100)
12
(11–13)
5.1
(4.4–5.9)
11
(9.8–12)
31
(26–35)
41
(35–47)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1275 100 18
(16–20)
7.6
(6.9–8.3)
15
(13–17)
46
(38–54)
73
(60–86)
5 (2016–2017) 1335 99.7
(95.9–100)
11
(9.3–12)
4.4
(3.5–5.3)
9.9
(8.9–11)
27
(21–34)
39
(29–49)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1270 100 22
(19–24)
9.9
(8.8–11)
19
(16–22)
52
(41–63)
83
(64–100)
5 (2016–2017) 1344 100 14
(13–15)
6.5
(5.8–7.3)
12
(10–14)
33
(28–39)
45
(40–51)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 521 100 56
(49–63)
26
(23–30)
52
(45–59)
120
(88–150)
170
(110–220)
5 (2016–2017) 544 100 35
(31–40)
16
(15–17)
33
(27–40)
80
(65–95)
110Table 14.1.9 footnote E
(58–160)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 100 51
(46–56)
22
(19–25)
45
(40–51)
120
(110–140)
210
(140–270)
2 (2009–2011) 513 100 42
(36–48)
16
(14–19)
35
(30–39)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 528 100 23
(22–25)
11
(9.4–13)
23
(21–25)
50
(41–60)
63
(55–72)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 100 27
(25–30)
12
(11–13)
25
(23–27)
68Table 14.1.9 footnote E
(42–93)
99
(89–110)
2 (2009–2011) 510 100 22
(19–25)
10
(8.8–11)
19
(16–22)
48
(38–58)
62
(49–75)
5 (2016–2017) 530 100 12
(11–14)
5.6
(4.8–6.4)
11
(8.5–13)
26
(17–35)
33Table 14.1.9 footnote E
(20–46)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 99.9
(99.6–100)
23
(21–26)
9.9
(8.5–11)
21
(19–22)
56
(41–70)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 356 100 17
(15–20)
8.5
(7.2–9.8)
14
(11–17)
36
(29–43)
47Table 14.1.9 footnote E
(16–77)
5 (2016–2017) 368 99.6
(93.2–100)
11
(9.7–12)
4.7
(3.8–5.5)
10
(9.1–11)
24
(16–32)
32Table 14.1.9 footnote E
(20–44)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 355 100 17
(15–19)
7.3
(5.9–8.7)
16
(13–18)
36
(26–46)
55Table 14.1.9 footnote E
(18–92)
5 (2016–2017) 357 100 10
(8.6–12)
4.9
(3.6–6.2)
9.9
(8.6–11)
21
(14–28)
33Table 14.1.9 footnote E
(18–48)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 290 100 20
(17–23)
9.3
(7.6–11)
18
(13–22)
51
(33–68)
71
(61–81)
5 (2016–2017) 352 100 12
(11–14)
5.9
(4.8–6.9)
11
(10–13)
27
(21–34)
36
(26–46)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.10: Monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.10 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 2547 99.9
(99.6–100)
14
(12–16)
3.5
(2.7–4.4)
14
(12–16)
43
(33–54)
64
(50–79)
5 (2016–2017) 2715 99.7
(97.4–100)
10
(8.6–12)
2.7
(2.2–3.2)
10
(9.1–11)
35
(25–45)
51
(37–64)
Males, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1275 100 14
(12–17)
3.7Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(2.2–5.1)
15
(12–17)
49
(32–67)
67
(43–90)
5 (2016–2017) 1353 99.5
(92.4–100)
10
(8.6–12)
2.8
(2.0–3.6)
10
(8.8–11)
31
(22–41)
46Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(29–64)
Females, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1272 99.9
(99.3–100)
13
(12–15)
3.5
(2.5–4.5)
13
(11–16)
39
(33–46)
58
(42–73)
5 (2016–2017) 1362 99.9
(99.7–100)
10
(8.2–12)
2.5
(1.9–3.0)
11
(8.6–12)
39
(26–52)
51
(36–66)
3–5 years
2 (2009–2011) 517 100 22
(19–25)
6.9
(5.0–8.9)
22
(18–26)
63Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(38–88)
96
(68–120)
5 (2016–2017) 555 100 16
(13–19)
4.2Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(2.4–6.1)
16
(13–19)
54
(36–72)
77
(49–110)
6–11 years
2 (2009–2011) 515 100 22
(18–27)
6.6
(5.0–8.3)
22
(18–26)
67Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(40–93)
120Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(67–160)
5 (2016–2017) 536 99.9
(99.2–100)
15
(13–17)
5.3
(3.9–6.8)
14
(12–17)
48
(39–57)
74
(50–97)
12–19 years
2 (2009–2011) 508 100 18
(16–21)
5.6
(4.0–7.2)
18
(16–20)
49
(34–64)
83Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(38–130)
5 (2016–2017) 538 99.9
(99.5–100)
13
(11–15)
3.7
(2.6–4.8)
13
(11–15)
37
(29–44)
51Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(32–70)
20–39 years
2 (2009–2011) 359 99.8
(98.8–100)
15
(13–18)
3.2Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(1.7–4.7)
18
(15–20)
51
(40–63)
65
(49–81)
5 (2016–2017) 374 99.1
(90.4–99.9)
10
(7.5–14)
Table footnote F 10
(7.0–14)
41Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(15–66)
57Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(28–86)
40–59 years
2 (2009–2011) 359 100 12
(9.7–15)
3.0Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(1.4–4.7)
12
(8.3–15)
36Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(20–51)
47Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(18–75)
5 (2016–2017) 359 100 9.2
(7.3–12)
2.5
(1.9–3.0)
10
(6.9–14)
31Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(17–46)
45
(29–62)
60–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 289 100 9.7
(7.6–12)
2.4Table 14.1.10 footnote E
(1.4–3.4)
9.3
(7.5–11)
35
(23–47)
42
(29–55)
5 (2016–2017) 353 99.9
(99.1–100)
8.0
(7.3–8.9)
2.4
(2.0–2.8)
7.7
(6.3–9.1)
23
(18–28)
33
(23–44)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 2 and 5 are 0.1 and 0.57 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.11: Monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.11 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 2537 99.9
(99.6–100)
13
(12–15)
5.4
(4.7–6.1)
13
(12–14)
34
(28–40)
47
(37–58)
5 (2016–2017) 2683 99.7
(97.4–100)
9.8
(8.8–11)
4.0
(3.7–4.3)
8.8
(7.6–9.9)
25
(19–31)
38
(26–50)
Males, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1271 100 12
(11–14)
4.9
(3.8–6.0)
11
(9.7–12)
34
(26–42)
46
(34–58)
5 (2016–2017) 1338 99.5
(92.4–100)
8.7
(8.0–9.5)
3.8
(3.3–4.3)
7.5
(7.0–8.1)
23
(19–27)
33
(27–40)
Females, 3–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 1266 99.9
(99.3–100)
15
(13–17)
6.2
(5.1–7.2)
14
(12–16)
34
(27–42)
49
(33–65)
5 (2016–2017) 1345 99.9
(99.7–100)
11
(9.6–13)
4.5
(3.8–5.1)
10
(9.1–11)
29
(19–40)
49Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(26–72)
3–5 years
2 (2009–2011) 516 100 37
(33–42)
16
(13–18)
34
(29–38)
87
(65–110)
120
(86–150)
5 (2016–2017) 544 100 27
(23–32)
11
(8.4–13)
24
(20–28)
79
(62–95)
98Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(51–150)
6–11 years
2 (2009–2011) 513 100 26
(22–30)
11
(8.8–13)
23
(19–27)
63
(45–80)
94Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(40–150)
5 (2016–2017) 528 99.9
(99.2–100)
17
(16–19)
8.1
(7.1–9.1)
15
(13–17)
39
(31–47)
59
(40–77)
12–19 years
2 (2009–2011) 506 100 14
(12–16)
7.1
(6.1–8.1)
12
(11–14)
30
(23–38)
41Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(18–64)
5 (2016–2017) 531 99.9
(99.5–100)
9.8
(8.3–11)
4.7
(3.8–5.6)
8.8
(7.2–10)
21
(17–25)
29Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(18–41)
20–39 years
2 (2009–2011) 357 99.8
(98.8–100)
13
(12–14)
5.4
(4.3–6.5)
13
(11–14)
33
(23–42)
44Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(26–62)
5 (2016–2017) 370 99.1
(90.4–99.9)
9.4
(7.7–11)
3.9
(<LOD–4.2)
8.7
(7.4–9.9)
24Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(8.4–40)
46Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(14–79)
40–59 years
2 (2009–2011) 357 100 12
(11–14)
5.2
(4.5–6.0)
12
(9.8–13)
24Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(15–33)
32
(22–41)
5 (2016–2017) 358 100 8.4
(7.3–9.8)
3.9
(3.3–4.4)
7.6
(6.2–9.0)
21
(17–25)
26
(19–33)
60–79 years
2 (2009–2011) 288 100 11
(9.0–14)
4.5
(3.0–6.1)
11
(7.8–13)
30
(23–37)
37
(27–46)
5 (2016–2017) 352 99.9
(99.1–100)
9.2
(8.4–10)
3.9
(3.1–4.6)
8.2
(7.5–9.0)
23
(17–30)
39Table 14.1.11 footnote E
(22–55)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.12: Mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (3OH-MBP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.12 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2644 98.9
(97.3–99.5)
1.7
(1.4–1.9)
0.42
(0.32–0.52)
1.7
(1.4–2.0)
5.9
(5.0–6.8)
9.2
(7.0–11)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1309 99.0
(96.9–99.7)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
0.37Table 14.1.12 footnote E
(0.23–0.52)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
6.1
(4.7–7.6)
10Table 14.1.12 footnote E
(5.8–14)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1335 98.8
(96.0–99.6)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
0.49
(0.41–0.57)
1.8
(1.4–2.2)
5.5
(4.6–6.5)
8.6
(7.2–10)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 538 99.8
(97.9–100)
3.8
(3.2–4.5)
1.0
(0.69–1.3)
3.9
(3.1–4.7)
12
(8.5–15)
15
(11–20)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 525 99.9
(99.2–100)
3.4
(3.0–4.0)
1.1
(0.73–1.5)
3.3
(2.7–3.9)
10
(7.0–13)
15Table 14.1.12 footnote E
(6.9–22)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 525 99.7
(98.8–99.9)
2.4
(2.0–2.7)
0.57Table 14.1.12 footnote E
(0.30–0.84)
2.5
(2.3–2.8)
7.5
(5.9–9.1)
10
(7.2–14)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 363 97.4
(92.5–99.1)
1.5
(1.2–2.1)
0.37Table 14.1.12 footnote E
(0.12–0.61)
1.8Table 14.1.12 footnote E
(0.92–2.7)
6.1
(4.1–8.1)
9.0Table 14.1.12 footnote E
(3.7–14)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 351 99.5
(98.1–99.9)
1.4
(1.1–1.8)
0.37
(0.26–0.47)
1.4
(1.1–1.7)
5.1
(3.6–6.6)
6.3Table 14.1.12 footnote E
(2.9–9.7)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 342 99.2
(97.9–99.7)
1.3
(1.2–1.5)
0.45
(0.35–0.56)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
3.5
(2.4–4.6)
5.2Table 14.1.12 footnote E
(2.8–7.6)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.079 μg/L.

