Page 4 - Fifth Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada

13 Summaries and results for pesticides

13.1 Organophosphate pesticides

Organophosphates are a group of closely related chemicals that are extensively used in Canada as pesticides in agriculture, in and around the home, and in veterinary practice (Health Canada, 2013a; Health Canada, 2018a; Health Canada, 2019). This class of pesticides gained popularity in use when organochlorine pesticides were banned in the 1970s. Organophosphate pesticides are less persistent in the environment and less susceptible to pest resistance compared with organochlorine pesticides (Wessels et al., 2003). Eighteen organophosphate pesticides were registered for use in Canada during the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cycle 2 sampling period (2009–2011) — the last cycle to report dialkyl phosphate metabolites — while 14 were registered for use during the cycle 5 sampling period (2016–2017). The latter are listed in Table 13.1.1 (Health Canada, 2019).

Organophosphate pesticides have been linked to naturally occurring compounds produced by algae and bacteria; however, their presence in the environment is almost exclusively due to their anthropogenic use as pesticides (Neumann and Peter, 1987). Despite their rapid degradation in the environment, small amounts can be detected in food and drinking water (Hao et al., 2010; Health Canada, 2003; Health Canada, 2004).

Major uses of organophosphates include as an insecticide on food and feed crops, livestock, and ornamental plants; for seed treatment and insect control in food storage areas, greenhouses, and forestry structures; for control of pet parasites; and for mosquito control (Health Canada, 2013a; Health Canada, 2019). Although the majority of organophosphates are used as insecticides, bensulide is used as a selective herbicide to control weeds in turf and cucumbers (Health Canada, 2013a). Dichlorvos and trichlorfon have veterinary drug uses for the control of parasites in livestock (Health Canada, 2018a).

The primary route of exposure for the general public is through ingestion of food previously treated with organophosphate pesticides and drinking water contaminated with agricultural runoff (ATSDR, 1997a; ATSDR, 1997b; ATSDR, 2003). Other routes of exposure include dermal contact and inhalation during the use of products containing organophosphates or during activity in areas previously treated with organophosphates.

Organophosphates are efficiently absorbed through inhalation and ingestion. Absorption following dermal penetration can vary with the specific substance (EPA, 2013). After entry into the body, organophosphate pesticides are metabolized rapidly, primarily in the liver, and excreted in urine (Barr and Needham, 2002). Hydrolysis of the parent compound yields various dialkyl phosphate metabolites. Each metabolite is associated with several different organophosphate pesticides, and many organophosphates can form more than one of these metabolites (Table 13.1.1). These metabolites also occur in the environment following degradation of the parent compound. Dialkyl phosphate metabolites are not considered toxic, but are considered to be biomarkers of exposure to the parent pesticides or their metabolites in the environment (CDC, 2009; EPA, 2013). In addition to the dialkyl phosphate metabolites, organophosphate parent compounds and other breakdown products can be measured in blood and urine; detection generally reflects exposures over the previous few days (CDC, 2009; EPA, 2013). Examples of organophosphate metabolites other than dialkyl phosphates include 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), which is formed by the metabolism of chlorpyrifos or chlorpyrifos-methyl, and malathion dicarboxylic acid (DCA), formed by the metabolism of malathion (although metabolism of the parent organophosphates also results in the formation of dialkyl phosphate metabolites). Some organophosphate pesticides, namely acephate and methamidophos, do not breakdown into dialkyl phosphate metabolites (Barr and Needham, 2002; Wessels et al., 2003).

The following table outlines the dialkyl phosphate metabolites that were measured in urine collected from CHMS participants in cycle 5, along with their corresponding organophosphate pesticide parent compounds. There are six dialkyl phosphate metabolites: dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP), and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP). The table includes two other organophosphate metabolites that were measured in urine collected from CHMS participants in cycle 3 (TCPy and DCA), along with their corresponding parent compounds.

Table 13.1.1: Parent organophosphate pesticides registered for use in Canada during the cycle 5 sampling period along with dialkyl phosphate metabolites measured in cycle 5 (2016–2017) and other metabolites measured in cycle 3 (2012–2013) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey
Organophosphate pesticide Dialkyl phosphate metabolites (CASRN) Other organophosphate metabolites (CASRN)Table 13.1.1 footnote a
DMP
(813-79-5)
DMTP
1112-38-5)
DMDTP
(765-80-9)
DEP
(598-02-7)
DETP
(2465-65-8)
DEDTP
(298-06-6)
TCPy (6515-38-4) DCA (1190-28-9)
Acephate
Bensulide
Chlorpyrifos Yes Yes Yes
Coumaphos Yes Yes
Diazinon Yes Yes
Dichlorvos Yes
Dimethoate Yes Yes Yes
Malathion Yes Yes Yes Yes
Naled Yes
Phorate Yes Yes Yes
Phosmet Yes Yes Yes
Propetamphos
Tetrachlorvinphos Yes
Trichlorfon Yes

(Bravo et al., 2004; CDC, 2005; Wessels et al., 2003)

Organophosphates are cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides that act to overstimulate the nervous systems of insects and mammals by interrupting the transmission of nerve impulses (EPA, 2013). Symptoms of acute overexposure may include headache, dizziness, fatigue, irritation of the eyes or nose, nausea, vomiting, salivation, sweating, and changes in heart rate. Very high exposures can have effects such as paralysis, seizures, loss of consciousness, or even death (ATSDR, 1997a; ATSDR, 1997b; ATSDR, 2003; EPA, 2013). However, typical exposure to organophosphate pesticides through food ingestion is generally low. Nevertheless, there is potential for toxic effects resulting from chronic low-dose exposure (Ray and Richards, 2001). Prenatal exposure to organophosphates has been associated with shortened gestation, reduced birth weight, and impaired neurodevelopment in young children (Bouchard et al., 2011; EPA, 2016; Eskenazi et al., 2007; González-Alzaga et al. 2014; Muñoz-Quezada et al., 2013; Rauch et al., 2012). Several organophosphate pesticides registered for use in Canada have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Malathion and diazinon are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A); tetrachlorvinphos and dichlorvos are classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B); trichlorfon's carcinogenicity to humans is not classifiable (Group 3) (IARC, 1983; IARC, 1991; IARC, 2017).

The sale and use of organophosphate pesticides is regulated in Canada by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) under the Pest Control Products Act (Canada, 2002). PMRA evaluates the toxicity of pesticides and potential exposure in order to determine whether a pesticide should be registered for a specific use. As part of the registration process, PMRA establishes maximum residue limits of pesticides in food, including registered organophosphate pesticides (Health Canada, 2012a). Registered pesticides are re-evaluated by PMRA on a cyclical basis. A re-evaluation of malathion found that most uses do not pose unacceptable risks to human health, including commercial products applied in agricultural, non-agricultural, and residential settings, while most uses of diazinon have been phased out due to health and environmental risk concerns, except for limited applications (Health Canada, 2012b; Health Canada, 2013b). Health Canada has recently proposed that products containing dichlorvos are acceptable for continued registration for sale and use in Canada, provided that risk mitigation measures are in place (Health Canada, 2017). Most recently, PMRA has announced a workplan for the prioritization and re-evaluation of pesticides, including the following organophosphates: acephate, bensulide, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, dichlorvos, naled, phorate, phosmet, propetamphos, and tetrachlorvinphos (Health Canada, 2018b).

Health Canada has established Canadian drinking water quality guidelines that set out the maximum acceptable concentrations of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, malathion, and phorate (Health Canada, 1989a; Health Canada, 1989b; Health Canada, 1989c; Health Canada, 1990; Health Canada, 1991). Several organophosphate pesticides have also been analyzed as part of Health Canada's Total Diet Study surveys (Health Canada, 2016). These surveys provide estimate levels of chemicals that Canadians in different age-sex groups are exposed to through the food supply.

Six dialkyl phosphate metabolites were measured in morning urine voids from 89 children aged 3–7 years in a biomonitoring study in the province of Québec in 2003. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentrations were 20 µg/g creatinine and 97 µg/g creatinine, respectively, for DMP; 18.8 µg/g creatinine and 210.9 µg/g creatinine, respectively, for DMTP; 2.8 µg/g creatinine and 45.9 µg/g creatinine, respectively, for DMDTP; 4.8 µg/g creatinine and 29 µg/g creatinine, respectively, for DEP; 0.7 µg/g creatinine and 8 µg/g creatinine, respectively, for DETP; and 0.4 µg/g creatinine and 0.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, for DEDTP (Valcke et al., 2006).

Six dialkyl phosphate metabolites (see Table 13.1.1) were measured in the urine of CHMS participants aged 6–79 years in cycle 1 (2007–2009) and aged 3–79 years in cycle 2 (2009–2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017). 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol and malathion dicarboxylic acid were analyzed in the urine of CHMS participants aged 3–79 years in cycle 3 (2012–2013) and cycle 4 (2014–2015). In addition to the data for organophosphate metabolites discussed above, data are now available and presented below for two organophosphate pesticides, acephate and methamidophos, that were measured in the urine of CHMS participants aged 3–79 years in cycle 3 (2012–2013). Data from these cycles are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine (Tables 13.1.2 to 13.1.21). Finding a measurable amount of organophosphate pesticides or their metabolites in urine is an indicator of exposure to organophosphate pesticides and/or their metabolites and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 13.1.2: Dimethylphosphate (DMP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2556 83.0
(78.3–86.8)
3.3
(2.9–3.7)
<LOD 3.5
(3.0–4.0)
17
(15–20)
26
(22–29)
5 (2016–2017) 2633 80.9
(75.1–85.6)
1.7
(1.4–2.1)
<LOD 1.6
(1.3–1.9)
8.6
(6.2–11)
14
(10–18)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1280 82.5
(76.3–87.4)
3.3
(2.8–3.8)
<LOD 3.4
(2.8–4.0)
17
(13–21)
26
(21–31)
5 (2016–2017) 1308 77.6
(69.2–84.3)
1.6
(1.3–2.1)
<LOD 1.5
(0.97–2.0)
8.4
(6.5–10)
13
(9.4–18)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1276 83.4
(77.9–87.8)
3.4
(2.9–3.9)
<LOD 3.6
(2.8–4.5)
17
(14–20)
24
(17–31)
5 (2016–2017) 1325 84.1
(79.6–87.8)
1.8
(1.6–2.2)
<LOD 1.6
(1.4–1.8)
9.9Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(6.1–14)
16
(10–21)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 93.9
(90.7–96.0)
6.7
(5.6–8.1)
1.4
(1.0–1.8)
6.8
(4.9–8.6)
32Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(19–46)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 545 93.9
(90.2–96.3)
3.2
(2.6–3.8)
0.78
(0.59–0.97)
3.0Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(1.8–4.1)
15
(12–19)
22
(16–28)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1028 80.7
(74.6–85.6)
3.8
(3.3–4.5)
<LOD 4.3
(3.9–4.8)
21
(18–23)
29
(23–36)
2 (2009–2011) 516 92.2
(89.2–94.4)
6.1
(5.2–7.2)
<LOD 5.9
(4.6–7.3)
24Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(14–35)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 515 90.4
(81.4–95.3)
2.9Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(2.0–4.2)
Table footnote F 2.7
(1.8–3.6)
17Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(8.5–26)
28Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(13–42)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 980 82.8
(75.0–88.5)
3.9
(3.2–4.7)
<LOD 4.1
(3.3–4.9)
21
(18–24)
28
(23–32)
2 (2009–2011) 512 87.5
(82.1–91.5)
3.8
(3.2–4.5)
<LOD 4.0
(3.2–4.8)
18
(12–24)
30
(19–41)
5 (2016–2017) 519 84.3
(73.6–91.2)
2.1Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(1.4–3.1)
<LOD 2.0Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(1.1–2.8)
11Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(4.9–18)
19Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(10–27)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1162 76.0
(69.3–81.6)
2.7
(2.2–3.3)
<LOD 2.9
(2.2–3.7)
13
(9.8–17)
23Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(10–36)
2 (2009–2011) 356 81.0
(69.2–89.0)
3.1
(2.4–4.0)
<LOD 3.5
(2.6–4.5)
17
(11–23)
29
(20–39)
5 (2016–2017) 358 76.3
(62.8–86.0)
1.5
(1.2–1.9)
<LOD 1.5
(1.2–1.8)
6.8
(4.4–9.2)
12Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(6.3–19)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1221 74.3
(66.0–81.1)
2.6
(2.1–3.3)
<LOD 2.9Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(1.4–4.4)
15
(11–18)
24
(18–31)
2 (2009–2011) 360 80.7
(71.4–87.5)
2.8
(2.2–3.7)
<LOD 2.8
(2.1–3.5)
13Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(5.2–20)
20Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(12–27)
5 (2016–2017) 347 79.5
(71.1–85.9)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
<LOD 1.4
(1.2–1.7)
6.8Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(2.5–11)
11Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(4.1–18)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1076 80.7
(76.1–84.6)
3.1
(2.6–3.6)
<LOD 3.3
(2.7–3.9)
15
(12–17)
20
(15–26)
2 (2009–2011) 290 81.9
(73.2–88.2)
3.1
(2.5–3.7)
<LOD 3.4
(2.7–4.2)
14Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(7.3–20)
19Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(9.9–28)
5 (2016–2017) 349 82.5
(73.4–89.0)
1.7
(1.3–2.4)
<LOD 1.6Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(0.90–2.3)
7.7Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(4.5–11)
13Table 13.1.2 footnote E
(6.5–19)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.8, 1, and 0.58 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.1.3: Dimethylphosphate (DMP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2546 83.0
(78.3–86.8)
3.2
(2.9–3.6)
<LOD 3.0
(2.7–3.3)
15
(11–18)
24
(19–30)
5 (2016–2017) 2606 80.9
(75.1–85.6)
1.7
(1.4–2.0)
<LOD 1.5
(1.3–1.8)
7.2
(5.3–9.0)
12
(8.7–15)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1276 82.5
(76.3–87.4)
2.8
(2.5–3.1)
<LOD 2.5
(2.1–2.9)
13
(9.6–16)
21
(17–25)
5 (2016–2017) 1298 77.6
(69.2–84.3)
1.4
(1.1–1.8)
<LOD 1.3
(1.0–1.6)
5.7
(4.5–6.9)
9.4
(6.3–13)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1270 83.4
(77.9–87.8)
3.8
(3.2–4.6)
<LOD 3.4
(2.6–4.2)
16
(11–21)
28
(20–36)
5 (2016–2017) 1308 84.1
(79.6–87.8)
2.0
(1.7–2.4)
<LOD 1.8
(1.5–2.0)
8.8
(6.2–11)
13Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(7.7–18)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 521 93.9
(90.7–96.0)
12
(9.8–14)
2.6
(1.9–3.3)
12
(8.6–15)
51
(33–68)
100Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(41–160)
5 (2016–2017) 536 93.9
(90.2–96.3)
5.4
(4.2–6.9)
1.1Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(0.61–1.6)
5.4
(3.8–7.0)
22
(15–28)
33
(23–43)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1025 80.7
(74.6–85.6)
5.9
(5.2–6.7)
<LOD 6.3
(5.0–7.6)
26
(23–30)
40
(36–45)
2 (2009–2011) 514 92.2
(89.2–94.4)
6.9
(6.0–7.9)
<LOD 7.2
(6.0–8.4)
32Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(18–46)
52Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(22–83)
5 (2016–2017) 506 90.4
(81.4–95.3)
3.5Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(2.4–5.1)
<LOD 3.1Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(1.8–4.3)
19Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(9.1–29)
26
(17–36)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 978 82.8
(75.0–88.5)
3.4
(2.9–4.0)
<LOD 3.7
(3.0–4.5)
14
(11–16)
20
(15–24)
2 (2009–2011) 510 87.5
(82.1–91.5)
2.9
(2.5–3.4)
<LOD 2.9
(2.4–3.3)
12
(8.0–15)
18Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(9.3–27)
5 (2016–2017) 515 84.3
(73.6–91.2)
1.6
(1.2–2.2)
<LOD 1.5
(1.1–1.9)
8.2Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(5.1–11)
10
(7.8–12)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1158 76.0
(69.3–81.6)
3.0
(2.6–3.6)
<LOD 3.0
(2.6–3.3)
12
(9.0–16)
21Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(13–30)
2 (2009–2011) 354 81.0
(69.2–89.0)
2.6
(2.1–3.4)
<LOD 2.4
(1.8–3.1)
16Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(8.0–25)
23
(16–31)
5 (2016–2017) 355 76.3
(62.8–86.0)
1.4
(1.1–1.6)
<LOD 1.4
(1.2–1.7)
5.2
(3.7–6.7)
7.0
(5.3–8.8)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1216 74.3
(66.0–81.1)
3.4
(2.8–4.2)
<LOD 3.4
(2.6–4.2)
14
(9.9–18)
24
(16–32)
2 (2009–2011) 358 80.7
(71.4–87.5)
2.9
(2.4–3.5)
<LOD 2.8
(2.4–3.2)
9.6
(7.9–11)
16Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(7.6–25)
5 (2016–2017) 346 79.5
(71.1–85.9)
1.4
(1.1–1.8)
<LOD 1.3
(1.1–1.4)
5.7Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(2.5–9.0)
9.5Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(3.9–15)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1076 80.7
(76.1–84.6)
4.3
(3.7–5.1)
<LOD 4.3
(3.4–5.1)
16
(14–17)
23
(18–27)
2 (2009–2011) 289 81.9
(73.2–88.2)
3.5
(2.9–4.3)
<LOD 3.7
(2.8–4.7)
13
(10–17)
19
(14–24)
5 (2016–2017) 348 82.5
(73.4–89.0)
2.0
(1.5–2.7)
<LOD 1.9
(1.3–2.5)
7.5Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(4.0–11)
12Table 13.1.3 footnote E
(5.5–18)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.1.4: Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.4 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2559 80.0
(75.1–84.0)
2.7
(2.3–3.2)
<LOD 2.8
(2.2–3.5)
23
(17–28)
37
(27–47)
5 (2016–2017) 2645 70.6
(64.8–75.8)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
<LOD 1.1
(0.89–1.3)
10
(8.8–12)
20
(15–25)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1281 80.2
(73.8–85.4)
2.5
(2.1–3.0)
<LOD 2.4
(1.8–3.0)
22Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(13–32)
37Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(17–57)
5 (2016–2017) 1315 70.6
(60.7–78.9)
1.3
(1.0–1.6)
<LOD 1.1Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(0.65–1.5)
9.9
(7.3–12)
16Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(8.3–24)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1278 79.7
(74.4–84.2)
2.9
(2.4–3.6)
<LOD 3.2
(2.4–4.1)
23
(17–30)
37
(29–45)
5 (2016–2017) 1330 70.6
(64.3–76.2)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
<LOD 1.1
(0.82–1.4)
11
(8.4–13)
21
(16–25)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 524 92.6
(89.2–95.1)
6.3
(5.1–7.8)
0.72
(<LOD–0.97)
6.4
(4.5–8.3)
49
(33–66)
89
(60–120)
5 (2016–2017) 547 86.6
(81.3–90.6)
2.6
(2.1–3.3)
<LOD 2.1Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(0.94–3.2)
23Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(13–33)
39Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(22–56)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1029 67.3
(58.5–75.1)
2.5
(1.9–3.2)
<LOD 2.5Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(1.4–3.5)
36
(29–42)
54
(45–64)
2 (2009–2011) 516 91.6
(89.4–93.3)
5.0
(4.2–6.0)
<LOD 5.3
(3.7–6.9)
32
(21–43)
66Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(31–100)
5 (2016–2017) 516 84.6
(80.1–88.3)
2.3
(1.8–3.0)
<LOD 2.0
(1.5–2.4)
24Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(10–37)
55Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(24–86)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 980 68.7
(60.7–75.6)
2.3
(1.8–2.8)
<LOD 2.1
(1.4–2.8)
26
(19–32)
44
(30–58)
2 (2009–2011) 512 80.0
(73.0–85.6)
2.6
(2.1–3.3)
<LOD 2.7
(2.0–3.3)
19Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(12–26)
36Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(22–50)
5 (2016–2017) 524 76.5
(68.8–82.8)
1.5
(1.2–2.0)
<LOD 1.4Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(0.85–1.9)
10Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(5.6–14)
19Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(5.5–33)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1163 66.0
(57.1–73.9)
1.8
(1.3–2.4)
<LOD 1.6Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(<LOD–2.6)
17Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(10–24)
36Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(19–53)
2 (2009–2011) 356 78.1
(65.6–86.9)
2.4
(1.8–3.2)
<LOD 2.7
(1.8–3.7)
20Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(10–29)
29Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(17–41)
5 (2016–2017) 361 60.8
(52.0–68.9)
1.0
(0.80–1.3)
<LOD 0.71Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(0.44–0.99)
Table footnote F 20Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(5.3–35)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1223 63.9
(58.0–69.4)
1.8
(1.5–2.2)
<LOD 1.4Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(<LOD–2.3)
20
(15–25)
38
(27–49)
2 (2009–2011) 360 79.2
(70.6–85.8)
2.4
(1.8–3.2)
<LOD 2.2Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(1.2–3.1)
20Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(7.8–33)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 347 70.1
(56.6–80.8)
1.2
(0.89–1.6)
<LOD 1.0
(0.68–1.4)
9.9Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(5.3–15)
12Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(6.6–17)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1079 73.6
(67.0–79.3)
2.6
(2.2–3.2)
<LOD 3.0
(2.1–3.8)
26
(21–31)
40
(35–45)
2 (2009–2011) 291 77.4
(67.0–85.3)
2.8
(2.1–3.8)
<LOD 3.3Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(2.1–4.6)
23Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(12–35)
44Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(20–68)
5 (2016–2017) 350 75.2
(69.7–80.1)
1.4
(1.1–1.8)
<LOD 1.4
(1.1–1.7)
11Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(3.6–18)
21Table 13.1.4 footnote E
(11–32)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.6, 0.6, and 0.44 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.1.5: Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.5 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2549 80.0
(75.1–84.0)
2.7
(2.3–3.1)
<LOD 2.5
(1.8–3.1)
21
(17–25)
35
(31–39)
5 (2016–2017) 2618 70.6
(64.8–75.8)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
<LOD 1.0
(0.88–1.1)
10
(7.0–13)
19Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(12–27)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1277 80.2
(73.8–85.4)
2.1
(1.8–2.5)
<LOD 1.9
(1.5–2.4)
16
(11–22)
28
(18–38)
5 (2016–2017) 1305 70.6
(60.7–78.9)
1.1
(0.91–1.4)
<LOD 0.88
(0.62–1.1)
7.3Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(3.7–11)
19Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(7.3–30)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1272 79.7
(74.4–84.2)
3.3
(2.6–4.2)
<LOD 3.3
(2.3–4.4)
27
(20–35)
37
(25–50)
5 (2016–2017) 1313 70.6
(64.3–76.2)
1.4
(1.2–1.7)
<LOD 1.1
(0.89–1.3)
12
(8.2–16)
21Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(10–33)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 92.6
(89.2–95.1)
11
(9.1–13)
1.3Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(<LOD–2.1)
11
(8.0–13)
79
(61–98)
110
(87–140)
5 (2016–2017) 538 86.6
(81.3–90.6)
4.5
(3.3–6.1)
<LOD 4.2Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(2.6–5.8)
39Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(22–56)
61Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(37–84)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1026 67.3
(58.5–75.1)
3.8
(3.1–4.8)
<LOD 3.8
(2.7–4.9)
45
(36–54)
70
(52–88)
2 (2009–2011) 514 91.6
(89.4–93.3)
5.7
(4.6–7.0)
<LOD 5.9Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(3.4–8.4)
40Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(19–60)
90Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(31–150)
5 (2016–2017) 507 84.6
(80.1–88.3)
2.8
(2.1–3.6)
<LOD 2.7
(2.0–3.4)
29Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(9.5–49)
43Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(18–67)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 978 68.7
(60.7–75.6)
2.0
(1.6–2.4)
<LOD 2.0
(1.8–2.1)
19
(13–24)
30
(23–36)
2 (2009–2011) 510 80.0
(73.0–85.6)
2.0
(1.6–2.5)
<LOD 1.9
(1.3–2.5)
13Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(7.6–19)
25Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(12–38)
5 (2016–2017) 520 76.5
(68.8–82.8)
1.2
(0.95–1.5)
<LOD 1.1
(0.89–1.3)
8.4Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(4.3–13)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1159 66.0
(57.1–73.9)
2.0
(1.6–2.6)
<LOD 1.9
(<LOD–2.5)
17Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(9.0–25)
34Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(18–51)
2 (2009–2011) 354 78.1
(65.6–86.9)
2.0
(1.6–2.6)
<LOD 2.0
(1.5–2.5)
14Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(6.8–21)
33Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(17–50)
5 (2016–2017) 358 60.8
(52.0–68.9)
0.91
(0.67–1.2)
<LOD 0.69
(0.46–0.92)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1218 63.9
(58.0–69.4)
2.3
(1.9–2.7)
<LOD 1.9
(<LOD–2.4)
19
(15–22)
45
(37–54)
2 (2009–2011) 358 79.2
(70.6–85.8)
2.4
(1.9–3.1)
<LOD 2.4Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(1.4–3.4)
15Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(7.2–22)
29
(19–40)
5 (2016–2017) 346 70.1
(56.6–80.8)
1.1
(0.90–1.4)
<LOD 0.92
(0.76–1.1)
7.7Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(2.1–13)
13Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(6.3–19)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1079 73.6
(67.0–79.3)
3.7
(3.1–4.4)
<LOD 3.9
(2.9–5.0)
30
(22–38)
53
(40–67)
2 (2009–2011) 290 77.4
(67.0–85.3)
3.2
(2.4–4.3)
<LOD 3.5Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(2.1–4.8)
25
(16–34)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 349 75.2
(69.7–80.1)