Table 14.1.13: Mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (3OH-MBP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.13 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2613 98.9
(97.3–99.5)
1.6
(1.5–1.7)
0.60
(0.53–0.66)
1.5
(1.4–1.6)
4.7
(4.2–5.1)
6.8
(6.0–7.5)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1294 99.0
(96.9–99.7)
1.3
(1.2–1.5)
0.54
(0.42–0.66)
1.2
(1.1–1.4)
4.0
(3.0–5.0)
6.5
(4.8–8.1)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1319 98.8
(96.0–99.6)
1.9
(1.7–2.0)
0.72
(0.57–0.88)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
4.9
(4.4–5.4)
7.1
(6.2–8.0)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 527 99.8
(97.9–100)
6.5
(5.7–7.4)
2.4
(1.9–3.0)
6.7
(5.9–7.6)
15
(11–19)
25Table 14.1.13 footnote E
(14–37)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 517 99.9
(99.2–100)
4.0
(3.5–4.5)
1.5
(1.1–1.8)
3.9
(3.4–4.4)
8.1
(7.1–9.0)
10
(7.2–14)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 519 99.7
(98.8–99.9)
1.8
(1.5–2.0)
0.77
(0.68–0.87)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
3.9
(2.9–4.9)
5.0Table 14.1.13 footnote E
(3.1–6.9)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 359 97.4
(92.5–99.1)
1.4
(1.2–1.7)
0.54Table 14.1.13 footnote E
(0.27–0.81)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
3.5Table 14.1.13 footnote E
(2.2–4.8)
4.8
(3.7–5.9)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 350 99.5
(98.1–99.9)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
0.56
(0.48–0.64)
1.2
(1.0–1.4)
2.9
(2.1–3.6)
3.7Table 14.1.13 footnote E
(2.1–5.4)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 341 99.2
(97.9–99.7)
1.5
(1.3–1.7)
0.61
(0.48–0.74)
1.5
(1.2–1.7)
3.6
(2.7–4.5)
4.8
(3.8–5.8)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.14: Monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.14 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.14 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2551 26.0
(19.8–33.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.24Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.15–0.32)
0.47Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.28–0.67)
5 (2016–2017) 2706 3.4Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(1.9–6.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.14 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1278 26.6
(19.2–35.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.25Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.15–0.34)
0.57Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.29–0.84)
5 (2016–2017) 1348 3.9Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(1.9–7.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.14 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1273 25.3Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(17.3–35.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.22Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.11–0.34)
0.44
(0.30–0.59)
5 (2016–2017) 1358 2.9Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(1.5–5.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.14 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 30.9
(23.2–39.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.74Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.21–1.3)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 555 4.6Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(2.8–7.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 15.1
(11.0–20.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.43Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(<LOD–0.73)
1.1Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.48–1.7)
2 (2009–2011) 516 33.8
(25.6–43)
<LOD <LOD 0.49Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.28–0.71)
1.3Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.46–2.0)
5 (2016–2017) 535 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.33Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(<LOD–0.46)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 13.3
(9.5–18.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.28Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(<LOD–0.43)
1.1Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.58–1.6)
2 (2009–2011) 507 25.5
(19.4–32.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.30
(0.20–0.40)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 538 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 11.8
(8.2–16.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.86Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.45–1.3)
2 (2009–2011) 359 25.4
(17.7–35.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.18Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(<LOD–0.29)
0.33Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(0.19–0.47)
5 (2016–2017) 372 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.14 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 358 23.0Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(15.3–33.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 356 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.14 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 289 28.6
(20.3–38.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.23
(0.16–0.30)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 350 4.0Table 14.1.14 footnote E
(2.1–7.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.2, 0.09, and 0.25 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.15: Monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.15 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.15 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2541 26.0
(19.8–33.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.29
(0.24–0.35)
0.56Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(0.33–0.80)
5 (2016–2017) 2674 3.4Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(1.9–6.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.15 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1274 26.6
(19.2–35.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.29
(0.20–0.38)
0.59
(0.38–0.79)
5 (2016–2017) 1333 3.9Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(1.9–7.7)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.15 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1267 25.3Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(17.3–35.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.30
(0.20–0.39)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1341 2.9Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(1.5–5.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.15 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 521 30.9
(23.2–39.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 544 4.6Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(2.8–7.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 15.1
(11.0–20.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.90Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(<LOD–1.4)
2.0Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(1.1–2.9)
2 (2009–2011) 514 33.8
(25.6–43)
<LOD <LOD 0.51Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(0.23–0.79)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 527 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.48
(<LOD–0.61)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 13.3
(9.5–18.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.40Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(<LOD–0.55)
0.82Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(0.40–1.2)
2 (2009–2011) 505 25.5
(19.4–32.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.28Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(0.15–0.40)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 531 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 11.8
(8.2–16.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.54
(<LOD–0.72)
0.89
(0.68–1.1)
2 (2009–2011) 357 25.4
(17.7–35.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.20Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(<LOD–0.31)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 368 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.15 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 356 23.0Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(15.3–33.0)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 355 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.15 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 288 28.6
(20.3–38.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.29
(0.21–0.37)
0.42Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(0.19–0.65)
5 (2016–2017) 349 4.0Table 14.1.15 footnote E
(2.1–7.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.16 : Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.16 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.16 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2559 100 7.5
(6.6–8.6)
1.7
(1.3–2.2)
7.1
(6.1–8.1)
32
(25–38)
57
(48–65)
5 (2016–2017) 2714 96.3
(92.6–98.2)
3.9
(3.1–4.7)
0.82
(0.61–1.0)
3.6
(3.0–4.3)
21
(17–24)
32
(23–40)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.16 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1281 100 8.0
(6.9–9.2)
2.1
(1.5–2.7)
7.5
(6.2–8.9)
33
(26–40)
54
(42–65)
5 (2016–2017) 1353 95.9
(89.6–98.4)
3.8
(2.9–5.0)
0.74
(0.48–1.0)
3.5
(2.6–4.3)
21
(17–26)
29
(23–35)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.16 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1278 100 7.1
(5.7–8.7)
1.5Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(0.89–2.0)
6.7
(4.8–8.6)
30
(20–40)
58
(41–75)
5 (2016–2017) 1361 96.8
(94.0–98.3)
3.9
(3.2–4.7)
0.91
(0.66–1.2)
3.8
(3.2–4.4)
19
(13–26)
36Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(22–49)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.16 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 100 17
(14–20)
4.1Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(2.6–5.7)
16
(13–18)
59Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(25–92)
120
(86–150)
5 (2016–2017) 555 97.0
(90.5–99.1)
7.7Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(4.3–14)
1.3Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(0.38–2.2)
7.8Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(4.9–11)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 100 21
(17–25)
4.8
(3.2–6.3)
21
(17–25)
91
(74–110)
120
(98–150)
2 (2009–2011) 516 100 19
(15–23)
4.9
(3.5–6.4)
20
(15–24)
76Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(45–110)
100
(72–140)
5 (2016–2017) 537 99.4
(98.4–99.8)
10
(8.3–12)
2.2Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(1.3–3.2)
9.6
(7.0–12)
42
(34–50)
58
(37–79)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 100 19
(16–22)
4.4
(3.1–5.7)
20
(16–24)
74
(56–93)
99
(86–110)
2 (2009–2011) 512 100 12
(10–15)
3.3
(2.2–4.4)
12
(8.9–15)
42
(33–50)
59
(43–75)
5 (2016–2017) 538 99.1
(98.1–99.6)
5.3
(4.2–6.7)
1.0
(0.69–1.3)
5.2Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(3.3–7.2)
24
(15–32)
41
(28–54)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 100 10
(8.1–13)
2.0
(1.5–2.5)
9.9
(7.0–13)
51
(38–64)
77
(50–100)
2 (2009–2011) 359 100 7.3
(5.5–9.7)
1.8Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(0.78–2.7)
7.0
(5.2–8.7)
30Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(12–48)
60
(39–80)
5 (2016–2017) 374 93.8
(80.2–98.2)
3.7Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(2.3–6.0)
0.83Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(<LOD–1.4)
4.1Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(2.5–5.6)
21Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(8.9–32)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.16 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 360 100 6.0
(4.8–7.5)
1.6Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(0.95–2.2)
5.6Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(2.9–8.2)
20Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(12–28)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 358 97.3
(92.6–99.0)
3.3
(2.4–4.6)
0.72Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(0.41–1.0)
3.1
(2.1–4.1)
18Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(11–25)
23Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(9.3–37)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.16 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 290 100 5.2
(4.3–6.4)
1.0Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(0.55–1.5)
4.7
(3.7–5.8)
23
(16–30)
36Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(15–57)
5 (2016–2017) 352 96.2
(92.9–98.0)
2.8
(2.4–3.3)
0.65
(0.47–0.82)
2.7
(2.1–3.2)
15Table 14.1.16 footnote E
(7.3–23)
21
(15–27)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.2, 0.05, and 0.37 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.17: Monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.17 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2549 100 7.4
(6.4–8.5)
2.1
(1.8–2.5)
6.8
(5.6–8.0)
28
(22–34)
44
(37–51)
5 (2016–2017) 2682 96.3
(92.6–98.2)
3.7
(3.1–4.4)
0.96
(0.83–1.1)
3.4
(2.7–4.1)
16
(13–19)
25
(18–32)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1277 100 6.8
(6.0–7.7)
2.1
(1.8–2.4)
5.9
(5.0–6.8)
25
(20–30)
39
(27–50)
5 (2016–2017) 1338 95.9
(89.6–98.4)
3.3
(2.6–4.1)
0.86
(0.67–1.1)
2.9
(2.2–3.6)
16
(9.9–21)
22
(16–28)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1272 100 8.1
(6.6–9.9)
2.2
(1.5–3.0)
7.7
(5.7–9.7)
32
(24–41)
46
(40–52)
5 (2016–2017) 1344 96.8
(94.0–98.3)
4.2
(3.6–5.0)
1.1
(0.88–1.3)
3.9
(3.1–4.8)
16
(13–19)
29
(19–39)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 521 100 29
(24–35)
9.4
(8.1–11)
26
(20–32)
100
(70–130)
150
(110–200)
5 (2016–2017) 544 97.0
(90.5–99.1)
13Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(8.6–20)
3.2Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(1.9–4.5)
12Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(7.0–17)
Table footnote F 120Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(<LOD–190)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 100 32
(27–39)
10
(8.5–12)
31
(25–37)
100
(86–110)
140
(110–170)
2 (2009–2011) 514 100 22
(18–26)
6.2
(4.3–8.2)
21
(17–25)
73
(58–88)
98
(78–120)
5 (2016–2017) 529 99.4
(98.4–99.8)
11
(9.7–14)
2.9
(2.0–3.8)
10
(7.4–13)
43
(32–53)
58Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(33–84)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 100 16
(14–19)
5.6
(4.1–7.1)
15
(13–17)
49Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(30–69)
70
(57–83)
2 (2009–2011) 510 100 9.4
(7.7–11)
3.1
(2.4–3.9)
9.3
(7.7–11)
28
(21–36)
44
(34–54)
5 (2016–2017) 531 99.1
(98.1–99.6)
4.0
(3.0–5.4)
1.0
(0.70–1.3)
3.4Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(2.0–4.8)
16
(10–21)
22Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(8.6–35)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 100 11
(8.9–13)
3.0Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(1.9–4.0)
10
(8.1–12)
36
(27–45)
54
(42–65)
2 (2009–2011) 357 100 6.3
(4.8–8.3)
2.0Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(1.1–2.9)
5.6
(4.0–7.2)
22Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(11–34)
36
(26–46)
5 (2016–2017) 370 93.8
(80.2–98.2)
3.4
(2.5–4.6)
0.81Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(<LOD–1.2)
3.3Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(2.0–4.5)
12Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(6.4–18)
21Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(9.6–33)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 358 100 6.1
(5.1–7.2)
2.0
(1.7–2.4)
5.4Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(3.4–7.4)
17
(13–20)
28Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(16–39)
5 (2016–2017) 357 97.3
(92.6–99.0)
3.0
(2.5–3.6)
0.93
(0.80–1.1)
2.6
(1.9–3.4)
11Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(6.6–16)
15Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(9.6–21)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.17 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 289 100 6.0
(5.2–7.0)
1.9
(1.6–2.3)
5.8
(4.5–7.1)
24
(17–31)
27Table 14.1.17 footnote E
(9.5–44)
5 (2016–2017) 351 96.2
(92.9–98.0)
3.2
(2.6–3.9)
0.93
(0.74–1.1)
2.9
(2.4–3.5)
13
(9.0–18)
18
(16–21)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.18: Mono[2-(carboxymethyl)hexyl]phthalate (MCMHP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.18 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2705 96.5
(93.9–98.0)
1.8
(1.5–2.1)
0.47
(0.34–0.61)
1.8
(1.5–2.2)
6.1
(4.4–7.7)
8.4
(6.5–10)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1348 97.2
(93.8–98.7)
1.8
(1.5–2.2)
0.50Table 14.1.18 footnote E
(0.27–0.72)
1.8
(1.5–2.2)
6.3
(4.1–8.6)
8.4
(5.8–11)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1357 95.8
(92.0–97.8)
1.7
(1.4–2.2)
0.46Table 14.1.18 footnote E
(0.28–0.65)
1.9
(1.5–2.3)
5.9
(4.4–7.3)
8.0
(6.2–9.8)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 553 99.5
(97.8–99.9)
3.3
(2.5–4.4)
0.97
(0.75–1.2)
3.3Table 14.1.18 footnote E
(2.1–4.5)
10
(8.4–12)
14
(11–17)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 98.8
(96.1–99.6)
3.1
(2.7–3.6)
0.99
(0.76–1.2)
3.1
(2.5–3.7)
8.8
(6.2–11)
13Table 14.1.18 footnote E
(5.9–19)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 97.4
(95.4–98.5)
1.9
(1.7–2.2)
0.60
(0.40–0.80)
2.2
(2.0–2.3)
5.1
(4.3–5.9)
7.3
(5.5–9.2)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 369 95.8
(88.0–98.6)
1.5
(1.1–2.0)
0.29Table 14.1.18 footnote E
(<LOD–0.49)
1.6
(1.1–2.1)
5.5Table 14.1.18 footnote E
(3.1–8.0)
8.5Table 14.1.18 footnote E
(4.7–12)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 358 96.4
(90.4–98.7)
1.7
(1.3–2.1)
0.50
(0.33–0.66)
1.7
(1.3–2.2)
5.2Table 14.1.18 footnote E
(2.8–7.5)
7.4
(4.8–10)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 351 95.8
(92.5–97.7)
1.7
(1.5–2.0)
0.56
(0.42–0.70)
1.8
(1.4–2.1)
5.1
(3.3–6.9)
7.2
(6.1–8.2)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.27 μg/L.

Table 14.1.19: Mono[2-(carboxymethyl)hexyl] phthalate (MCMHP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.19 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2673 96.5
(93.9–98.0)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
0.71
(0.61–0.81)
1.6
(1.4–1.8)
4.4
(3.8–5.0)
6.5
(4.8–8.2)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1333 97.2
(93.8–98.7)
1.5
(1.4–1.7)
0.68
(0.59–0.77)
1.4
(1.2–1.5)
3.9
(3.5–4.3)
5.9
(4.5–7.3)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1340 95.8
(92.0–97.8)
1.9
(1.6–2.3)
0.79
(0.56–1.0)
1.8
(1.5–2.2)
4.8
(4.0–5.6)
6.6
(4.4–8.9)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 542 99.5
(97.8–99.9)
5.8
(4.9–6.9)
2.2Table 14.1.19 footnote E
(1.3–3.1)
5.6
(4.4–6.9)
13
(12–15)
19
(12–25)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 529 98.8
(96.1–99.6)
3.6
(3.1–4.2)
1.5
(1.3–1.8)
3.3
(2.9–3.7)
9.4
(6.3–13)
12Table 14.1.19 footnote E
(7.5–17)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 530 97.4
(95.4–98.5)
1.5
(1.3–1.7)
0.76
(0.67–0.85)
1.4
(1.2–1.6)
2.9
(2.4–3.4)
3.6Table 14.1.19 footnote E
(2.0–5.1)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 365 95.8
(88.0–98.6)
1.4
(1.2–1.5)
0.65
(<LOD–0.74)
1.1
(0.89–1.3)
3.7
(2.7–4.6)
4.3Table 14.1.19 footnote E
(2.2–6.4)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 357 96.4
(90.4–98.7)
1.5
(1.3–1.8)
0.59Table 14.1.19 footnote E
(0.30–0.88)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)
3.8
(2.9–4.7)
4.6
(3.8–5.5)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 350 95.8
(92.5–97.7)
2.0
(1.7–2.3)
0.85
(0.75–0.95)
1.8
(1.6–2.1)
4.6
(3.4–5.8)
5.6
(3.6–7.6)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.20: Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.20 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.20 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2498 99.2
(98.0–99.7)
1.9
(1.7–2.1)
0.55
(0.44–0.66)
1.9
(1.6–2.1)
6.5
(5.4–7.6)
9.0
(7.8–10)
5 (2016–2017) 2691 98.5
(96.5–99.4)
1.0
(0.86–1.2)
0.26
(0.20–0.31)
0.96
(0.83–1.1)
3.9
(2.8–4.9)
5.8Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(3.6–8.0)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.20 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1253 99.3
(97.5–99.8)
2.1
(1.8–2.5)
0.58
(0.39–0.76)
2.2
(1.8–2.5)
7.2
(5.2–9.2)
11
(7.6–14)
5 (2016–2017) 1342 98.4
(94.5–99.6)
1.0
(0.83–1.2)
0.27
(0.19–0.36)
0.99
(0.78–1.2)
3.8
(2.7–4.9)
5.4
(4.1–6.6)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.20 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1245 99.1
(97.5–99.7)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
0.55
(0.41–0.69)
1.7
(1.3–2.1)
5.3
(4.2–6.3)
7.9
(6.5–9.3)
5 (2016–2017) 1349 98.6
(96.5–99.4)
1.0
(0.80–1.3)
0.25
(0.17–0.33)
0.90
(0.74–1.1)
4.0Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(2.2–5.8)
7.4Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(4.3–11)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.20 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 512 99.9
(99.4–100)
2.7
(2.4–3.2)
0.94
(0.77–1.1)
2.7
(2.3–3.1)
7.5
(5.8–9.3)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 553 99.8
(98.6–100)
1.5
(1.3–1.8)
0.36Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(0.21–0.52)
1.4
(1.0–1.7)
5.8
(4.7–7.0)
8.2
(6.9–9.5)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 100 3.3
(2.9–3.8)
0.86
(0.70–1.0)
3.3
(2.7–3.8)
12
(10–13)
18
(14–21)
2 (2009–2011) 508 100 2.7
(2.3–3.1)
0.85Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(0.53–1.2)
2.5
(2.1–2.9)
8.1Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(5.2–11)
11
(8.3–14)
5 (2016–2017) 534 99.9
(98.8–100)
1.4
(1.2–1.6)
0.35
(0.27–0.43)
1.4
(1.1–1.7)
5.1
(3.7–6.4)
5.8
(4.8–6.8)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 99.4
(98.6–99.7)
3.5
(2.8–4.3)
0.79
(0.58–1.0)
3.2
(2.5–3.9)
14
(9.9–19)
23Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(6.6–40)
2 (2009–2011) 501 99.2
(96.9–99.8)
2.4
(2.0–2.8)
0.64
(0.52–0.76)
2.4
(2.0–2.8)
6.8
(5.0–8.6)
13Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(7.7–18)
5 (2016–2017) 530 97.8
(93.8–99.2)
1.1
(0.96–1.2)
0.32
(0.24–0.41)
1.0
(0.89–1.2)
3.8
(3.0–4.5)
5.4
(4.6–6.2)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 99.9
(99.3–100)
4.0
(3.5–4.5)
0.95
(0.72–1.2)
3.9
(3.2–4.6)
15
(11–19)
23Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(12–34)
2 (2009–2011) 349 99.5
(97.2–99.9)
1.9
(1.6–2.2)
0.44Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(0.19–0.70)
1.9
(1.5–2.4)
7.1
(5.3–8.8)
8.8Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(4.9–13)
5 (2016–2017) 371 99.6
(98.5–99.9)
1.2
(0.95–1.6)
Table footnote F 1.0
(0.67–1.4)
5.0Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(1.3–8.7)
11Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(5.5–17)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.20 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 349 98.9
(96.3–99.7)
1.9
(1.5–2.2)
0.63
(0.55–0.72)
1.9
(1.4–2.3)
5.4
(3.7–7.1)
9.0Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(4.8–13)
5 (2016–2017) 356 96.9
(89.5–99.1)
0.87
(0.66–1.1)
0.20
(0.13–0.27)
0.90
(0.72–1.1)
2.8Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(1.0–4.7)
5.2Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(1.7–8.7)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.20 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 279 98.8
(94.7–99.7)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
0.44
(0.29–0.59)
1.2
(0.96–1.5)
4.7Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(2.8–6.5)
7.1Table 14.1.20 footnote E
(4.2–9.9)
5 (2016–2017) 347 98.8
(97.2–99.5)
0.78
(0.71–0.86)
0.25
(0.22–0.29)
0.73
(0.61–0.85)
2.3
(1.6–3.0)
3.7
(2.8–4.6)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.2, 0.08, and 0.11 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.21: Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.21 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.21 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2489 99.2
(98.0–99.7)
1.8
(1.7–2.0)
0.64
(0.52–0.76)
1.7
(1.6–1.9)
5.5
(4.8–6.1)
8.7
(7.3–10)
5 (2016–2017) 2660 98.5
(96.5–99.4)
0.98
(0.86–1.1)
0.29
(0.24–0.34)
0.97
(0.85–1.1)
3.3
(2.6–4.1)
4.6
(3.0–6.2)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.21 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1249 99.3
(97.5–99.8)
1.7
(1.5–2.0)
0.58
(0.45–0.70)
1.6
(1.3–1.8)
5.7
(4.7–6.7)
9.3
(6.6–12)
5 (2016–2017) 1328 98.4
(94.5–99.6)
0.87
(0.77–0.99)
0.28
(0.22–0.34)
0.83
(0.62–1.0)
2.8
(2.1–3.5)
3.9
(3.2–4.7)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.21 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1240 99.1
(97.5–99.7)
1.9
(1.7–2.2)
0.75
(0.59–0.91)
1.8
(1.6–2.1)
5.2
(4.3–6.0)
7.9
(6.3–9.6)
5 (2016–2017) 1332 98.6
(96.5–99.4)
1.1
(0.91–1.3)
0.30
(0.21–0.39)
1.0
(0.86–1.2)
3.7
(2.6–4.8)
6.0Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(3.3–8.6)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.21 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 511 99.9
(99.4–100)
4.7
(4.1–5.4)
1.8
(1.4–2.2)
4.4
(3.9–4.9)
12
(7.6–16)
19Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(12–26)
5 (2016–2017) 542 99.8
(98.6–100)
2.7
(2.2–3.2)
1.0
(0.91–1.1)
2.5
(2.0–2.9)
8.3
(7.0–9.6)
10Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(6.2–14)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 100 5.1
(4.5–5.7)
1.9
(1.6–2.1)
4.8
(4.3–5.3)
16
(14–18)
22
(18–25)
2 (2009–2011) 506 100 3.1
(2.7–3.5)
1.1
(0.83–1.3)
2.8
(2.4–3.2)
8.8
(7.0–11)
11
(8.5–13)
5 (2016–2017) 526 99.9
(98.8–100)
1.6
(1.4–1.9)
0.59
(0.43–0.75)
1.4
(1.2–1.7)
4.6
(3.6–5.5)
5.7
(4.3–7.0)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 99.4
(98.6–99.7)
3.0
(2.3–3.8)
0.82
(0.63–1.0)
2.8
(2.3–3.2)
10
(6.6–14)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 499 99.2
(96.9–99.8)
1.8
(1.6–2.0)
0.64
(0.56–0.72)
1.8
(1.6–2.0)
4.8
(3.4–6.2)
6.4Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(3.2–9.6)
5 (2016–2017) 524 97.8
(93.8–99.2)
0.82
(0.68–1.0)
0.24
(0.20–0.29)
0.82
(0.64–1.0)
2.2
(1.5–2.9)
3.1
(2.0–4.3)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 99.9
(99.3–100)
4.2
(3.7–4.8)
1.2Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(0.75–1.7)
3.7
(3.1–4.3)
14
(11–16)
21Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(13–30)
2 (2009–2011) 347 99.5
(97.2–99.9)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
0.65Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(0.41–0.90)
1.4
(1.1–1.7)
4.8
(3.3–6.4)
6.6Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(3.4–9.9)
5 (2016–2017) 367 99.6
(98.5–99.9)
1.1
(0.88–1.4)
0.29
(<LOD–0.37)
0.96
(0.71–1.2)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.21 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 348 98.9
(96.3–99.7)
1.8
(1.6–2.1)
0.59Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(0.35–0.83)
1.8
(1.5–2.1)
4.8
(4.1–5.5)
7.6Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(4.0–11)
5 (2016–2017) 355 96.9
(89.5–99.1)
0.79
(0.66–0.96)
0.22Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(0.088–0.35)
0.81
(0.55–1.1)
2.5
(1.7–3.3)
3.5
(2.5–4.4)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.21 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 278 98.8
(94.7–99.7)
1.5
(1.3–1.7)
0.50
(0.33–0.68)
1.4
(1.1–1.6)
4.6
(3.3–5.8)
7.2Table 14.1.21 footnote E
(4.4–10)
5 (2016–2017) 346 98.8
(97.2–99.5)
0.89
(0.80–1.0)
0.30
(0.26–0.34)
0.88
(0.76–1.0)
2.6
(2.0–3.3)
4.2
(2.9–5.5)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.22: Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.22 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2705 99.5
(97.0–99.9)
6.1
(5.2–7.3)
1.8
(1.3–2.3)
6.3
(5.1–7.4)
21
(16–26)
30
(23–36)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1346 99.1
(93.6–99.9)
6.0
(4.9–7.3)
1.7Table 14.1.22 footnote E
(1.0–2.4)
6.2
(5.1–7.3)
21
(15–27)
29Table 14.1.22 footnote E
(15–44)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1359 99.9
(99.5–100)
6.3
(5.0–8.0)
1.9
(1.3–2.5)
6.4
(4.6–8.2)
21
(16–27)
30
(23–37)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 555 100 15
(12–19)
4.7Table 14.1.22 footnote E
(2.9–6.5)
15
(11–19)
49
(40–57)
57
(49–64)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 535 100 13
(11–15)
4.2
(2.7–5.7)
13
(11–14)
38
(26–49)
52Table 14.1.22 footnote E
(29–75)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 536 99.9
(99.5–100)
6.9
(6.1–7.7)
2.0
(1.6–2.3)
7.8
(7.0–8.6)
19
(15–22)
23
(18–29)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 373 100
(99.9–100)
5.6
(4.1–7.5)
1.5Table 14.1.22 footnote E
(0.56–2.4)
5.3Table 14.1.22 footnote E
(3.1–7.5)
22
(15–29)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 355 98.6
(89.5–99.8)
5.3
(4.1–6.8)
1.6
(1.0–2.1)
5.6
(4.4–6.8)
15Table 14.1.22 footnote E
(7.1–24)
24Table 14.1.22 footnote E
(14–35)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 351 99.8
(98.6–100)
5.7
(5.1–6.3)
2.1
(1.8–2.4)
5.4
(4.4–6.5)
15
(12–18)
21
(13–28)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.28 μg/L.