1.6
(1.2–2.1)
<LOD 1.5Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(0.95–2.1)
Table footnote F 21Table 13.1.5 footnote E
(5.7–37)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.1.6: Dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.6 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2537 49.1
(44.2–53.9)
<LOD <LOD 2.9
(2.4–3.5)
6.5
(5.2–7.8)
5 (2016–2017) 2618 51.8
(46.9–56.6)
<LOD 0.097
(<LOD–0.12)
1.4
(0.94–1.9)
4.1Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(2.6–5.6)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1271 42.2
(37.4–47.2)
<LOD <LOD 2.6Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(1.5–3.7)
5.7
(3.8–7.6)
5 (2016–2017) 1296 49.5
(43.2–55.8)
<LOD <LOD 1.2Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.64–1.7)
4.1Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(1.2–7.0)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1266 55.8
(49.5–61.8)
<LOD 0.33
(<LOD–0.42)
3.4
(2.5–4.2)
7.8
(5.5–10)
5 (2016–2017) 1322 54.0
(46.4–61.4)
0.17
(0.14–0.21)
<LOD 0.099Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.14)
1.5Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.48–2.5)
3.8Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(1.9–5.7)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 63.0
(55.1–70.2)
0.85
(0.68–1.1)
<LOD 0.57Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.32–0.83)
8.8Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(4.4–13)
18Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(9.6–26)
5 (2016–2017) 542 64.0
(53.6–73.2)
0.29Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.20–0.44)
<LOD 0.25Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.42)
3.9Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(2.1–5.7)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1029 40.7
(32.2–49.7)
<LOD <LOD 3.6
(2.5–4.6)
7.2
(4.8–9.5)
2 (2009–2011) 512 62.0
(55.2–68.3)
<LOD 0.49Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.75)
4.5Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(1.7–7.4)
9.3Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(5.6–13)
5 (2016–2017) 515 68.2
(60.6–75.0)
0.27
(0.20–0.36)
<LOD 0.19
(0.14–0.23)
Table footnote F 8.0Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(4.0–12)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 980 35.1
(28.0–43.0)
<LOD <LOD 2.3Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(1.4–3.2)
7.0
(4.9–9.1)
2 (2009–2011) 512 43.7
(37.3–50.3)
<LOD <LOD 2.0Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.84–3.1)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 521 54.9
(45.2–64.1)
<LOD 0.12
(<LOD–0.16)
1.4Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.82–2.0)
4.9Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(1.9–7.9)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1163 34.6
(25.0–45.6)
<LOD <LOD 1.9Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(1.1–2.7)
4.6Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(2.4–6.7)
2 (2009–2011) 357 43.9
(34.8–53.5)
<LOD <LOD 2.5Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.79–4.3)
4.4Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(2.3–6.4)
5 (2016–2017) 360 46.1
(37.6–54.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.73Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.45–1.0)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1223 33.9
(26.9–41.7)
<LOD <LOD 2.4Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.74–4.0)
5.8
(4.3–7.4)
2 (2009–2011) 353 48.1
(41.0–55.3)
<LOD <LOD 2.8Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(1.7–3.9)
6.1Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(2.7–9.5)
5 (2016–2017) 346 51.4
(43.0–59.6)
<LOD 0.099Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.14)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1080 44.5
(40.0–49.2)
<LOD <LOD 3.9Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(2.4–5.4)
7.5
(5.0–9.9)
2 (2009–2011) 280 55.3
(45.7–64.6)
<LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F 9.5Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(3.7–15)
5 (2016–2017) 334 51.5
(42.8–60.0)
<LOD 0.098Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.15)
2.0Table 13.1.6 footnote E
(0.75–3.2)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.09, 0.3, and 0.093 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.1.7: Dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.7 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2527 49.1
(44.2–53.9)
<LOD <LOD 3.3
(2.4–4.2)
7.2
(5.2–9.3)
5 (2016–2017) 2591 51.8
(46.9–56.6)
<LOD 0.11
(<LOD–0.13)
1.4
(1.1–1.8)
3.9Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(1.4–6.4)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1267 42.2
(37.4–47.2)
<LOD <LOD 2.0
(1.5–2.5)
4.4
(3.0–5.8)
5 (2016–2017) 1286 49.5
(43.2–55.8)
<LOD <LOD 1.2Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(0.61–1.8)
Table footnote F
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1260 55.8
(49.5–61.8)
<LOD 0.40Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.55)
4.6
(3.2–6.0)
9.4
(7.5–11)
5 (2016–2017) 1305 54.0
(46.4–61.4)
0.19
(0.14–0.24)
<LOD 0.13Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.19)
Table footnote F 4.9Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(1.5–8.4)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 63.0
(55.1–70.2)
1.3
(1.0–1.6)
<LOD 0.97
(0.71–1.2)
17Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(8.4–25)
27Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(16–38)
5 (2016–2017) 533 64.0
(53.6–73.2)
0.50Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(0.31–0.81)
<LOD 0.37Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.62)
5.5Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(2.5–8.4)
12Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(5.4–18)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1026 40.7
(32.2–49.7)
<LOD <LOD 5.5
(3.6–7.4)
11
(8.5–13)
2 (2009–2011) 510 62.0
(55.2–68.3)
<LOD 0.50Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.70)
6.8Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(3.1–10)
9.8Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(5.3–14)
5 (2016–2017) 506 68.2
(60.6–75.0)
0.32
(0.23–0.43)
<LOD 0.22Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(0.12–0.31)
4.6Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(1.5–7.7)
7.1Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(2.6–12)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 978 35.1
(28.0–43.0)
<LOD <LOD 2.1Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(1.3–3.0)
5.3Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(3.2–7.4)
2 (2009–2011) 510 43.7
(37.3–50.3)
<LOD <LOD 1.5Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(0.84–2.1)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 517 54.9
(45.2–64.1)
<LOD 0.098
(<LOD–0.13)
1.1Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(0.60–1.5)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1159 34.6
(25.0–45.6)
<LOD <LOD 2.0Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(0.95–3.0)
4.8Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(2.6–6.9)
2 (2009–2011) 355 43.9
(34.8–53.5)
<LOD <LOD 1.9Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(1.2–2.6)
4.2Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(1.3–7.0)
5 (2016–2017) 357 46.1
(37.6–54.9)
<LOD <LOD 1.2Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(0.48–2.0)
2.0Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(<LOD–2.7)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1218 33.9
(26.9–41.7)
<LOD <LOD 3.2
(2.3–4.1)
8.7
(6.1–11)
2 (2009–2011) 351 48.1
(41.0–55.3)
<LOD <LOD 2.9Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(0.92–4.9)
6.7Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(3.0–10)
5 (2016–2017) 345 51.4
(43.0–59.6)
<LOD 0.11
(<LOD–0.15)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1080 44.5
(40.0–49.2)
<LOD <LOD 4.6
(2.9–6.2)
9.3Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(3.8–15)
2 (2009–2011) 279 55.3
(45.7–64.6)
<LOD 0.50Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.72)
5.3Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(1.7–8.9)
10Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(6.0–14)
5 (2016–2017) 333 51.5
(42.8–60.0)
<LOD 0.14Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.19)
Table footnote F 7.6Table 13.1.7 footnote E
(2.9–12)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.1.8: Diethylphosphate (DEP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.8 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2556 83.3
(79.1–86.7)
2.8
(2.6–3.1)
<LOD 2.8
(2.5–3.1)
11
(8.4–13)
19
(16–21)
5 (2016–2017) 2646 97.8
(95.9–98.8)
2.2
(2.0–2.5)
0.52
(0.44–0.60)
2.1
(1.8–2.4)
9.9
(8.4–11)
14
(10–17)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 85.3
(81.7–88.3)
2.9
(2.6–3.3)
<LOD 2.9
(2.5–3.4)
10
(8.4–12)
18Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(11–26)
5 (2016–2017) 1315 97.9
(95.9–98.9)
2.2
(1.9–2.6)
0.53
(0.44–0.61)
2.1
(1.6–2.6)
9.8
(7.9–12)
15
(11–20)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1277 81.2
(75.4–85.9)
2.7
(2.4–3.1)
<LOD 2.6
(2.2–2.9)
12Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(7.5–17)
19
(15–23)
5 (2016–2017) 1331 97.7
(93.6–99.2)
2.2
(1.9–2.6)
0.51
(0.37–0.64)
2.1
(1.7–2.5)
9.7
(7.6–12)
12
(8.3–16)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 92.9
(89.5–95.3)
4.9
(4.1–5.9)
1.2
(<LOD–1.6)
5.1
(4.1–6.1)
19Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(10–27)
29Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(9.9–48)
5 (2016–2017) 547 98.7
(96.6–99.5)
4.2
(3.4–5.0)
0.99
(0.77–1.2)
4.1
(2.8–5.4)
16
(13–19)
22Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(11–33)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1029 80.9
(68.2–89.3)
2.8
(2.2–3.6)
<LOD 3.0
(2.3–3.6)
11
(9.3–14)
17
(14–20)
2 (2009–2011) 515 92.0
(89.5–94.0)
4.1
(3.7–4.7)
<LOD 4.0
(3.5–4.5)
16
(12–19)
23Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(12–33)
5 (2016–2017) 516 98.2
(96.5–99.1)
3.2
(2.8–3.6)
0.80
(0.52–1.1)
2.9
(2.2–3.6)
12Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(7.3–17)
19Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(11–27)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 980 82.2
(72.1–89.2)
2.9
(2.4–3.6)
<LOD 3.1
(2.4–3.7)
12
(9.3–15)
18
(14–22)
2 (2009–2011) 512 88.1
(84.3–91.0)
3.4
(3.0–3.9)
<LOD 3.1
(2.6–3.7)
16
(11–22)
23Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(14–31)
5 (2016–2017) 524 98.6
(97.3–99.3)
2.6
(2.1–3.1)
0.59Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(0.33–0.85)
2.7
(2.0–3.4)
9.9
(7.4–12)
17
(12–22)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1163 77.7
(65.9–86.3)
2.1
(1.7–2.6)
<LOD 2.1
(1.8–2.5)
7.8
(6.0–9.6)
12
(8.6–14)
2 (2009–2011) 357 83.1
(75.7–88.6)
2.7
(2.3–3.2)
<LOD 2.6
(2.2–3.0)
9.5Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(5.4–14)
20Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(7.9–32)
5 (2016–2017) 361 95.7
(89.9–98.2)
2.0
(1.6–2.7)
0.47
(0.31–0.62)
1.8Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(1.1–2.5)
10
(7.6–13)
15Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(8.9–22)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1223 75.6
(66.0–83.1)
2.1
(1.8–2.4)
<LOD 2.1
(1.8–2.4)
7.6
(5.9–9.2)
11
(8.2–13)
2 (2009–2011) 360 80.3
(71.6–86.9)
2.5
(2.0–3.1)
<LOD 2.5
(1.9–3.1)
9.5Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(5.3–14)
16Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(8.6–23)
5 (2016–2017) 348 98.5
(96.0–99.5)
2.0
(1.7–2.3)
0.58
(0.42–0.73)
2.0
(1.6–2.3)
6.8
(5.5–8.0)
8.2
(6.6–9.9)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1080 82.4
(74.0–88.5)
2.4
(2.1–2.6)
<LOD 2.3
(2.0–2.7)
8.8
(7.8–9.9)
12
(9.8–13)
2 (2009–2011) 289 80.6
(73.0–86.5)
2.6
(2.0–3.2)
<LOD 2.6
(1.9–3.4)
10Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(4.7–16)
16
(12–21)
5 (2016–2017) 350 99.0
(96.8–99.7)
2.1
(1.7–2.5)
0.42Table 13.1.8 footnote E
(<LOD–0.57)
1.9
(1.4–2.4)
9.7
(6.5–13)
13
(10–17)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.5, 1, and 0.29 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.1.9: Diethylphosphate (DEP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.9 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2546 83.3
(79.1–86.7)
2.7
(2.5–2.9)
<LOD 2.6
(2.3–2.9)
9.5
(8.3–11)
14
(11–17)
5 (2016–2017) 2619 97.8
(95.9–98.8)
2.1
(2.0–2.3)
0.66
(0.52–0.80)
2.1
(1.8–2.3)
7.1
(6.7–7.5)
10
(8.8–11)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1275 85.3
(81.7–88.3)
2.4
(2.1–2.7)
<LOD 2.2
(1.8–2.5)
9.1
(6.9–11)
14
(9.5–18)
5 (2016–2017) 1305 97.9
(95.9–98.9)
1.9
(1.6–2.2)
0.55
(0.40–0.71)
1.8
(1.4–2.1)
7.1
(6.1–8.1)
9.5
(8.1–11)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1271 81.2
(75.4–85.9)
3.1
(2.7–3.5)
<LOD 2.9
(2.5–3.3)
9.9
(7.5–12)
14
(9.9–19)
5 (2016–2017) 1314 97.7
(93.6–99.2)
2.4
(2.1–2.7)
0.80
(0.58–1.0)
2.4
(2.0–2.7)
7.1
(6.5–7.7)
11
(9.1–12)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 92.9
(89.5–95.3)
8.5
(7.3–9.9)
2.6
(<LOD–3.4)
8.6
(7.2–10)
31
(22–41)
44
(33–55)
5 (2016–2017) 538 98.7
(96.6–99.5)
7.1
(6.3–8.0)
1.9
(1.3–2.5)
7.9
(6.7–9.2)
20
(17–24)
32
(21–43)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1026 80.9
(68.2–89.3)
4.4
(3.7–5.2)
<LOD 4.2
(3.5–4.9)
16
(13–20)
24
(19–29)
2 (2009–2011) 513 92.0
(89.5–94.0)
4.8
(4.3–5.3)
<LOD 4.5
(3.9–5.2)
18
(13–22)
24Table 13.1.9 footnote E
(11–38)
5 (2016–2017) 507 98.2
(96.5–99.1)
3.7
(3.1–4.4)
1.1
(0.82–1.3)
3.5
(2.8–4.2)
11
(7.4–14)
16Table 13.1.9 footnote E
(9.2–24)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 978 82.2
(72.1–89.2)
2.6
(2.2–3.1)
<LOD 2.6
(2.1–3.1)
8.7
(7.9–9.5)
12
(10–13)
2 (2009–2011) 510 88.1
(84.3–91.0)
2.6
(2.2–3.0)
<LOD 2.5
(2.0–3.0)
9.9
(7.8–12)
15Table 13.1.9 footnote E
(9.6–21)
5 (2016–2017) 520 98.6
(97.3–99.3)
2.0
(1.7–2.3)
0.55
(0.38–0.72)
1.9
(1.6–2.3)
7.5
(5.5–9.4)
9.2
(7.1–11)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1159 77.7
(65.9–86.3)
2.4
(2.0–2.8)
<LOD 2.2
(1.8–2.7)
7.4
(6.6–8.2)
9.9
(8.4–11)
2 (2009–2011) 355 83.1
(75.7–88.6)
2.2
(1.9–2.6)
<LOD 2.0
(1.4–2.6)
7.2Table 13.1.9 footnote E
(3.5–11)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 358 95.7
(89.9–98.2)
1.8
(1.6–2.1)
0.50Table 13.1.9 footnote E
(0.30–0.70)
1.8
(1.4–2.2)
6.3
(5.2–7.4)
7.2Table 13.1.9 footnote E
(4.4–10)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1218 75.6
(66.0–83.1)
2.7
(2.4–3.0)
<LOD 2.9
(2.6–3.2)
8.9
(7.2–11)
11
(10–13)
2 (2009–2011) 358 80.3
(71.6–86.9)
2.5
(2.2–2.8)
<LOD 2.4
(1.9–2.8)
7.9
(5.5–10)
11
(7.5–15)
5 (2016–2017) 347 98.5
(96.0–99.5)
1.8
(1.6–2.1)
0.72
(0.48–0.95)
1.8
(1.5–2.1)
4.5
(3.6–5.4)
6.4
(4.3–8.4)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1080 82.4
(74.0–88.5)
3.4
(3.0–3.7)
<LOD 3.5
(3.0–4.0)
9.9
(8.9–11)
13
(11–16)
2 (2009–2011) 288 80.6
(73.0–86.5)
3.0
(2.5–3.6)
<LOD 2.9
(2.2–3.6)
9.0Table 13.1.9 footnote E
(5.6–12)
13
(9.9–17)
5 (2016–2017) 349 99.0
(96.8–99.7)
2.4
(2.1–2.8)
0.76
(<LOD–0.99)
2.2
(2.0–2.5)
7.3
(6.0–8.6)
9.5
(6.8–12)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.1.10: Diethylthiophosphate (DETP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.10 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.10 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2511 72.7
(68.1–76.8)
0.66
(0.60–0.72)
<LOD 0.60
(0.51–0.70)
2.7
(1.9–3.4)
5.3Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(3.2–7.4)
5 (2016–2017) 2610 75.5
(70.3–80.1)
0.37
(0.33–0.42)
<LOD 0.32
(0.27–0.38)
2.6
(2.1–3.2)
4.4
(3.6–5.2)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.10 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1261 73.1
(67.9–77.7)
0.63
(0.57–0.71)
<LOD 0.58
(0.49–0.67)
2.5
(1.9–3.1)
3.5Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(1.6–5.5)
5 (2016–2017) 1294 75.7
(66.1–83.3)
0.37
(0.29–0.48)
<LOD 0.33
(0.22–0.45)
2.4Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(1.1–3.7)
4.5
(2.9–6.2)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.10 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1250 72.2
(65.9–77.8)
0.68
(0.59–0.79)
<LOD 0.61
(0.46–0.76)
Table footnote F 5.6Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(1.6–9.5)
5 (2016–2017) 1316 75.3
(70.9–79.3)
0.37
(0.29–0.47)
<LOD 0.32
(0.24–0.40)
2.7Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(1.4–4.1)
4.3Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(1.5–7.1)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.10 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 512 88.2
(83.8–91.5)
1.0
(0.92–1.2)
<LOD 1.0
(0.91–1.1)
4.3Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(2.7–6.0)
6.7Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(3.4–10)