Table 14.1.23: Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.23 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2673 99.5
(97.0–99.9)
5.9
(5.2–6.7)
2.4
(2.0–2.8)
5.4
(4.5–6.3)
17
(13–21)
26
(21–31)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1331 99.1
(93.6–99.9)
5.2
(4.6–5.7)
2.1
(1.9–2.4)
4.6
(4.0–5.3)
14
(11–16)
22
(18–26)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1342 99.9
(99.5–100)
6.8
(5.7–8.3)
2.9
(2.5–3.3)
6.6
(5.3–7.9)
20
(15–26)
28
(21–35)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 544 100 26
(23–30)
10
(8.5–12)
25
(21–29)
61
(52–71)
76
(56–95)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 527 100 14
(12–17)
6.2
(4.9–7.6)
14
(12–15)
34Table 14.1.23 footnote E
(19–49)
54
(36–72)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 529 99.9
(99.5–100)
5.2
(4.5–6.1)
2.1
(1.6–2.6)
5.4
(4.6–6.2)
11
(9.0–14)
15
(12–18)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 369 100
(99.9–100)
5.0
(4.2–6.0)
2.2
(1.7–2.7)
3.7
(3.1–4.3)
18Table 14.1.23 footnote E
(7.6–28)
25Table 14.1.23 footnote E
(16–35)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 354 98.6
(89.5–99.8)
4.8
(4.0–5.7)
2.1
(1.5–2.7)
4.8
(4.0–5.5)
10
(9.1–11)
11
(8.1–14)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 350 99.8
(98.6–100)
6.5
(5.8–7.4)
2.7
(2.2–3.2)
6.5
(5.3–7.7)
13
(10–16)
18
(13–23)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.24: Mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.24 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.24 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2561 100 7.4
(6.9–8.0)
2.3
(2.1–2.5)
7.4
(6.7–8.1)
23
(20–26)
34
(30–39)
5 (2016–2017) 2716 99.3
(97.1–99.8)
3.5
(3.0–4.0)
0.99
(0.83–1.2)
3.5
(2.9–4.1)
12
(9.3–14)
17
(14–21)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.24 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1282 100 7.9
(6.8–9.1)
2.4
(2.0–2.8)
7.8
(7.0–8.7)
25
(20–31)
37Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(22–52)
5 (2016–2017) 1353 99.2
(93.7–99.9)
3.4
(2.8–4.1)
0.98
(0.70–1.3)
3.4
(2.8–4.1)
12
(8.5–16)
17Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(8.6–26)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.24 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 100 7.0
(6.5–7.6)
2.3
(2.0–2.6)
6.7
(5.7–7.8)
22
(18–25)
29
(23–36)
5 (2016–2017) 1363 99.5
(95.1–99.9)
3.5
(2.9–4.3)
1.0
(0.86–1.1)
3.7
(2.8–4.5)
11
(8.5–14)
17
(13–22)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.24 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 100 17
(15–19)
6.0
(4.7–7.2)
17
(15–20)
46
(35–57)
67Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(38–95)
5 (2016–2017) 555 100 8.5
(6.9–10)
2.6
(1.8–3.5)
8.7
(6.6–11)
27
(23–30)
34
(26–42)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 100 20
(18–22)
5.5
(4.7–6.4)
20
(17–22)
69
(59–78)
100
(84–120)
2 (2009–2011) 516 100 15
(13–18)
4.7
(3.4–6.1)
16
(12–20)
44
(28–60)
57
(50–65)
5 (2016–2017) 537 100 7.0
(6.0–8.2)
2.1
(1.5–2.8)
7.5
(6.2–8.8)
20Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(12–28)
31Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(19–43)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 100 18
(15–21)
4.5
(3.6–5.5)
17
(15–20)
61
(51–72)
99Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(43–150)
2 (2009–2011) 512 100 10
(8.6–12)
3.2Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(1.7–4.7)
9.9
(8.6–11)
30
(22–38)
44
(30–59)
5 (2016–2017) 538 99.9
(99.5–100)
4.0
(3.6–4.6)
1.2Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(0.73–1.6)
4.5
(4.1–4.9)
11
(9.3–13)
14
(9.6–19)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 100 13
(11–15)
3.5
(2.6–4.4)
13
(10–15)
48
(34–62)
75Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(32–120)
2 (2009–2011) 359 100 6.6
(5.6–7.8)
2.4
(1.9–2.9)
6.7
(5.4–8.0)
19
(16–21)
24Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(14–35)
5 (2016–2017) 374 99.1
(91.7–99.9)
3.1
(2.4–4.1)
0.86Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(0.33–1.4)
3.0Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(1.9–4.2)
12
(8.2–15)
17Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(9.7–24)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.24 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 360 100 6.6
(5.5–7.8)
2.3
(1.7–2.8)
6.2
(5.1–7.2)
19
(15–23)
26Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(16–36)
5 (2016–2017) 359 98.6
(89.7–99.8)
3.0
(2.3–3.8)
0.98
(0.62–1.3)
2.9
(2.2–3.5)
8.4Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(3.3–13)
13Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(7.1–20)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.24 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 291 100 6.0
(5.1–7.0)
2.0
(1.5–2.5)
6.0
(4.7–7.4)
17
(12–22)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 353 100 3.2
(2.8–3.6)
0.99
(0.83–1.2)
3.2
(2.8–3.6)
8.7
(7.7–9.8)
14Table 14.1.24 footnote E
(7.7–19)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.2, 0.1, and 0.17 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.25: Mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.25 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.25 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2551 100 7.3
(6.9–7.7)
2.8
(2.5–3.1)
6.9
(6.3–7.5)
19
(17–21)
31
(27–34)
5 (2016–2017) 2684 99.3
(97.1–99.8)
3.4
(3.0–3.7)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
3.1
(2.7–3.6)
9.5
(8.3–11)
15
(12–19)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.25 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1278 100 6.7
(6.0–7.4)
2.6
(2.1–3.1)
6.1
(5.3–7.0)
20
(14–26)
32
(26–37)
5 (2016–2017) 1338 99.2
(93.7–99.9)
3.0
(2.7–3.3)
1.1
(1.0–1.3)
2.5
(2.2–2.8)
8.1
(6.9–9.4)
13
(9.7–16)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.25 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1273 100 8.0
(7.3–8.8)
3.2
(2.5–3.8)
7.8
(6.8–8.7)
19
(17–21)
26
(20–32)
5 (2016–2017) 1346 99.5
(95.1–99.9)
3.8
(3.3–4.5)
1.4
(1.3–1.6)
3.7
(2.9–4.5)
10
(7.0–13)
17
(12–22)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.25 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 100 30
(27–33)
13
(11–15)
28
(25–31)
71
(58–85)
90
(58–120)
5 (2016–2017) 544 100 15
(13–17)
6.2
(4.4–8.0)
14
(12–15)
35
(31–39)
43
(28–58)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 100 30
(27–34)
12
(9.7–14)
28
(24–31)
84
(74–94)
120
(95–140)
2 (2009–2011) 514 100 17
(16–19)
7.7
(6.5–8.8)
17
(15–18)
45
(35–56)
52
(40–65)
5 (2016–2017) 529 100 8.2
(7.0–9.6)
3.4
(2.8–4.0)
8.0
(7.1–9.0)
19
(12–26)
31
(20–41)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 100 15
(13–18)
5.5
(4.5–6.4)
13
(11–15)
45
(31–60)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 510 100 7.8
(6.9–8.9)
3.2
(2.8–3.7)
7.6
(6.5–8.8)
17
(13–21)
25Table 14.1.25 footnote E
(14–35)
5 (2016–2017) 531 99.9
(99.5–100)
3.1
(2.6–3.7)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
3.1
(2.3–3.8)
6.7
(4.9–8.4)
9.4
(7.7–11)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 100 14
(12–16)
5.2
(4.3–6.1)
12
(10–13)
46
(33–59)
84
(56–110)
2 (2009–2011) 357 100 5.6
(4.8–6.6)
2.2
(1.6–2.7)
4.9
(3.9–5.9)
13Table 14.1.25 footnote E
(7.4–19)
19
(14–25)
5 (2016–2017) 370 99.1
(91.7–99.9)
2.8
(2.4–3.3)
1.1
(0.80–1.4)
2.4
(2.1–2.6)
8.5Table 14.1.25 footnote E
(2.9–14)
14Table 14.1.25 footnote E
(6.5–22)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.25 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 358 100 6.6
(5.9–7.4)
2.8
(2.3–3.3)
6.6
(5.8–7.5)
14
(12–17)
21Table 14.1.25 footnote E
(13–29)
5 (2016–2017) 358 98.6
(89.7–99.8)
2.7
(2.4–3.2)
1.1
(0.78–1.5)
2.7
(2.4–3.0)
5.8
(4.4–7.3)
7.6
(5.0–10)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.25 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 290 100 6.9
(6.3–7.6)
3.1
(2.5–3.7)
7.0
(6.3–7.7)
14
(11–16)
18
(11–24)
5 (2016–2017) 352 100 3.6
(3.3–4.1)
1.6
(1.3–1.8)
3.6
(3.1–4.1)
7.5
(6.2–8.7)
10
(6.6–14)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.26: Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.26 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.26 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2561 99.5
(97.5–99.9)
13
(12–14)
3.9
(3.4–4.4)
12
(12–13)
39
(34–44)
59
(48–70)
5 (2016–2017) 2716 99.5
(97.0–99.9)
5.2
(4.4–6.1)
1.5
(1.1–1.8)
5.3
(4.3–6.3)
17
(12–21)
26
(20–31)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.26 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1282 99.2
(94.3–99.9)
14
(12–16)
4.2
(3.1–5.2)
13
(12–15)
43
(31–54)
69
(53–84)
5 (2016–2017) 1353 99.2
(93.7–99.9)
5.1
(4.3–6.2)
1.4
(0.91–1.8)
5.3
(4.2–6.3)
17
(12–21)
26
(20–32)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.26 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 99.9
(98.6–100)
12
(11–12)
3.8
(3.2–4.4)
11
(9.4–13)
35
(31–40)
47
(39–56)
5 (2016–2017) 1363 99.9
(99.4–100)
5.2
(4.3–6.4)
1.5
(1.1–2.0)
5.5
(3.9–7.0)
17
(11–22)
24
(18–31)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.26 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 100 26
(23–30)
8.6
(6.4–11)
25
(21–30)
69
(53–86)
99Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(59–140)
5 (2016–2017) 555 100 12
(9.5–14)
3.6
(2.7–4.5)
11
(8.5–14)
36
(33–39)
44
(33–55)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 100 31
(28–35)
8.8
(7.6–10)
31
(27–35)
100
(90–120)
180
(130–230)
2 (2009–2011) 516 100 24
(20–27)
7.0
(5.4–8.7)
24
(19–29)
71
(52–90)
97
(73–120)
5 (2016–2017) 537 100 9.7
(8.3–11)
3.1Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(1.9–4.4)
9.9
(8.2–12)
29
(19–39)
44Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(25–63)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 100 29
(24–34)
7.5
(5.8–9.3)
29
(25–32)
99
(78–120)
160Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(64–260)
2 (2009–2011) 512 100 16
(14–20)
4.6Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(2.4–6.8)
16
(13–20)
47
(36–58)
68
(49–87)
5 (2016–2017) 538 100 5.9
(5.3–6.6)
2.1
(1.5–2.8)
6.6
(5.8–7.5)
15
(10–20)
23
(17–29)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 100 22
(19–26)
5.7
(4.5–6.9)
21
(16–26)
90
(67–110)
150Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(83–220)
2 (2009–2011) 359 98.6
(90.7–99.8)
11
(9.1–13)
3.8
(3.0–4.6)
12
(10–13)
30
(23–37)
40Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(20–60)
5 (2016–2017) 374 100 4.7
(3.5–6.3)
1.2Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(0.50–2.0)
4.8Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(2.6–7.0)
16Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(6.4–25)
25
(16–34)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.26 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 360 99.8
(97.8–100)
12
(9.7–14)
4.1Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(2.6–5.5)
11
(8.7–13)
35
(28–41)
44Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(21–67)
5 (2016–2017) 359 98.6
(89.7–99.8)
4.6
(3.6–5.8)
1.5Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(0.91–2.1)
4.7
(3.5–5.9)
14Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(8.7–19)
19
(14–25)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.26 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 291 100 10
(8.8–12)
3.4
(2.5–4.3)
10
(7.4–13)
28Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(17–38)
44Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(23–66)
5 (2016–2017) 353 99.8
(98.6–100)
4.7
(4.2–5.4)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)
4.8
(4.0–5.5)
12
(9.7–15)
18Table 14.1.26 footnote E
(7.9–29)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.4, 0.4, and 0.22 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.27: Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.27 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.27 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2551 99.5
(97.5–99.9)
12
(12–13)
5.0
(4.5–5.4)
12
(11–12)
32
(28–35)
51
(44–59)
5 (2016–2017) 2684 99.5
(97.0–99.9)
5.0
(4.5–5.6)
2.0
(1.7–2.4)
4.6
(4.1–5.2)
13
(11–15)
20
(16–23)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.27 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1278 99.2
(94.3–99.9)
12
(10–13)
4.3
(3.4–5.2)
10
(9.3–11)
33
(24–43)
58
(45–72)
5 (2016–2017) 1338 99.2
(93.7–99.9)
4.4
(4.0–4.9)
1.8
(1.5–2.1)
3.9
(3.4–4.4)
12
(10–13)
19
(14–25)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.27 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1273 99.9
(98.6–100)
13
(12–14)
5.4
(4.8–5.9)
13
(11–14)
30
(26–35)
43
(34–51)
5 (2016–2017) 1346 99.9
(99.4–100)
5.7
(4.9–6.7)
2.4
(2.0–2.7)
5.5
(4.8–6.2)
15
(10–19)
20Table 14.1.27 footnote E
(12–28)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.27 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 100 46
(41–51)
20
(17–23)
42
(37–46)
110
(89–120)
130Table 14.1.27 footnote E
(67–190)
5 (2016–2017) 544 100 20
(18–23)
8.5
(6.2–11)
19
(16–22)
49
(44–54)
62
(43–81)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 100 48
(44–53)
19
(16–22)
44
(39–48)
130
(110–150)
190
(150–240)
2 (2009–2011) 514 100 27
(24–30)
11
(9.6–13)
24
(22–27)
70
(56–83)
90
(68–110)
5 (2016–2017) 529 100 11
(9.5–13)
4.8
(3.5–6.0)
10
(8.9–12)
29
(19–40)
43
(30–56)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 100 25
(21–29)
9.0
(7.9–10)
22
(18–25)
76Table 14.1.27 footnote E
(44–110)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 510 100 12
(11–14)
5.0
(4.2–5.9)
12
(10–14)
27
(21–34)
37Table 14.1.27 footnote E
(15–60)
5 (2016–2017) 531 100 4.5
(3.9–5.3)
2.0
(1.6–2.4)
4.5
(3.6–5.5)
9.7
(7.2–12)
13
(8.1–17)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 100 23
(21–26)
8.5
(6.7–10)
20
(18–22)
80
(53–110)
140
(93–190)
2 (2009–2011) 357 98.6
(90.7–99.8)
9.4
(7.9–11)
3.9
(2.6–5.2)
8.5
(6.2–11)
23
(18–27)
29Table 14.1.27 footnote E
(16–42)
5 (2016–2017) 370 100 4.3
(3.6–5.0)
1.8
(1.4–2.2)
3.9
(3.2–4.6)
12Table 14.1.27 footnote E
(4.1–19)
19Table 14.1.27 footnote E
(10–27)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.27 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 358 99.8
(97.8–100)
12
(11–13)
5.1
(4.3–5.9)
11
(10–13)
27
(22–33)
36Table 14.1.27 footnote E
(18–54)
5 (2016–2017) 358 98.6
(89.7–99.8)
4.2
(3.6–4.9)
1.8
(1.3–2.3)
4.1
(3.8–4.5)
8.8
(6.5–11)
13
(8.7–17)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.27 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 290 100 12
(11–13)
5.2
(4.2–6.1)
12
(11–14)
24
(21–27)
35
(27–42)
5 (2016–2017) 352 99.8
(98.6–100)
5.4
(4.9–6.1)
2.5
(2.1–2.8)
5.3
(4.7–5.8)
11
(9.0–13)
14Table 14.1.27 footnote E
(8.1–20)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.28: Mono-carboxy-n-heptyl phthalate (MCHpP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.28 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2213 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1106 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1107 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 441 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 425 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 433 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 308 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 303 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 303 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.083 μg/L.

Table 14.1.29: Mono-carboxy-n-heptyl phthalate (MCHpP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.29 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2184 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1092 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1092 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 433 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 417 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 426 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 304 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 302 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 302 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.30: Mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.30 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.30 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2558 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 2715 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.30 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1280 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1353 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.30 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1278 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1362 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.30 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 2.3Table 14.1.30 footnote E
(1.4–3.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 554 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1037 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 516 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 537 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 511 1.4Table 14.1.30 footnote E
(0.7–2.9)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 538 1.3Table 14.1.30 footnote E
(0.8–2.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 358 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 374 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.30 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 360 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 359 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.30 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 290 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 353 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.7, 0.3, and 0.16 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.31: Mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.31 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.31 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2548 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 2683 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.31 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1276 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1338 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.31 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1272 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1345 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.31 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 2.3Table 14.1.31 footnote E
(1.4–3.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 543 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1034 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 514 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 529 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 509 1.4Table 14.1.31 footnote E
(0.7–2.9)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 531 1.3Table 14.1.31 footnote E
(0.8–2.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 356 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 370 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.31 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 358 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 358 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.31 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 289 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 352 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.32: Mono(carboxyisooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.32 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2713 84.2
(79.2–88.2)
0.97
(0.85–1.1)
<LOD 0.98
(0.84–1.1)
4.2
(3.1–5.3)
7.2
(4.8–9.7)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1350 83.2
(75.8–88.7)
0.96
(0.79–1.2)
<LOD 0.99
(0.83–1.2)
3.9
(2.8–5.1)
6.8
(5.8–7.8)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1363 85.1
(80.3–88.9)
0.99
(0.86–1.2)
<LOD 0.96
(0.81–1.1)
4.6Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(2.9–6.4)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 555 91.8
(84.4–95.9)
1.3
(1.0–1.7)
0.33Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(<LOD–0.48)
1.3Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(0.81–1.8)
5.6Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(2.2–8.9)
9.9Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(4.2–15)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 91.9
(86.3–95.3)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
0.36Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(<LOD–0.51)
1.4
(1.0–1.7)
4.6Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(2.4–6.7)
9.3Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(4.3–14)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 85.8
(81.2–89.5)
1.2
(0.97–1.4)
<LOD 1.2
(0.85–1.5)
5.1
(3.6–6.6)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 373 82.8
(69.7–91.0)
0.95
(0.67–1.4)
<LOD 1.0Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(0.55–1.5)
3.7Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(2.1–5.4)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 359 82.8
(76.5–87.7)
0.92
(0.77–1.1)
<LOD 0.95
(0.66–1.2)
5.3Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(2.9–7.6)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 352 83.5
(75.7–89.1)
0.86
(0.72–1.0)
<LOD 0.83
(0.70–0.96)
4.1Table 14.1.32 footnote E
(1.8–6.3)
6.6
(5.1–8.0)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.30 μg/L.

Table 14.1.33: Mono(carboxyisooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.33 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2681 84.2
(79.2–88.2)
0.94
(0.84–1.1)
<LOD 0.82
(0.73–0.91)
3.7
(3.1–4.3)
6.4
(5.5–7.4)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1335 83.2
(75.8–88.7)
0.82
(0.70–0.96)
<LOD 0.77
(0.63–0.91)
3.3
(2.4–4.3)
6.0
(4.7–7.4)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1346 85.1
(80.3–88.9)
1.1
(0.95–1.2)
<LOD 0.92
(0.79–1.0)
4.0Table 14.1.33 footnote E
(2.2–5.8)
7.3Table 14.1.33 footnote E
(<LOD–12)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 544 91.8
(84.4–95.9)
2.4
(2.0–2.8)
0.73
(<LOD–0.96)
2.2
(1.8–2.6)
8.1Table 14.1.33 footnote E
(4.3–12)
13Table 14.1.33 footnote E
(6.1–19)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 529 91.9
(86.3–95.3)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
0.51
(<LOD–0.63)
1.4
(1.2–1.6)
5.1
(3.5–6.7)
7.3Table 14.1.33 footnote E
(3.5–11)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 530 85.8
(81.2–89.5)
0.90
(0.75–1.1)
<LOD 0.77
(0.66–0.89)
3.5Table 14.1.33 footnote E
(1.5–5.4)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 369 82.8
(69.7–91.0)
0.85
(0.68–1.1)
<LOD 0.77
(0.61–0.94)
2.6Table 14.1.33 footnote E
(1.5–3.7)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 358 82.8
(76.5–87.7)
0.84
(0.67–1.1)
<LOD 0.75
(0.63–0.88)
Table footnote F 6.5
(5.2–7.7)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 351 83.5
(75.7–89.1)
0.98
(0.83–1.2)
<LOD 0.83
(0.70–0.95)
4.0
(2.9–5.1)
5.2
(3.4–7.0)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.34: Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.34 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.34 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2556 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 2716 41.9
(33.2–51.1)
<LOD <LOD 1.4Table 14.1.34 footnote E
(0.89–2.0)
3.5Table 14.1.34 footnote E
(1.5–5.4)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.34 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1280 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1353 44.8
(35.8–54.1)
<LOD <LOD 1.1
(0.81–1.3)
2.2Table 14.1.34 footnote E
(1.4–3.0)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.34 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1276 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1363 38.9
(29.8–48.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 4.0Table 14.1.34 footnote E
(1.2–6.8)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.34 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 555 49.1
(32.5–65.9)
<LOD <LOD 1.5
(1.0–2.0)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1036 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 514 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 537 49.5
(38.9–60.2)
<LOD <LOD 1.2
(0.75–1.6)
2.0
(1.5–2.6)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 991 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 511 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 538 49.1
(38.1–60.2)
<LOD <LOD 1.5Table 14.1.34 footnote E
(0.70–2.3)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 730 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 358 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 374 50.1
(33.9–66.3)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 4.9Table 14.1.34 footnote E
(2.1–7.7)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.34 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 360 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 359 37.2
(29.2–45.9)
<LOD <LOD 1.2Table 14.1.34 footnote E
(0.71–1.8)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.34 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 291 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 353 29.9
(20.8–40.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.94
(0.63–1.3)
1.5Table 14.1.34 footnote E
(0.75–2.3)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.4, 0.3, and 0.37 μg/L, respectively.

Table 14.1.35: Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.35 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.35 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2546 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 2684 41.9
(33.2–51.1)
<LOD <LOD 1.3Table 14.1.35 footnote E
(0.73–1.8)
3.3Table 14.1.35 footnote E
(1.4–5.1)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.35 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1276 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1338 44.8
(35.8–54.1)
<LOD <LOD 1.0
(0.89–1.2)
1.8Table 14.1.35 footnote E
(0.67–3.0)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.35 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1270 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1346 38.9
(29.8–48.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.35 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 521 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 544 49.1
(32.5–65.9)
<LOD <LOD 2.4Table 14.1.35 footnote E
(1.1–3.8)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1033 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 512 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 529 49.5
(38.9–60.2)
<LOD <LOD 1.3Table 14.1.35 footnote E
(0.76–1.8)
3.1
(2.0–4.2)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 989 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 509 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 531 49.1
(38.1–60.2)
<LOD <LOD 1.1Table 14.1.35 footnote E
(0.63–1.6)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 728 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 356 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 370 50.1
(33.9–66.3)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.35 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 358 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 358 37.2
(29.2–45.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 14.1.35 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 290 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 352 29.9
(20.8–40.9)
<LOD <LOD 1.1Table 14.1.35 footnote E
(0.61–1.5)
1.7Table 14.1.35 footnote E
(0.99–2.4)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.36: Monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCiNP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.36 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2551 95.9
(92.2–97.9)
0.68
(0.57–0.80)
0.16
(0.12–0.21)
0.71
(0.55–0.88)
2.5
(1.9–3.1)
4.0
(3.0–5.0)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1272 94.9
(90.7–97.2)
0.68
(0.57–0.83)
0.17Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(0.081–0.25)
0.73
(0.59–0.88)
2.4
(1.8–2.9)
4.2
(3.1–5.4)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1279 96.9
(91.4–98.9)
0.67
(0.54–0.82)
0.16
(0.11–0.21)
0.67
(0.44–0.90)
2.5
(1.8–3.2)
3.8
(2.6–5.0)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 520 99.9
(99.5–100)
0.96Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(0.62–1.5)
0.27Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(0.16–0.38)
0.87Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(0.52–1.2)
3.8Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(1.2–6.3)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 517 99.5
(99.0–99.8)
1.1
(0.87–1.3)
0.33
(0.24–0.41)
1.0
(0.77–1.2)
3.3
(2.6–4.0)
4.5Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(2.1–6.8)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 498 97.2
(93.9–98.7)
0.79
(0.68–0.92)
0.22Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(0.098–0.34)
0.85
(0.70–0.99)
2.3
(1.8–2.9)
3.8
(2.6–5.0)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 356 94.3
(80.2–98.5)
0.58
(0.41–0.84)
Table footnote F 0.56Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(0.28–0.83)
2.3Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(1.4–3.3)
3.5Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(2.0–5.0)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 325 95.0
(89.5–97.7)
0.69
(0.53–0.90)
0.15Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(<LOD–0.23)
0.77
(0.58–0.96)
2.8Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(1.8–3.8)
4.6Table 14.1.36 footnote E
(2.6–6.5)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 335 97.0
(92.1–98.9)
0.60
(0.51–0.70)
0.16
(0.12–0.19)
0.61
(0.47–0.76)
2.1
(1.7–2.6)
3.4
(2.4–4.5)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.077 μg/L.

Table 14.1.37: Monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCiNP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.37 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2522 95.9
(92.2–97.9)
0.64
(0.56–0.73)
0.22
(0.18–0.26)
0.58
(0.50–0.66)
2.0
(1.6–2.3)
2.7
(2.2–3.2)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1257 94.9
(90.7–97.2)
0.57
(0.51–0.64)
0.20
(0.15–0.24)
0.52
(0.48–0.56)
1.9
(1.5–2.3)
2.7
(2.1–3.3)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1265 96.9
(91.4–98.9)
0.71
(0.60–0.85)
0.28
(0.23–0.33)
0.64
(0.50–0.78)
2.0
(1.6–2.4)
2.7
(2.0–3.4)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 510 99.9
(99.5–100)
1.7
(1.2–2.3)
0.63
(0.41–0.85)
1.5
(1.2–1.7)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 509 99.5
(99.0–99.8)
1.2
(1.0–1.5)
0.44
(0.40–0.49)
1.1
(0.90–1.2)
2.9Table 14.1.37 footnote E
(1.6–4.2)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 493 97.2
(93.9–98.7)
0.58
(0.49–0.68)
0.22
(0.17–0.27)
0.53
(0.41–0.65)
1.8
(1.4–2.2)
2.4
(1.5–3.2)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 352 94.3
(80.2–98.5)
0.51
(0.42–0.62)
0.18
(<LOD–0.21)
0.47
(0.38–0.56)
1.3Table 14.1.37 footnote E
(0.55–2.1)
2.0Table 14.1.37 footnote E
(0.99–3.0)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 324 95.0
(89.5–97.7)
0.61
(0.51–0.74)
0.21Table 14.1.37 footnote E
(<LOD–0.31)
0.57
(0.44–0.70)
2.0
(1.4–2.6)
2.6
(2.0–3.2)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 334 97.0
(92.1–98.9)
0.67
(0.58–0.78)
0.26
(0.23–0.30)
0.64
(0.55–0.73)
1.8
(1.4–2.2)
2.5
(1.8–3.1)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.38: Monooxoisononyl phthalate (MOiNP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.38 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2640 90.2
(86.5–92.9)
0.67
(0.60–0.75)
Table footnote F 0.63
(0.57–0.69)
3.2
(2.8–3.6)
5.4
(3.7–7.2)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1318 90.2
(84.4–93.9)
0.65
(0.54–0.78)
Table footnote F 0.61
(0.52–0.70)
2.5
(1.8–3.2)
4.3Table 14.1.38 footnote E
(2.1–6.4)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1322 90.2
(86.1–93.2)
0.69
(0.59–0.82)
Table footnote F 0.66
(0.56–0.77)
3.5
(2.6–4.5)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 548 97.4
(91.5–99.3)
1.1
(0.88–1.4)
0.26Table 14.1.38 footnote E
(<LOD–0.42)
1.1
(0.89–1.2)
4.4
(2.8–6.0)
6.7Table 14.1.38 footnote E
(3.4–10)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 524 97.5
(94.9–98.8)
1.0
(0.87–1.3)
0.31
(0.27–0.36)
1.0
(0.80–1.3)
3.6
(2.6–4.6)
5.0Table 14.1.38 footnote E
(1.6–8.4)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 525 94.4
(90.7–96.6)
0.93
(0.79–1.1)
0.20
(<LOD–0.26)
0.90
(0.73–1.1)
3.8Table 14.1.38 footnote E
(2.0–5.5)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 358 88.4
(76.3–94.8)
0.67
(0.50–0.90)
<LOD 0.59
(0.41–0.76)
3.3
(2.2–4.3)
5.8Table 14.1.38 footnote E
(1.7–9.9)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 343 89.1
(75.9–95.5)
0.59
(0.46–0.75)
<LOD 0.56
(0.45–0.67)
2.9
(1.9–4.0)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 342 88.7
(84.1–92.1)
0.55
(0.46–0.66)
<LOD 0.54
(0.40–0.68)
2.6Table 14.1.38 footnote E
(1.4–3.7)
3.7Table 14.1.38 footnote E
(2.1–5.3)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.15 μg/L.