5 (2016–2017) 539 88.3
(83.0–92.1)
0.68
(0.51–0.91)
<LOD 0.80Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(0.47–1.1)
5.2Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(2.6–7.8)
7.4Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(4.2–11)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1029 41.8
(31.7–52.5)
<LOD <LOD 2.9
(2.1–3.7)
4.8
(3.9–5.7)
2 (2009–2011) 508 80.8
(74.7–85.7)
0.85
(0.74–0.98)
<LOD 0.78
(0.68–0.88)
3.4Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(2.1–4.6)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 511 84.1
(80.2–87.4)
0.54
(0.45–0.65)
<LOD 0.49
(0.32–0.67)
3.2
(2.2–4.2)
5.4Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(2.9–7.8)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 979 44.6
(34.2–55.4)
<LOD <LOD 2.6
(1.8–3.3)
4.1
(3.1–5.1)
2 (2009–2011) 504 74.6
(66.2–81.4)
0.67
(0.57–0.78)
<LOD 0.59
(0.47–0.71)
2.6
(2.0–3.2)
4.1Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(2.5–5.7)
5 (2016–2017) 520 77.1
(66.5–85.2)
0.41
(0.31–0.55)
<LOD 0.35Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(0.21–0.49)
3.4Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(1.7–5.1)
5.8Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(2.9–8.8)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1163 36.1
(27.5–45.7)
<LOD <LOD 1.9
(1.5–2.3)
2.9
(1.9–3.8)
2 (2009–2011) 349 67.8
(58.7–75.7)
0.57
(0.48–0.69)
<LOD 0.47Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(<LOD–0.64)
2.6Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(1.2–3.9)
5.4Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(1.6–9.1)
5 (2016–2017) 354 73.3
(60.9–82.9)
0.37
(0.28–0.48)
<LOD 0.31Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(0.19–0.43)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1223 34.1
(27.0–42.0)
<LOD <LOD 2.2
(1.6–2.8)
4.6Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(2.8–6.5)
2 (2009–2011) 352 73.6
(64.4–81.2)
0.66
(0.53–0.82)
<LOD 0.65
(0.46–0.84)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 342 74.5
(67.4–80.6)
0.31
(0.25–0.38)
<LOD 0.29
(0.21–0.37)
2.0Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(0.63–3.4)
3.9Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(2.3–5.5)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1080 40.0
(32.9–47.5)
<LOD <LOD 2.6
(2.2–3.0)
4.1
(3.5–4.7)
2 (2009–2011) 286 71.6
(63.7–78.3)
0.67
(0.55–0.82)
<LOD 0.59
(0.41–0.76)
2.7Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(0.76–4.6)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 344 74.4
(66.2–81.2)
0.37
(0.28–0.48)
<LOD 0.36Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(0.20–0.52)
2.1
(1.5–2.8)
3.1Table 13.1.10 footnote E
(1.1–5.1)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.08, 0.3, and 0.13 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.1.11: Diethylthiophosphate (DETP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.11 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.11 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2501 72.7
(68.1–76.8)
0.60
(0.54–0.66)
<LOD 0.59
(0.50–0.68)
2.8
(2.1–3.4)
4.1
(3.5–4.7)
5 (2016–2017) 2583 75.5
(70.3–80.1)
0.36
(0.32–0.40)
<LOD 0.34
(0.29–0.39)
2.3
(1.7–2.8)
3.8
(2.8–4.7)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.11 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1257 73.1
(67.9–77.7)
0.50
(0.44–0.57)
<LOD 0.44
(0.32–0.55)
2.1
(1.5–2.7)
3.3
(2.2–4.4)
5 (2016–2017) 1284 75.7
(66.1–83.3)
0.32
(0.26–0.40)
<LOD 0.29
(0.19–0.39)
1.9
(1.3–2.4)
3.0Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(1.5–4.6)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.11 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1244 72.2
(65.9–77.8)
0.72
(0.60–0.87)
<LOD 0.69
(0.55–0.82)
3.6
(2.8–4.5)
5.2Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(2.9–7.5)
5 (2016–2017) 1299 75.3
(70.9–79.3)
0.40
(0.32–0.49)
<LOD 0.36
(0.28–0.44)
2.9Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(1.6–4.1)
3.9Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(1.9–6.0)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.11 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 511 88.2
(83.8–91.5)
1.7
(1.5–2.0)
<LOD 1.6
(1.3–2.0)
6.7Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(4.2–9.2)
9.6Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(5.5–14)
5 (2016–2017) 530 88.3
(83.0–92.1)
1.1Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(0.79–1.7)
<LOD 1.0Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(0.61–1.5)
6.5Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(3.7–9.3)
12Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(3.9–19)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1026 41.8
(31.7–52.5)
<LOD <LOD 4.2
(3.1–5.3)
6.5
(4.5–8.6)
2 (2009–2011) 506 80.8
(74.7–85.7)
0.92
(0.77–1.1)
<LOD 0.89
(0.77–1.0)
3.7
(2.5–4.9)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 502 84.1
(80.2–87.4)
0.64
(0.53–0.77)
<LOD 0.64
(0.45–0.83)
3.5
(2.4–4.6)
5.2
(3.6–6.8)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 977 44.6
(34.2–55.4)
<LOD <LOD 1.9
(1.8–2.1)
3.2
(2.2–4.3)
2 (2009–2011) 502 74.6
(66.2–81.4)
0.47
(0.40–0.55)
<LOD 0.48
(0.37–0.59)
1.7
(1.5–2.0)
2.7Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(1.4–4.1)
5 (2016–2017) 516 77.1
(66.5–85.2)
0.31
(0.25–0.40)
<LOD 0.27
(0.20–0.34)
1.9Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(1.0–2.7)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1159 36.1
(27.5–45.7)
<LOD <LOD 2.0
(1.5–2.5)
3.7
(2.7–4.7)
2 (2009–2011) 347 67.8
(58.7–75.7)
0.45
(0.39–0.52)
<LOD 0.39
(<LOD–0.49)
2.3Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(1.3–3.3)
3.7Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(2.3–5.1)
5 (2016–2017) 351 73.3
(60.9–82.9)
0.32
(0.25–0.42)
<LOD 0.28
(0.20–0.36)
2.8Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(0.85–4.7)
4.5Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(1.6–7.3)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1218 34.1
(27.0–42.0)
<LOD <LOD 3.0
(2.5–3.5)
5.4
(3.5–7.4)
2 (2009–2011) 350 73.6
(64.4–81.2)
0.62
(0.48–0.80)
<LOD 0.60
(0.43–0.76)
2.8Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(<LOD–4.0)
4.0Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(<LOD–6.2)
5 (2016–2017) 341 74.5
(67.4–80.6)
0.28
(0.23–0.35)
<LOD 0.31
(0.21–0.40)
1.4Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(0.58–2.2)
2.4
(1.6–3.2)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1080 40.0
(32.9–47.5)
<LOD <LOD 2.9
(2.5–3.4)
4.1
(2.7–5.4)
2 (2009–2011) 285 71.6
(63.7–78.3)
0.71
(0.58–0.88)
<LOD 0.69
(0.54–0.85)
3.5Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(1.9–5.1)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 343 74.4
(66.2–81.2)
0.42
(0.34–0.53)
<LOD 0.38
(0.27–0.49)
2.5Table 13.1.11 footnote E
(1.5–3.5)
3.4
(2.3–4.4)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.1.12: Diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.12 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.12 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2557 3.4Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(1.8–6.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 2643 5.8Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(3.7–9.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.072
(<LOD–0.091)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.12 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1312 5.9Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(3.0–11.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.074Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(<LOD–0.10)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.12 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1278 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1331 5.7
(3.9–8.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.071
(<LOD–0.081)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.12 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 524 1.0Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(0.5–1.9)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 547 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.071
(<LOD–0.093)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1029 3.3Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(2.1–5.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 516 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 514 7.1Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(4.8–10.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.079
(<LOD–0.095)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 980 4.0Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(2.8–5.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 511 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 524 9.7Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(5.2–17.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.10Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(<LOD–0.17)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1163 2.4
(1.8–3.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 356 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 361 5.6Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(2.8–11.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.083
(<LOD–0.11)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1223 2.3Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(1.1–4.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 360 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 347 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1080 2.4Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(1.4–4.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 290 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 350 6.1Table 13.1.12 footnote E
(3.4–10.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.071
(<LOD–0.092)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.06, 0.3, and 0.067 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.1.13: Diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.13 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.13 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2547 3.4Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(1.8–6.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 2616 5.8Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(3.7–9.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.13
(<LOD–0.16)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.13 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1275 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1302 5.9Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(3.0–11.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.12
(<LOD–0.15)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.13 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1272 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 1314 5.7
(3.9–8.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.15
(<LOD–0.17)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.1.13 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 523 1.0Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(0.5–1.9)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 538 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD 0.20
(<LOD–0.25)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1026 3.3Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(2.1–5.2)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 514 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 505 7.1Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(4.8–10.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.13Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(<LOD–0.18)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 978 4.0Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(2.8–5.8)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 509 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 520 9.7Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(5.2–17.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.13
(<LOD–0.17)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1159 2.4
(1.8–3.3)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 354 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 358 5.6Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(2.8–11.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.14Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(<LOD–0.19)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1218 2.3Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(1.1–4.4)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 358 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 346 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1080 2.4Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(1.4–4.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
2 (2009–2011) 289 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
5 (2016–2017) 349 6.1Table 13.1.13 footnote E
(3.4–10.6)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.15
(<LOD–0.18)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.1.14: 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy)— Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013) and cycle 4 (2014–2015)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.14 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2439 96.8
(94.6–98.1)
1.0
(0.87–1.2)
0.29
(0.23–0.35)
0.99
(0.84–1.1)
3.3
(2.8–3.7)
4.3
(2.7–5.9)
4 (2014–2015) 2422 98.4
(97.0–99.1)
1.4
(1.2–1.5)
0.37
(0.30–0.44)
1.3
(1.1–1.4)
5.7
(4.4–7.0)
9.3
(6.5–12)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1215 96.7
(93.1–98.4)
1.0
(0.86–1.3)
0.32
(0.22–0.43)
1.0
(0.85–1.2)
3.3
(2.2–4.4)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 1209 98.3
(96.5–99.1)
1.5
(1.3–1.8)
0.47
(0.31–0.63)
1.4
(1.3–1.6)
6.4Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(4.0–8.8)
9.9Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(5.0–15)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1224 96.9
(94.0–98.5)
0.97
(0.85–1.1)
0.25Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(0.16–0.34)
0.96
(0.82–1.1)
3.2
(2.2–4.2)
5.6
(4.1–7.2)
4 (2014–2015) 1213 98.5
(96.0–99.4)
1.2
(1.0–1.4)
0.31
(0.23–0.40)
1.1
(0.94–1.3)
5.2
(3.7–6.7)
7.8
(5.3–10)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 470 97.2
(93.9–98.7)
1.0
(0.90–1.2)
0.30Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(0.15–0.45)
0.99
(0.87–1.1)
3.3
(2.6–4.0)
4.8
(3.4–6.2)
4 (2014–2015) 479 99.0
(97.5–99.6)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
0.39
(0.28–0.49)
1.1
(0.81–1.4)
4.4
(3.4–5.4)
7.3Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(4.5–10)
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 483 97.2
(92.4–99.0)
1.0
(0.84–1.3)
0.27Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(0.13–0.41)
1.1
(0.93–1.2)
3.6
(2.3–4.9)
4.9
(3.5–6.3)
4 (2014–2015) 489 99.7
(98.4–99.9)
1.6
(1.3–2.1)
0.45
(0.36–0.53)
1.4
(1.0–1.8)
6.3
(4.3–8.4)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 498 97.7
(92.5–99.3)
1.0
(0.82–1.2)
0.31Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(<LOD–0.50)
0.98
(0.76–1.2)
3.1
(2.6–3.6)
4.3
(3.0–5.6)
4 (2014–2015) 478 100 1.5
(1.3–1.7)
0.35Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(0.19–0.50)
1.2
(0.99–1.5)
7.0
(4.4–9.6)
11Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(6.3–15)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 344 98.1
(92.3–99.6)
1.0
(0.77–1.4)
0.27Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(0.15–0.39)
0.95
(0.70–1.2)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 336 99.2
(95.5–99.9)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
0.36
(0.26–0.45)
1.2
(1.0–1.5)
6.0
(4.4–7.6)
8.4
(5.9–11)
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 303 95.9
(89.9–98.4)
0.98
(0.80–1.2)
0.29Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(0.17–0.41)
0.92
(0.70–1.1)
3.5
(2.5–4.4)
5.9Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(2.9–9.0)
4 (2014–2015) 299 96.9
(90.6–99.0)
1.3
(1.1–1.7)
0.39Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(0.19–0.59)
1.3
(1.0–1.6)
5.0Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(2.5–7.5)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 341 96.1
(87.5–98.9)
1.0
(0.86–1.2)
0.32Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(0.19–0.46)
1.1
(0.91–1.3)
2.9
(2.3–3.5)
4.4
(2.8–6.0)
4 (2014–2015) 341 98.0
(95.9–99.0)
1.4
(1.2–1.7)
0.35
(0.22–0.48)
1.2
(1.0–1.5)
6.0Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(3.5–8.5)
9.7Table 13.1.14 footnote E
(3.8–16)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycles 3 and 4 is 0.13 μg/L.

Table 13.1.15: 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013) and cycle 4 (2014–2015)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.15 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2438 96.8
(94.6–98.1)
1.0
(0.90–1.2)
0.37
(0.32–0.42)
0.96
(0.87–1.1)
3.1
(2.6–3.7)
4.3
(2.7–5.9)
4 (2014–2015) 2421 98.4
(97.0–99.1)
1.2
(1.1–1.4)
0.40
(0.32–0.49)
1.0
(0.92–1.1)
4.1
(3.4–4.8)
8.0Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(4.9–11)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1215 96.7
(93.1–98.4)
0.87
(0.73–1.0)
0.34
(0.27–0.42)
0.83
(0.71–0.95)
2.6
(1.8–3.4)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 1208 98.3
(96.5–99.1)
1.2
(1.0–1.4)
0.38
(0.26–0.50)
1.0
(0.91–1.1)
4.3
(3.3–5.3)
9.4Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(4.3–15)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1223 96.9
(94.0–98.5)
1.2
(1.1–1.3)
0.47
(0.40–0.55)
1.1
(0.99–1.2)
3.5
(2.9–4.1)
4.9
(3.3–6.6)
4 (2014–2015) 1213 98.5
(96.0–99.4)
1.2
(1.1–1.5)
0.42
(0.34–0.50)
1.0
(0.84–1.2)
3.8
(2.7–4.9)
6.9Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(3.5–10)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 469 97.2
(93.9–98.7)
2.0
(1.8–2.2)
0.81
(0.71–0.90)
1.8
(1.5–2.1)
5.1
(4.2–6.0)
7.4
(5.1–9.7)
4 (2014–2015) 479 99.0
(97.5–99.6)
2.2
(1.9–2.5)
0.87
(0.72–1.0)
1.9
(1.4–2.3)
6.8
(5.4–8.2)
10
(6.8–13)
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 483 97.2
(92.4–99.0)
1.3
(1.1–1.6)
0.51
(0.43–0.59)
1.1
(0.89–1.3)
3.8Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(2.3–5.2)
6.0
(3.8–8.2)
4 (2014–2015) 488 99.7
(98.4–99.9)
1.8
(1.4–2.2)
0.58
(0.46–0.70)
1.5
(1.0–1.9)
5.5Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(3.2–7.7)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 498 97.7
(92.5–99.3)
0.74
(0.64–0.85)
0.31
(<LOD–0.37)
0.70
(0.61–0.79)
1.9
(1.4–2.3)
2.9Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(1.4–4.4)
4 (2014–2015) 478 100 1.0
(0.93–1.2)
0.34
(0.27–0.42)
0.96
(0.84–1.1)
4.3
(2.8–5.8)
6.6Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(3.2–9.9)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 344 98.1
(92.3–99.6)
0.79
(0.62–1.0)
0.33Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(0.21–0.46)
0.67
(0.46–0.88)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 336 99.2
(95.5–99.9)
1.1
(0.87–1.3)
0.37
(0.26–0.48)
0.99
(0.73–1.3)
3.3
(2.4–4.2)
4.4
(3.3–5.6)
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 303 95.9
(89.9–98.4)
1.1
(0.96–1.4)
0.39Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(0.22–0.56)
1.0
(0.91–1.2)
3.5
(2.4–4.5)
4.5Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(1.8–7.2)
4 (2014–2015) 299 96.9
(90.6–99.0)
1.2
(0.92–1.5)
0.41Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(0.26–0.57)
0.96
(0.79–1.1)
Table footnote F 9.7Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(<LOD–16)
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 341 96.1
(87.5–98.9)
1.1
(0.95–1.3)
0.47
(0.36–0.58)
1.1
(0.88–1.3)
3.4
(2.5–4.3)
4.1
(3.5–4.6)
4 (2014–2015) 341 98.0
(95.9–99.0)
1.4
(1.2–1.6)
0.44
(0.33–0.54)
1.2
(0.96–1.4)
4.5
(3.2–5.8)
7.4Table 13.1.15 footnote E
(3.7–11)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.1.16: Malathion dicarboxylic acid (DCA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013) and cycle 4 (2014–2015)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.16 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2475 18.8
(14.5–23.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.56Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.21–0.90)
1.2Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.70–1.6)
4 (2014–2015) 2519 16.4
(12.5–21.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.46Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.23–0.69)
0.95Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.46–1.4)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1227 15.8Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(10.3–23.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 1.3Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.63–2.0)
4 (2014–2015) 1257 15.2
(12.4–18.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.31Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(<LOD–0.47)
Table footnote F
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1248 21.7
(15.7–29.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 1.1Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.37–1.9)
4 (2014–2015) 1262 17.6Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(11.8–25.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.68Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.25–1.1)
1.3Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.58–2.0)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 490 15.1Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(10.0–22.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.46Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(<LOD–0.77)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 499 19.6
(14.5–26.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.70
(0.44–0.95)
1.8Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.62–3.0)
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 497 17.9Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(11.9–25.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.68Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.26–1.1)
1.4Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.58–2.3)
4 (2014–2015) 510 26.8
(20.5–34.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 499 15.6Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(9.0–25.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.34Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(<LOD–0.54)
0.68Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(<LOD–1.2)
4 (2014–2015) 501 13.9
(9.8–19.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.31Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(<LOD–0.53)
0.89
(0.62–1.2)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 345 15.5Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(8.8–25.9)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 357 12.7Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(8.0–19.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.78Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.23–1.3)
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 304 26.3Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(16.8–38.6)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 1.0Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.33–1.7)
4 (2014–2015) 302 18.3Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(11.1–28.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 340 12.6Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(7.8–19.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.33Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(<LOD–0.51)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 350 16.2
(11.6–22.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 1.4Table 13.1.16 footnote E
(0.52–2.3)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycles 3 and 4 is 0.19 μg/L.