Table 14.1.39: Monooxoisononyl phthalate (MOiNP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.39 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2609 90.2
(86.5–92.9)
0.65
(0.59–0.71)
<LOD 0.55
(0.50–0.60)
2.8
(2.3–3.2)
5.2
(3.7–6.7)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1304 90.2
(84.4–93.9)
0.55
(0.48–0.64)
<LOD 0.48
(0.37–0.58)
2.1
(1.7–2.5)
4.3
(2.9–5.8)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1305 90.2
(86.1–93.2)
0.76
(0.68–0.85)
<LOD 0.63
(0.51–0.76)
3.4
(2.2–4.7)
5.9Table 14.1.39 footnote E
(<LOD–9.2)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 97.4
(91.5–99.3)
1.9
(1.6–2.3)
0.65
(<LOD–0.82)
1.8
(1.5–2.1)
6.2
(4.3–8.1)
10Table 14.1.39 footnote E
(5.2–16)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 517 97.5
(94.9–98.8)
1.2
(1.0–1.5)
0.44
(0.37–0.51)
1.1
(0.92–1.2)
3.9
(2.6–5.2)
5.9Table 14.1.39 footnote E
(2.7–9.0)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 518 94.4
(90.7–96.6)
0.71
(0.60–0.82)
0.24
(<LOD–0.29)
0.59
(0.50–0.68)
2.3Table 14.1.39 footnote E
(1.4–3.2)
5.7Table 14.1.39 footnote E
(1.9–9.5)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 354 88.4
(76.3–94.8)
0.60
(0.51–0.71)
<LOD 0.46
(0.35–0.57)
Table footnote F 5.8Table 14.1.39 footnote E
(3.2–8.5)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 342 89.1
(75.9–95.5)
0.53
(0.44–0.64)
<LOD 0.50
(0.36–0.64)
2.2Table 14.1.39 footnote E
(1.0–3.3)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 341 88.7
(84.1–92.1)
0.62
(0.53–0.73)
<LOD 0.55
(0.43–0.67)
2.1
(1.5–2.7)
4.3Table 14.1.39 footnote E
(2.3–6.3)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.40: Monohydroxyisononyl phthalate (MHiNP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.40 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2712 98.2
(95.9–99.3)
0.70
(0.62–0.79)
0.20
(0.16–0.24)
0.71
(0.57–0.84)
2.5
(2.0–3.0)
4.0
(3.0–4.9)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1351 97.4
(95.1–98.6)
0.70
(0.61–0.80)
0.21
(0.14–0.28)
0.71
(0.58–0.84)
2.3
(1.9–2.8)
4.3
(3.2–5.4)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1361 99.1
(91.1–99.9)
0.70
(0.58–0.85)
0.19
(0.14–0.25)
0.70
(0.49–0.91)
2.7
(2.2–3.3)
3.8
(2.7–4.9)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 555 100 0.96Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(0.62–1.5)
0.27Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(0.16–0.38)
0.87Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(0.52–1.2)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 99.6
(98.2–99.9)
1.1
(0.86–1.3)
0.33
(0.24–0.42)
1.0
(0.76–1.2)
3.3
(2.6–4.0)
4.5Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(2.1–6.9)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 535 98.2
(94.7–99.4)
0.79
(0.67–0.94)
0.27Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(0.15–0.40)
0.84
(0.68–1.0)
2.4
(1.7–3.1)
3.8
(2.7–4.8)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 374 97.1
(78.6–99.7)
0.60
(0.43–0.83)
0.20Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(<LOD–0.33)
0.54Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(0.30–0.77)
2.3Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(1.4–3.2)
3.7Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(2.1–5.3)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 358 97.6
(91.2–99.4)
0.72
(0.56–0.92)
0.18Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(0.11–0.26)
0.77
(0.57–0.97)
2.8
(1.9–3.6)
4.2Table 14.1.40 footnote E
(2.4–6.1)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 353 100 0.66
(0.58–0.75)
0.18
(0.15–0.21)
0.65
(0.50–0.81)
2.2
(1.5–3.0)
3.5
(2.5–4.6)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.065 μg/L.

Table 14.1.41: Monohydroxyisononyl phthalate (MHiNP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.41 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2680 98.2
(95.9–99.3)
0.68
(0.61–0.75)
0.25
(0.22–0.29)
0.60
(0.53–0.66)
2.0
(1.7–2.3)
2.8
(2.2–3.3)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1336 97.4
(95.1–98.6)
0.60
(0.57–0.64)
0.21
(0.18–0.24)
0.53
(0.50–0.57)
1.9
(1.5–2.2)
2.7
(2.1–3.4)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1344 99.1
(91.1–99.9)
0.76
(0.64–0.91)
0.30
(0.26–0.33)
0.66
(0.52–0.79)
2.1
(1.8–2.5)
2.9
(2.0–3.8)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 544 100 1.7
(1.2–2.3)
0.63
(0.40–0.86)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)
5.0Table 14.1.41 footnote E
(1.9–8.0)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 529 99.6
(98.2–99.9)
1.2
(1.0–1.5)
0.44
(0.39–0.49)
1.1
(0.89–1.2)
2.9Table 14.1.41 footnote E
(1.6–4.2)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 528 98.2
(94.7–99.4)
0.60
(0.51–0.71)
0.23
(0.19–0.28)
0.56
(0.44–0.67)
1.8
(1.4–2.2)
2.4Table 14.1.41 footnote E
(1.5–3.3)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 370 97.1
(78.6–99.7)
0.54
(0.44–0.65)
0.19
(<LOD–0.25)
0.51
(0.43–0.60)
1.3Table 14.1.41 footnote E
(0.61–2.0)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 357 97.6
(91.2–99.4)
0.66
(0.57–0.75)
0.26
(0.20–0.33)
0.58
(0.47–0.69)
2.1
(1.4–2.8)
2.6
(2.0–3.2)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 352 100 0.75
(0.65–0.87)
0.29
(0.26–0.32)
0.68
(0.59–0.77)
2.0
(1.5–2.5)
3.5Table 14.1.41 footnote E
(1.9–5.1)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.42: Monoisodecyl phthalate (MiDP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.42 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2710 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1348 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1362 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 554 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 535 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 1.9Table 14.1.42 footnote E
(1.1–3.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 373 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 358 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 353 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.16 μg/L.

Table 14.1.43: Monoisodecyl phthalate (MiDP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.43 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2678 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1333 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1345 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 543 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 527 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 530 1.9Table 14.1.43 footnote E
(1.1–3.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 369 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 357 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 352 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.44: Monooxoisodecyl phthalate (MOiDP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.44 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2688 73.4
(68.6–77.6)
0.27
(0.23–0.31)
<LOD 0.24
(0.19–0.29)
1.6
(1.1–2.1)
3.4Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(1.4–5.4)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1341 72.7
(65.5–78.8)
0.27
(0.21–0.34)
<LOD 0.26
(0.18–0.34)
1.6Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(0.81–2.3)
3.8Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(1.6–6.0)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1347 74.0
(67.9–79.4)
0.26
(0.21–0.34)
<LOD 0.22
(0.16–0.28)
1.7Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(0.97–2.3)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 547 79.8
(72.0–85.8)
0.33
(0.27–0.41)
<LOD 0.31Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(0.17–0.45)
2.0
(1.5–2.5)
3.2Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(1.6–4.8)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 534 85.2
(79.6–89.6)
0.38
(0.30–0.49)
<LOD 0.35
(0.25–0.45)
1.9Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(0.81–2.9)
4.8Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(2.2–7.3)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 534 80.3
(73.7–85.5)
0.36
(0.27–0.49)
<LOD 0.37
(0.24–0.50)
Table footnote F 4.3Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(2.4–6.3)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 371 74.4
(63.9–82.7)
0.25
(0.19–0.34)
<LOD 0.21Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(0.13–0.30)
1.6Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(0.64–2.5)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 354 69.0
(59.9–76.7)
0.26Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(0.18–0.37)
<LOD 0.24Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(0.13–0.36)
1.6Table 14.1.44 footnote E
(0.49–2.7)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 348 69.9
(63.8–75.4)
0.22
(0.17–0.29)
<LOD 0.18
(0.14–0.23)
Table footnote F Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.097 μg/L.

Table 14.1.45: Monooxoisodecyl phthalate (MOiDP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.45 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2656 73.4
(68.6–77.6)
0.26
(0.21–0.32)
<LOD 0.21
(0.17–0.25)
1.5
(0.97–2.0)
3.0Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(1.0–5.0)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1326 72.7
(65.5–78.8)
0.23
(0.18–0.30)
<LOD 0.19
(0.16–0.23)
1.3Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(0.39–2.2)
3.4Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(1.1–5.8)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1330 74.0
(67.9–79.4)
0.29
(0.22–0.38)
<LOD 0.24
(0.19–0.29)
1.6
(1.0–2.1)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 536 79.8
(72.0–85.8)
0.57
(0.47–0.70)
<LOD 0.53
(0.43–0.64)
2.5
(1.8–3.2)
4.5Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(1.5–7.5)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 526 85.2
(79.6–89.6)
0.45
(0.35–0.59)
<LOD 0.38
(0.27–0.48)
2.0Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(0.90–3.0)
4.6Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(1.9–7.3)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 527 80.3
(73.7–85.5)
0.28
(0.21–0.38)
<LOD 0.22Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(0.12–0.31)
1.4Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(0.58–2.3)
3.0Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(1.0–5.0)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 367 74.4
(63.9–82.7)
0.23
(0.17–0.31)
<LOD 0.21
(0.16–0.26)
1.3Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(0.70–2.0)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 353 69.0
(59.9–76.7)
0.23Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(0.16–0.34)
<LOD 0.18
(0.12–0.24)
2.0Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(0.76–3.3)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 347 69.9
(63.8–75.4)
0.26
(0.20–0.33)
<LOD 0.20
(0.15–0.25)
1.5Table 14.1.45 footnote E
(0.68–2.2)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.1.46: Monohydroxyisodecyl phthalate (MHiDP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.46 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2700 71.4
(62.2–79.0)
0.21
(0.17–0.26)
<LOD 0.19
(0.14–0.24)
1.2
(0.88–1.6)
3.0Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(1.7–4.4)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1347 73.3
(63.0–81.5)
0.22
(0.17–0.28)
<LOD 0.22
(0.14–0.30)
1.2Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(0.51–1.8)
2.6Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(1.3–3.8)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1353 69.5
(60.0–77.5)
0.20
(0.15–0.26)
<LOD 0.18
(0.13–0.22)
1.3
(0.82–1.7)
3.7Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(1.5–6.0)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 552 79.6
(69.9–86.8)
0.28
(0.23–0.35)
<LOD 0.29Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(0.17–0.41)
1.9
(1.5–2.4)
2.5
(1.9–3.0)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 532 78.7
(70.3–85.2)
0.29
(0.23–0.38)
<LOD 0.31
(0.21–0.41)
1.8Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(1.0–2.5)
4.2Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(2.4–5.9)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 536 76.1
(62.2–86.1)
0.27Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(0.18–0.39)
<LOD 0.27
(0.18–0.37)
1.6Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(0.50–2.7)
3.8Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(1.6–6.0)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 371 71.5
(60.6–80.3)
0.19
(0.13–0.28)
<LOD 0.18Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(0.11–0.26)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 359 68.6
(53.0–80.8)
0.21Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(0.14–0.32)
<LOD 0.18Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(0.071–0.28)
1.3Table 14.1.46 footnote E
(0.41–2.2)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 350 69.3
(57.7–78.9)
0.18
(0.13–0.24)
<LOD 0.15
(0.11–0.19)
Table footnote F Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.067 μg/L.

Table 14.1.47: Monohydroxyisodecyl phthalate (MHiDP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.1.47 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2669 71.4
(62.2–79.0)
0.20
(0.15–0.27)
<LOD 0.19
(0.15–0.23)
1.3
(0.88–1.7)
2.4Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.84–4.0)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1332 73.3
(63.0–81.5)
0.19
(0.14–0.25)
<LOD 0.19
(0.16–0.22)
1.1Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.50–1.7)
2.9Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.90–4.9)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1337 69.5
(60.0–77.5)
0.22
(0.16–0.30)
<LOD 0.19
(0.14–0.24)
1.4
(0.89–1.9)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 541 79.6
(69.9–86.8)
0.49
(0.39–0.62)
<LOD 0.48
(0.37–0.60)
2.4
(1.9–3.0)
4.0
(2.8–5.2)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 525 78.7
(70.3–85.2)
0.34
(0.26–0.46)
<LOD 0.34
(0.26–0.41)
1.6Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.97–2.2)
3.8Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(1.3–6.4)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 529 76.1
(62.2–86.1)
0.20
(0.14–0.29)
<LOD 0.16Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.092–0.24)
1.1Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.32–2.0)
2.3Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.91–3.6)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 367 71.5
(60.6–80.3)
0.17Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.11–0.27)
<LOD 0.18
(0.12–0.23)
0.99Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.41–1.6)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 358 68.6
(53.0–80.8)
0.19Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.12–0.29)
<LOD 0.19Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.11–0.27)
1.5Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.52–2.4)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 349 69.3
(57.7–78.9)
0.20
(0.15–0.27)
<LOD 0.16Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.099–0.21)
1.1Table 14.1.47 footnote E
(0.69–1.6)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

14.2 Di(isononyl)cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH)

Di(isononyl)cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) (CASRN 166412-78-8) is an aliphatic ester compound with the appearance of a colourless liquid at room temperature. This substance may also be referred to as diisononyl hexahydrophthalate, among other synonyms. Produced commercially, DINCH is commonly synthesized by catalytic hydrogenation of the aromatic ring of diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), and consists mostly of cis-isomers (~90%) with a much smaller proportion of trans-isomers (Bhat et al., 2014; Koch et al., 2013; SCENIHR, 2016). DINCH is used as a substitute for high molecular-weight medium-chain phthalate plasticizers such as DiNP and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), primarily in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials used in beverage and food contact applications (Bhat et al., 2014; NICNAS, 2012). DINCH is also used as a plasticizer and impact modifier in polystyrene for sensitive applications such as toys, food contact materials, and medical devices (Bhat et al., 2014; Koch et al., 2013; NICNAS, 2012).

DINCH does not occur naturally. It is only released to the environment from anthropogenic sources. Release of this substance into the environment can occur during PVC product manufacture and from degradation of consumer products. DINCH has very low volatility and water solubility; therefore, it is expected to occur minimally in air and water (NICNAS, 2012). Given that DINCH can leach out of the polymer matrix when used as a plasticizer, the general population may be exposed to it dermally from contact with consumer products such as plastic toys and car upholstery, orally from materials that contact food or beverages, orally or intravenously through medical applications, or via the inhalation or ingestion of house dust (Bhat et al., 2014; NICNAS, 2012; SCENIHR, 2016). However, due to the limited use of DINCH in products available to consumers and the low leaching of the compound out of the polymer matrix when used as a plasticizer, exposure via use of consumer products is expected to be low (NICNAS, 2012; SCENIHR, 2016). Given the very low vapour pressure of DINCH, exposure via inhalation is of minimal concern (NICNAS, 2012).

The toxicokinetics of DINCH in humans are not well studied. Experimental animal studies have reported rapid absorption of DINCH following ingestion, while no data were identified concerning dermal absorption (Bhat et al., 2014; SCENIHR, 2016). The oral bioavailability of DINCH is inversely proportional to the dose due to saturation of gastrointestinal absorption, with one study demonstrating that a higher oral dose led to a lower absorbed fraction in laboratory animals. Studies of orally exposed animals indicate that DINCH is distributed throughout the body following absorption (Bhat et al., 2014; ECHA, 2016; SCENIHR, 2016). In animals exposed by ingestion, DINCH was found to undergo hydrolysis to cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono isononyl ester (MINCH) before being further hydrolyzed to cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (CHDA), the main urinary metabolite; unmetabolized DINCH was the main compound identified in feces (Bhat et al., 2014; Koch et al., 2013). In studies with laboratory animals, total excretion of radiolabelled DINCH and its metabolites represented ~90% of the administered dose. DINCH is mainly excreted in feces within 48 hours, whereas a smaller fraction is eliminated via urinary metabolites over the same period (Bhat et al., 2014).