Table 13.1.17: Malathion dicarboxylic acid (DCA) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013) and cycle 4 (2014–2015)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.17 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2474 18.8
(14.5–23.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.64
(0.46–0.82)
0.99
(0.78–1.2)
4 (2014–2015) 2518 16.4
(12.5–21.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.42
(0.37–0.48)
0.95Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.40–1.5)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1227 15.8Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(10.3–23.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.43
(<LOD–0.57)
0.80Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.30–1.3)
4 (2014–2015) 1256 15.2
(12.4–18.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.35
(<LOD–0.45)
Table footnote F
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1247 21.7
(15.7–29.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.86
(<LOD–1.1)
1.0
(0.67–1.4)
4 (2014–2015) 1262 17.6Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(11.8–25.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.46
(0.31–0.61)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 489 15.1Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(10.0–22.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.98
(<LOD–1.3)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 499 19.6
(14.5–26.0)
<LOD <LOD 1.1Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.68–1.5)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 497 17.9Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(11.9–25.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.88Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.48–1.3)
1.5Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.81–2.2)
4 (2014–2015) 509 26.8
(20.5–34.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 2.1Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.87–3.2)
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 499 15.6Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(9.0–25.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.34Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(<LOD–0.51)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 501 13.9
(9.8–19.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.32
(<LOD–0.42)
0.48
(0.31–0.65)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 345 15.5Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(8.8–25.9)
<LOD <LOD 0.60Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.19–1.0)
Table footnote F
4 (2014–2015) 357 12.7Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(8.0–19.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.32
(<LOD–0.42)
0.50Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.19–0.80)
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 304 26.3Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(16.8–38.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.73Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(<LOD–1.1)
0.97
(0.73–1.2)
4 (2014–2015) 302 18.3Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(11.1–28.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.42Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(<LOD–0.64)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 340 12.6Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(7.8–19.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.55Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(<LOD–0.84)
0.89Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.51–1.3)
4 (2014–2015) 350 16.2
(11.6–22.2)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 1.7Table 13.1.17 footnote E
(0.82–2.6)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.1.18: Acephate — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.18 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2384 16.7
(11.9–23.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.054Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(0.022–0.085)
0.12Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(0.033–0.20)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1180 16.9Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(11.2–24.8)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.22Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(0.070–0.38)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1204 16.5Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(10.8–24.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.041Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(<LOD–0.067)
0.10Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(0.060–0.14)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 465 15.8Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(10.7–22.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.036Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(<LOD–0.060)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 477 18.1
(12.8–25.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.051Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(0.020–0.082)
0.12Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(0.044–0.20)
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 474 15.0
(10.4–21.3)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.098Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(0.041–0.15)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 336 17.9Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(10.8–28.1)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 297 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.097Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(0.032–0.16)
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 335 17.7Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(11.9–25.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.052Table 13.1.18 footnote E
(0.023–0.082)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 3 is 0.018 μg/L.

Table 13.1.19: Acephate (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.19 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2383 16.7
(11.9–23.0)Table footnote E
<LOD <LOD 0.057Table footnote E
(0.033–0.081)
0.13ETable footnote E
(0.047–0.21)
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1180 16.9Table footnote E
(11.2–24.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.052Table footnote E
(<LOD–0.087)
0.16Table footnote E
(0.045–0.27)
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1203 16.5Table footnote E
(10.8–24.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.061Table footnote E
(<LOD–0.094)
0.12Table footnote E
(0.035–0.21)
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 464 15.8Table footnote E
(10.7–22.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.096
(<LOD–0.13)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 477 18.1
(12.8–25.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.067Table footnote E
(0.033–0.10)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 474 15.0
(10.4–21.3)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.071Table footnote E
(0.035–0.11)
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 336 17.9Table footnote E <LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 297 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD 0.044Table footnote E Table footnote F
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 335 17.7Table footnote E
(11.9–25.4)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.13Table footnote E
(<LOD–0.20)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.1.20: Methamidophos — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.20 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2384 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1180 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1204 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 465 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 477 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 474 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 336 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 297 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 335 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 3 is 0.028 μg/L.

Table 13.1.21: Methamidophos (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.1.21 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 2383 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Males, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1180 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
Females, 3–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 1203 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
3–5 years
3 (2012–2013) 464 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
6–11 years
3 (2012–2013) 477 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
12–19 years
3 (2012–2013) 474 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
20–39 years
3 (2012–2013) 336 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
40–59 years
3 (2012–2013) 297 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD
60–79 years
3 (2012–2013) 335 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD <LOD