Acute dermal and ocular exposure to DINCH was found to be non-irritating in laboratory animals, and no skin sensitization was observed. Experimental animal studies have reported that DINCH has low toxicity following acute, short-term, or sub-chronic ingestion exposure. However, chronic ingestion of high doses of this substance was found to result in increased liver, kidney, and thyroid weights (Bhat et al., 2014; SCENIHR, 2016). One study of laboratory animals exposed in utero to DINCH from gestational day 14 until parturition reported a long-term effect on Leydig cells of the testis, indicated by reduced circulating testosterone levels and altered testicular morphology (Campioli et al., 2017). However, this finding has not been repeated in other studies. In a two-generation animal study, DINCH had no adverse reproductive or developmental effects (Bhat et al., 2014). DINCH is not considered genotoxic or carcinogenic (Bhat et al., 2014; ECHA, 2016; SCENIHR, 2016).

Six metabolites of DINCH (trans-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono isononyl ester [trans-MINCH]; cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono oxoisononyl ester [oxo-MINCH]; cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono hydroxyisononyl ester [OH-MINCH]; cis-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester [cis-cx-MINCH]; trans-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester [trans-cx-MINCH]; and CHDA) were analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey participants aged 3–79 years in cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data from the metabolites are presented both as μg/L and μg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of these metabolites in urine can be an indicator of recent exposure to DINCH and does not necessarily mean that an adverse effect will occur.

Table 14.2.1: trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono isononyl ester (trans-MINCH) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.1 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2680 7.7Table 14.2.1 footnote E
(5.0–11.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.024
(<LOD–0.032)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1340 8.7Table 14.2.1 footnote E
(5.0–14.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.025
(<LOD–0.034)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1340 6.8Table 14.2.1 footnote E
(4.5–10.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.023
(<LOD–0.030)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 540 32.3
(26.0–39.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.045
(0.032–0.059)
0.076Table 14.2.1 footnote E
(0.047–0.10)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 532 19.8
(14.6–26.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.029
(0.023–0.036)
0.035Table 14.2.1 footnote E
(0.022–0.049)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 535 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.024Table 14.2.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.034)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 368 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.019Table 14.2.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.030)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 357 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 348 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.017 μg/L.

Table 14.2.2: trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono isononyl ester (trans-MINCH) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2650 7.7Table 14.2.2 footnote E
(5.0–11.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.041
(<LOD–0.048)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1325 8.7Table 14.2.2 footnote E
(5.0–14.5)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.034
(<LOD–0.045)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1325 6.8Table 14.2.2 footnote E
(4.5–10.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.042
(<LOD–0.046)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 530 32.3
(26.0–39.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.075
(0.049–0.10)
0.13Table 14.2.2 footnote E
(0.058–0.21)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 525 19.8
(14.6–26.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.034
(0.028–0.040)
0.046Table 14.2.2 footnote E
(0.029–0.063)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 528 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.031
(<LOD–0.042)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 364 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.041Table 14.2.2 footnote E
(<LOD–0.057)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 356 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 347 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.2.3 : Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono oxoisononyl ester (oxo-MINCH) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2655 36.8
(32.2–41.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.19
(0.15–0.22)
0.35
(0.27–0.43)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1328 37.0
(29.5–45.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.19
(0.12–0.25)
0.34
(0.22–0.46)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1327 36.6
(30.4–43.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.19
(0.15–0.23)
0.36
(0.25–0.48)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 541 79.1
(71.2–85.3)
0.16
(0.13–0.20)
<LOD 0.19
(0.15–0.23)
0.81Table 14.2.3 footnote E
(0.47–1.2)
1.1
(0.85–1.4)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 527 68.3
(62.5–73.6)
0.097
(0.085–0.11)
<LOD 0.096
(0.077–0.11)
0.49
(0.37–0.61)
0.68
(0.58–0.79)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 525 41.8
(36.3–47.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.19
(0.14–0.25)
0.34Table 14.2.3 footnote E
(0.11–0.58)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 363 36.8
(29.6–44.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.18Table 14.2.3 footnote E
(0.089–0.26)
0.28Table 14.2.3 footnote E
(0.17–0.38)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 353 29.4
(22.0–38.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 346 27.6
(19.1–38.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.11Table 14.2.3 footnote E
(0.069–0.15)
0.14
(0.093–0.19)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.047 μg/L.

Table 14.2.4 : Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono oxoisononyl ester (oxo-MINCH) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.4 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2626 36.8
(32.2–41.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.15
(0.14–0.17)
0.28
(0.21–0.34)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1313 37.0
(29.5–45.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.15
(0.12–0.18)
0.31Table 14.2.4 footnote E
(0.19–0.42)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1313 36.6
(30.4–43.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.16
(0.15–0.17)
0.25Table 14.2.4 footnote E
(0.14–0.36)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 531 79.1
(71.2–85.3)
0.28
(0.23–0.35)
<LOD 0.28
(0.21–0.35)
1.4Table 14.2.4 footnote E
(0.53–2.2)
1.8Table 14.2.4 footnote E
(0.97–2.7)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 520 68.3
(62.5–73.6)
0.11
(0.093–0.13)
<LOD 0.11
(0.082–0.13)
0.46Table 14.2.4 footnote E
(0.28–0.63)
0.69
(0.46–0.93)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 519 41.8
(36.3–47.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.13
(0.091–0.17)
0.20Table 14.2.4 footnote E
(0.074–0.33)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 359 36.8
(29.6–44.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.13
(0.092–0.16)
0.16
(0.11–0.21)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 352 29.4
(22.0–38.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.098Table 14.2.4 footnote E
(<LOD–0.14)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 345 27.6
(19.1–38.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.10
(0.070–0.13)
0.14Table 14.2.4 footnote E
(0.084–0.19)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.2.5 : Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono hydroxyisononyl ester (OH-MINCH) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.5 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2634 42.4
(36.3–48.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.41
(0.31–0.51)
0.78
(0.57–0.99)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1312 41.1
(31.8–51.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.42
(0.29–0.55)
0.71Table 14.2.5 footnote E
(0.42–0.99)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1322 43.8
(37.0–50.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.38
(0.26–0.50)
0.80
(0.51–1.1)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 533 80.2
(73.6–85.5)
0.30
(0.24–0.38)
<LOD 0.33
(0.22–0.44)
1.5Table 14.2.5 footnote E
(0.94–2.1)
2.4Table 14.2.5 footnote E
(1.5–3.3)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 519 66.6
(58.1–74.1)
0.17
(0.14–0.21)
<LOD 0.19
(0.14–0.24)
0.91
(0.73–1.1)
1.2
(0.81–1.7)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 517 45.3
(37.7–53.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.39
(0.26–0.52)
0.88Table 14.2.5 footnote E
(0.27–1.5)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 361 44.3
(32.0–57.3)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.58Table 14.2.5 footnote E
(0.31–0.85)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 355 34.9
(25.7–45.3)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 349 35.7
(26.5–46.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.24Table 14.2.5 footnote E
(0.091–0.38)
0.38Table 14.2.5 footnote E
(0.18–0.58)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.078 μg/L.

Table 14.2.6 : Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono hydroxyisononyl ester (OH-MINCH) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.6 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2605 42.4
(36.3–48.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.35
(0.27–0.43)
0.59
(0.46–0.71)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1297 41.1
(31.8–51.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.32
(0.22–0.42)
0.65
(0.46–0.85)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1308 43.8
(37.0–50.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.36
(0.27–0.44)
0.54Table 14.2.6 footnote E
(0.33–0.75)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 523 80.2
(73.6–85.5)
0.53
(0.43–0.66)
<LOD 0.58
(0.40–0.75)
2.8Table 14.2.6 footnote E
(1.2–4.4)
3.4
(2.4–4.5)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 512 66.6
(58.1–74.1)
0.20
(0.16–0.26)
<LOD 0.21
(0.16–0.27)
0.86Table 14.2.6 footnote E
(0.48–1.2)
1.7Table 14.2.6 footnote E
(0.73–2.7)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 511 45.3
(37.7–53.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.23Table 14.2.6 footnote E
(0.12–0.33)
0.54Table 14.2.6 footnote E
(0.23–0.85)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 357 44.3
(32.0–57.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.24Table 14.2.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.37)
0.42Table 14.2.6 footnote E
(0.24–0.60)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 354 34.9
(25.7–45.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.20Table 14.2.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.31)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 348 35.7
(26.5–46.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.24
(0.18–0.30)
0.29
(0.21–0.36)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.2.7: cis-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester (cis-cx-MINCH) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.7 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2681 25.7
(21.7–30.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.12
(0.099–0.14)
0.24
(0.18–0.31)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1335 25.3
(19.3–32.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.12
(0.084–0.15)
0.24Table 14.2.7 footnote E
(0.15–0.33)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1346 26.0
(20.9–31.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.12
(0.091–0.15)
0.25Table 14.2.7 footnote E
(0.15–0.34)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 545 74.8
(66.9–81.3)
0.12
(0.10–0.15)
<LOD 0.11
(0.074–0.15)
0.54
(0.39–0.68)
0.94Table 14.2.7 footnote E
(0.51–1.4)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 530 53.8
(48.3–59.2)
<LOD 0.066
(<LOD–0.080)
0.28
(0.22–0.34)
0.49Table 14.2.7 footnote E
(0.30–0.68)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 534 29.4
(23.2–36.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.14
(0.095–0.18)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 368 27.1
(20.2–35.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.11
(0.077–0.14)
0.14
(0.099–0.18)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 356 17.0Table 14.2.7 footnote E
(11.5–24.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.099Table 14.2.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.17)
0.27Table 14.2.7 footnote E
(0.11–0.43)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 348 17.2Table 14.2.7 footnote E
(10.0–27.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.082Table 14.2.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.12)
0.11
(0.075–0.15)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.059 μg/L.

Table 14.2.8: cis-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester (cis-cx-MINCH) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.8 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2652 25.7
(21.7–30.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.13
(0.11–0.14)
0.21
(0.17–0.25)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1321 25.3
(19.3–32.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.12
(0.091–0.14)
0.20
(0.14–0.27)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1331 26.0
(20.9–31.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.13
(0.12–0.15)
0.22
(0.15–0.29)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 536 74.8
(66.9–81.3)
0.22
(0.18–0.25)
<LOD 0.19
(0.15–0.24)
0.84Table 14.2.8 footnote E
(0.33–1.3)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 523 53.8
(48.3–59.2)
<LOD 0.080
(<LOD–0.092)
0.28
(0.20–0.36)
0.43
(0.31–0.55)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 527 29.4
(23.2–36.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.11
(0.073–0.14)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 364 27.1
(20.2–35.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.094
(0.064–0.13)
0.14
(0.099–0.18)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 355 17.0Table 14.2.8 footnote E
(11.5–24.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.11
(<LOD–0.13)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 347 17.2Table 14.2.8 footnote E
(10.0–27.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.11
(<LOD–0.13)
0.14
(0.12–0.17)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.2.9: trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester (trans-cx-MINCH) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.9 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2700 2.6
(1.9–3.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1345 2.2Table 14.2.9 footnote E
(1.4–3.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1355 3.0Table 14.2.9 footnote E
(1.9–4.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 549 20.1
(14.1–27.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.56Table 14.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–0.80)
0.79
(0.58–1.0)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 535 6.3Table 14.2.9 footnote E
(3.9–9.9)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.37Table 14.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–0.53)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 372 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 357 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 350 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.33 μg/L.

Table 14.2.10: trans-Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic mono carboxyisononyl ester (trans-cx-MINCH) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.10 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2670 2.6
(1.9–3.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1330 2.2Table 14.2.10 footnote E
(1.4–3.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1340 3.0Table 14.2.10 footnote E
(1.9–4.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 539 20.1
(14.1–27.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.92
(<LOD–1.1)
1.3Table 14.2.10 footnote E
(0.53–2.1)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 528 6.3Table 14.2.10 footnote E
(3.9–9.9)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.65
(<LOD–0.81)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 530 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 368 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 356 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 349 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.2.11 : Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (CHDA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.11 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2553 24.6
(21.0–28.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.64
(0.51–0.76)
1.3Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(0.79–1.8)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1288 23.4
(18.4–29.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.61
(0.49–0.73)
1.1Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(0.53–1.7)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1265 25.8
(21.8–30.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.80Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(0.49–1.1)
1.4Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(0.53–2.2)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 485 68.4
(58.3–77.1)
0.66
(0.50–0.86)
<LOD 0.69
(0.48–0.89)
3.3Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(1.6–5.0)
5.0
(3.4–6.7)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 505 54.7
(46.4–62.8)
<LOD <LOD 1.6
(1.2–2.0)
2.4
(1.7–3.0)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 511 30.4
(22.3–40.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.83
(0.59–1.1)
1.4Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(0.38–2.3)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 363 22.4
(16.9–29.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.47
(0.30–0.64)
0.62
(0.41–0.84)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 347 18.9Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(12.4–27.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.56Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(<LOD–0.93)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 342 16.9Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(10.9–25.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.43Table 14.2.11 footnote E
(<LOD–0.61)
0.61
(0.46–0.76)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.30 μg/L.

Table 14.2.12 : Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (CHDA) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.2.12 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2526 24.6
(21.0–28.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.77
(0.71–0.83)
1.2
(0.98–1.5)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1273 23.4
(18.4–29.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.63
(0.46–0.80)
1.2
(0.90–1.5)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1253 25.8
(21.8–30.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.82
(0.67–0.98)
1.3
(0.87–1.6)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 477 68.4
(58.3–77.1)
1.1
(0.87–1.5)
<LOD 1.1
(0.70–1.5)
5.0Table 14.2.12 footnote E
(2.8–7.2)
7.1
(5.8–8.5)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 499 54.7
(46.4–62.8)
<LOD <LOD 1.7
(1.1–2.3)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 504 30.4
(22.3–40.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.62
(0.47–0.77)
0.80Table 14.2.12 footnote E
(0.39–1.2)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 359 22.4
(16.9–29.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.48Table 14.2.12 footnote E
(0.16–0.81)
0.80
(0.63–0.97)
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 346 18.9Table 14.2.12 footnote E
(12.4–27.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.59Table 14.2.12 footnote E
(<LOD–0.82)
0.97Table 14.2.12 footnote E
(0.58–1.4)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 341 16.9Table 14.2.12 footnote E
(10.9–25.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.59
(<LOD–0.70)
0.77
(0.67–0.87)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

14.3 2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB)

2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB) (CASRN 6846-50-0) is an ester compound with the appearance of a clear liquid at room temperature. This substance may also be referred to as propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2,2-dimethyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-1,3-propanediyl ester, among other synonyms. It is produced commercially, and is commonly synthesized by the esterification of isobutyraldehyde with 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (Törmäkangas and Koskinen, 2001). TXIB is a secondary plasticizer, used in combination with other plasticizers, and is used in products like weather stripping, furniture, wallpaper, vinyl flooring, sporting goods, traffic cones, vinyl gloves, inks, water-based paints, and toys (CIR, 2017).

TXIB does not occur naturally. It is only released to the environment from anthropogenic sources. TXIB has moderate volatility and water solubility; therefore, it can be expected to occur in air and water, although it will likely volatilize from water surfaces (CIR, 2017). Given that TXIB can leach out of the polymer matrix when used as a plasticizer, the general population may be exposed to it dermally from the use of products available to consumers such as cosmetics. Exposure may also occur through the inhalation of indoor air or dust.

The toxicokinetics of TXIB in humans are not well studied. Experimental animal studies have reported a high level of absorption of TXIB following ingestion; however, no dermal absorption data were identified. Animal studies indicate that TXIB is not significantly distributed throughout the body following absorption. In animals exposed by ingestion, TXIB was found to undergo metabolic hydrolysis to the monoisobutyrate of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (TMPD). Total excretion of TXIB following metabolism represented 95% to 99% of the administered dose. It is mainly excreted in urine within 72 hours; a smaller fraction is eliminated in feces over approximately one week (CIR, 2017). Animal studies report that TXIB is predominantly excreted as the O-glucuronide of TMPD in urine, and to a much lesser extent as 2,2,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxyvaleric acid (HTMV) and its glucuronides, 2-methylmalonic acid, and unchanged TXIB (CIR, 2017). In feces, TXIB is excreted unchanged and as the metabolite TMPD and its monoester (CIR, 2017; ECHA, 2018).

Experimental animal studies have reported that TXIB has low toxicity following acute ingestion exposure (producing moderate weakness and some vasodilation), while chronic ingestion of this substance has been associated with increased liver and kidney weights (CIR, 2017; OECD, 1995). Histopathological investigation of chronically exposed animals revealed necrosis of the proximal tubules, dilatation of distal tubules, fibrosis in the kidneys, and centrilobular swelling of hepatocytes in the liver (CIR, 2017; OECD, 1995). TXIB has been associated with reproductive toxicity in animal studies on the basis of a reduction in the number of implantation sites in females (ECHA, 2001). TXIB is not considered genotoxic and is not expected to be carcinogenic (OECD, 1995).

A Chemicals Management Plan screening-level risk assessment is currently underway to determine whether TXIB presents or may present a risk to the environment or human health as per the criteria set out in section 64 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (Canada, 1999; Environment and Climate Change Canada, 2019). TXIB is also found in cosmetic products notified under the Cosmetic Regulations of the Food and Drugs Act (Canada, 1985).

Two metabolites of TXIB (TMPD and HTMV) were analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) participants aged 3–79 years in cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data from the metabolites are presented as μg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of these metabolites in urine can be an indicator of recent exposure to TXIB and does not necessarily mean that an adverse effect will occur.

Table 14.3.1: 2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (TMPD) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.3.1 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2589 98.5
(96.7–99.3)
17
(15–19)
4.4
(4.0–4.8)
16
(14–18)
69
(48–89)
150Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(84–220)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1295 98.0
(94.4–99.3)
18
(15–22)
4.4
(3.8–5.0)
17
(14–20)
78Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(47–110)
Table footnote F
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1294 99.0
(97.9–99.5)
15
(14–17)
4.4
(3.5–5.2)
15
(12–17)
57
(40–75)
100Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(32–170)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 514 100 25Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(17–36)
7.3
(5.4–9.2)
22Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(12–32)
87
(59–120)
140
(100–180)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 518 99.6
(98.8–99.8)
23
(19–29)
6.4
(5.0–7.8)
23
(17–28)
74
(57–91)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 513 99.9
(99.4–100)
21
(18–25)
6.8
(4.9–8.8)
18
(14–22)
91Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(54–130)
130Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(78–180)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 365 99.0
(94.2–99.8)
18
(14–23)
4.3Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(1.8–6.8)
17
(13–20)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 345 97.1
(88.0–99.3)
15
(11–19)
4.4
(3.2–5.6)
14
(10–18)
54Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(34–75)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 334 98.6
(94.1–99.7)
14
(11–18)
3.7
(2.8–4.6)
14
(11–16)
52Table 14.3.1 footnote E
(27–78)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 1.7 μg/L.

Table 14.3.2: 2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (TMPD) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.3.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2562 98.5
(96.7–99.3)
17
(15–19)
5.0
(4.1–6.0)
15
(12–17)
62
(49–75)
92
(65–120)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1281 98.0
(94.4–99.3)
16
(14–19)
5.0
(3.8–6.2)
13
(10–16)
66
(42–90)
Table footnote F
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1281 99.0
(97.9–99.5)
17
(15–20)
5.1
(3.9–6.2)
16
(13–18)
58
(45–71)
86
(69–100)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 506 100 42
(32–55)
14
(10–18)
37Table 14.3.2 footnote E
(23–52)
140Table 14.3.2 footnote E
(81–190)
240Table 14.3.2 footnote E
(150–330)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 512 99.6
(98.8–99.8)
28
(23–33)
9.4
(8.0–11)
26
(21–31)
74
(56–92)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 506 99.9
(99.4–100)
16
(13–20)
5.4
(3.9–6.8)
14
(11–18)
53
(40–66)
77
(50–100)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 361 99.0
(94.2–99.8)
17
(14–20)
5.3
(4.1–6.6)
14
(11–17)
54Table 14.3.2 footnote E
(28–81)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 344 97.1
(88.0–99.3)
14
(12–16)
4.4
(2.9–6.0)
12
(10–14)
51
(35–67)
73
(51–96)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 333 98.6
(94.1–99.7)
17
(13–20)
4.2
(3.1–5.2)
15
(12–18)
59Table 14.3.2 footnote E
(29–88)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 14.3.3 : 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-hydroxy valeric acid (HTMV) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.3.3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2587 96.7
(94.2–98.2)
3.3
(2.8–3.8)
0.80
(0.62–0.98)
3.2
(2.9–3.6)
13
(8.8–17)
28
(18–38)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1297 95.7
(91.8–97.8)
3.3
(2.6–4.2)
0.74
(0.48–1.0)
3.1
(2.3–4.0)
17Table 14.3.3 footnote E
(9.1–25)
32Table 14.3.3 footnote E
(11–52)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1290 97.7
(95.4–98.8)
3.2
(2.9–3.6)
0.93
(0.75–1.1)
3.3
(3.0–3.7)
11
(8.9–14)
22Table 14.3.3 footnote E
(9.6–35)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 529 99.9
(99.1–100)
5.4
(3.8–7.7)
1.6
(1.1–2.0)
4.8
(3.1–6.4)
23
(15–32)
30
(21–40)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 518 99.4
(98.2–99.8)
5.0
(4.0–6.4)
1.5
(1.0–2.0)
4.6
(3.0–6.2)
17
(14–20)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 509 99.4
(97.8–99.8)
4.2
(3.6–4.9)
1.1
(0.97–1.3)
4.1
(3.3–5.0)
16Table 14.3.3 footnote E
(5.0–27)
27Table 14.3.3 footnote E
(11–43)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 356 97.3
(90.3–99.3)
3.5
(2.6–4.6)
0.81Table 14.3.3 footnote E
(<LOD–1.2)
3.3
(2.3–4.3)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 341 95.3
(87.2–98.4)
2.8
(2.2–3.6)
0.64Table 14.3.3 footnote E
(<LOD–1.0)
2.7
(2.2–3.3)
11Table 14.3.3 footnote E
(5.9–16)
20Table 14.3.3 footnote E
(7.7–32)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 334 95.1
(89.5–97.8)
2.7
(2.2–3.3)
0.64
(0.50–0.78)
2.6
(2.1–3.2)
11
(6.9–14)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.42 μg/L.

Table 14.3.4: 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-hydroxy valeric acid (HTMV) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.3.4 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2563 96.7
(94.2–98.2)
3.3
(2.8–3.8)
0.98
(0.81–1.2)
2.9
(2.3–3.5)
11
(8.5–14)
19
(15–23)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1284 95.7
(91.8–97.8)
3.0
(2.4–3.6)
0.86
(0.56–1.2)
2.4
(1.7–3.1)
11
(8.9–14)
22Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(14–31)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1279 97.7
(95.4–98.8)
3.6
(3.2–4.1)
1.2
(0.96–1.4)
3.4
(3.0–3.7)
11Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(5.1–17)
19
(15–22)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 520 99.9
(99.1–100)
9.4
(7.4–12)
3.0
(2.0–4.0)
8.3
(5.4–11)
31Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(19–44)
43Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(25–62)
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 512 99.4
(98.2–99.8)
5.9
(4.7–7.3)
2.0
(1.5–2.4)
5.7
(4.3–7.0)
17
(13–22)
29Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(<LOD–49)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 505 99.4
(97.8–99.8)
3.2
(2.6–4.0)
1.1
(0.73–1.4)
2.9
(2.1–3.7)
9.7
(7.7–12)
14Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(4.0–23)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 353 97.3
(90.3–99.3)
3.2
(2.7–3.9)
1.2
(<LOD–1.4)
2.7
(1.9–3.5)
11
(7.1–15)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 340 95.3
(87.2–98.4)
2.6
(2.2–3.2)
0.84
(<LOD–1.0)
2.2
(1.6–2.9)
8.4Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(4.9–12)
14Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(6.5–22)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 333 95.1
(89.5–97.8)
3.2
(2.7–3.7)
0.79Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(0.46–1.1)
3.1
(2.5–3.8)
12Table 14.3.4 footnote E
(7.1–18)
21
(<LOD–28)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

14.4 Tri-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TEHT)

Tri-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TEHT) (CASRN 3319-31-1) is an ester compound with the appearance of a yellow oily liquid at room temperature. This substance may also be referred to as trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) or triethylhexyl trimellitate, among other synonyms. It is most commonly manufactured through the esterification of trimellitic anhydride with 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (CIR, 2015). TEHT is primarily used as a plasticizer in floor coverings, building and construction materials, plastic and rubber materials, medical devices, and in cosmetics as an emollient and skin-conditioning agent. It may also be used as a fuel additive, in adhesives and sealants used in the transportation sector, and as a lubricant and lubricant additive (CIR, 2015; Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2019).

TEHT does not occur naturally and is only released to the environment from anthropogenic sources (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2019). TEHT has very low volatility and water solubility, and is therefore expected to minimally occur in air and water (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2019). The general population may be exposed to TEHT dermally from the use of products available to consumers, including cosmetics, and through the ingestion of dust (CIR, 2015; Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2019). Since only low levels leach out of the polymer matrix when TEHT is used as a plasticizer, exposure via the use of consumer products is expected to be low (SCENIHR, 2016). The mouthing of plastic toys is not expected to result in exposure to TEHT (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2019). Given the very low volatility of TEHT, exposure via inhalation is of minimal concern (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2019).

The toxicokinetics of TEHT in humans are not well studied. Experimental animal studies have shown that the absorption of TEHT following ingestion or dermal exposure is low (<1%). TEHT was mainly distributed to the liver, lungs, and spleen in animals following an intravenous dose. In animals exposed through ingestion, TEHT was found to undergo hydrolysis, and its elimination was biphasic, with half-lives of 3.1 and 42 hours in urine, and 4.3 and 31 hours in expired CO2 (CIR, 2015). TEHT is mostly excreted in feces; a small fraction is excreted in urine. An animal study reported that orally administered TEHT was excreted in feces predominantly in an unchanged form and to a much lesser extent as mono-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate, di-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate, and unidentified polar metabolites; in urine, the metabolites were identified as mono-(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate, 2-ethylhexanol, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, and 2-heptanone (CIR, 2015).

Experimental animal studies have reported that TEHT has low toxicity following acute ingestion exposure; chronic ingestion was found to result in enlarged liver and spleen (CIR, 2015; OECD, 2002). Animals acutely exposed to high concentrations of TEHT via inhalation showed lung irritation, but no other signs of toxicity (CIR, 2015; OECD, 2002). TEHT has been associated with male reproductive toxicity based on reduced testes weight and decreased numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids in laboratory animals (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2019; OECD, 2002). TEHT is not considered genotoxic and is not expected to be carcinogenic (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2019).

The Government of Canada has conducted a science-based screening assessment under the Chemicals Management Plan to determine whether TEHTpresents or may present a risk to the environment or human health as per the criteria set out in section 64 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) (Canada, 1999; Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2019). The assessment concluded that TEHT does not meet any of the criteria for being considered toxic under CEPA 1999. TEHT is found in cosmetic products notified under the Cosmetic Regulations of the Food and Drugs Act (Canada, 1985).

Three metabolites of TEHT — 1-mono(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (1-MEHTM), 2-mono(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (2-MEHTM), and 4-mono(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (4-MEHTM) — were analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measures Survey participants aged 3–79 years in cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data for the metabolites are presented as both µg/L and μg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of these metabolites in urine can be an indicator of recent exposure to TEHT and does not necessarily mean that an adverse effect will occur.

Table 14.4.1: 1-Mono(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (1-MEHTM) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.4.1 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2701 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1347 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1354 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 551 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 535 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 371 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 357 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 350 0 <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.22 μg/L.

Table 14.4.2: 1-Mono(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (1-MEHTM) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 14.4.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50<