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

13.2 Pyrethroids

Pyrethrins are naturally occurring compounds found in certain chrysanthemum flowers (ATSDR, 2003). They have been used for their insecticidal properties since the early 1800s in Asia to control ticks and various insects, such as fleas and mosquitoes (ATSDR, 2003). Pyrethroids are synthetic versions of pyrethrins that have been structurally altered to improve their efficacy as pesticides by increasing their stability in the environment and their toxicity (ATSDR, 2003; EPA, 2017). Many commercial pyrethroid pesticides are currently registered for use in Canada. Table 13.2.1 lists the pesticides that are the parent compounds of the metabolites measured in cycle 5 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) (Health Canada, 2019). Other pyrethroid insecticides, such as tetramethrin and bifenthrin, are registered in Canada but are not included in the table, as they do not form the metabolites analyzed in the current cycle.

Pyrethroids enter the environment primarily because of their use as pesticides; however, they break down rapidly and, as a result, only trace amounts of the chemicals are typically found in air, water, soil, and food (ATSDR, 2003). Pyrethroids degrade to carboxylic and phenoxybenzoic metabolites in the environment; these metabolites have been measured in dust collected from homes and daycare centres (Starr et al., 2008). Pyrethroids bind strongly to soil particles, and thus they usually do not leach into the groundwater but rather remain in the soil (ATSDR, 2003).

Pyrethroid pesticides are used in Canada for insect control on agricultural crops and on turf; in orchards, nurseries, and greenhouses; as a general indoor and outdoor residential insecticide for controlling crawling and flying insect pests; for controlling adult mosquitoes around buildings; in cattle ear tags; for controlling mites in bee colonies; and for flea and tick control on pets (Health Canada, 2004; Health Canada, 2019). In malaria-endemic zones, pyrethroids are used to impregnate mosquito nets and clothing to prevent malaria (Health Canada, 2004). The use of pyrethrins and pyrethroids has increased during the past decade with the declining use of organophosphate pesticides, which are more acutely toxic to birds and mammals (EPA, 2017).

Permethrin is the most widely used pyrethroid pesticide in Canada, and is found in more than 350 registered pesticide products (CCME, 2006; Health Canada, 2019). It is used for a variety of agricultural, livestock, forestry, and residential insect control applications. In addition to pesticide uses, permethrin is used in medications to treat scabies (Health Canada, 2013). Cyfluthrin and beta-cyfluthrin are used as agricultural and surface insecticides to control crawling and flying insect pests (Health Canada, 2019). Cypermethrin has agricultural, forestry, livestock, and non-crop industrial uses (Health Canada, 2018c). Lambda-cyhalothrin is used for a variety of agricultural, turf, livestock, and structural purposes (Health Canada, 2017a). Deltamethrin is used in several agricultural applications, on turf, and in greenhouses; it is also used to treat sleeping areas and clothing in malaria-affected countries (Health Canada, 2004; Health Canada, 2009). D-phenothrin is used primarily in residential settings, whereas fluvalinate-tau is used to control mites in bee colonies (Health Canada, 2009).

The primary routes of exposure for the general population are through the use of products that contain pyrethroids, such as household insecticides and pet sprays, and through the ingestion of pyrethroid residues in food (EPA, 2009a).

Pyrethroid pesticides are rapidly metabolized and eliminated from the body through hydrolysis, oxidation, and conjugation. Following oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure, pyrethroids are metabolized into carboxylic and phenoxybenzoic acids and excreted in urine. Pyrethroids and metabolites can be measured in blood and urine, and are reflective of recent exposure to the parent compound or the metabolite (as an environmental degradate) in the environment (ATSDR, 2003; CDC, 2009; Kuhn et al., 1999; Starr et al., 2008). Urinary metabolites of pyrethroids can be specific to one pyrethroid or common to several pyrethroids. Table 13.2.1 outlines the pyrethroid metabolites measured as part of this survey and their corresponding parent compounds that are registered for use in Canada.

Table 13.2.1: Pyrethroid pesticide metabolites measured in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017) and their parent pesticide compounds
Pyrethroid pesticide (CASRN) Metabolite (CASRN)
Cypermethrin (52315-07-8)
Deltamethrin (52918-63-5)
Permethrin (52645-53-1)
lambda-Cyhalothrin (91465-08-6)
D-Phenothrin (26046-85-5)
Fluvalinate-tau (102851-06-9)
3-PBA: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3739-38-6)
Cyfluthrin (68359-37-5)
Flumethrin (69770-45-2)
4-F-3-PBA: 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (77279-89-1)
Deltamethrin (52918-63-5) cis-DBCA: cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (63597-73-9)
Cyfluthrin (68359-37-5)
Permethrin (52645-53-1)
Cypermethrin (52315-07-8)
cis-DCCA: cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (55701-05-8)
Cyfluthrin (68359-37-5)
Permethrin (52645-53-1)
Cypermethrin (52315-07-8)
trans-DCCA: trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (55701-03-6)
(Barr and Needham, 2002; CDC, 2009; Fortin et al., 2008; Starr et al., 2008)

Pyrethroids, much like the naturally occurring pyrethrins, primarily affect the nervous systems of insects and mammals (Davies et al., 2007). They act on the axons in the peripheral and central nervous systems by prolonging the opening time of small conductance sodium channels, leading to membrane depolarizations and excess excitability. This action causes paralysis in target insect pests, eventually resulting in death. Pyrethroids are more than 2,000 times more toxic to insects than mammals because insects have higher sodium channel sensitivity, smaller body sizes, and lower body temperatures (Bradberry et al., 2005). Mammals are also able to quickly metabolize pyrethroids into their inactive forms and eliminate them (Health Canada, 2009).

Adverse effects can include dizziness, nausea, headaches, tremor, salivation, involuntary movements and seizures; very high exposures may result in unconsciousness (ATSDR, 2003; CDC, 2005). There is evidence for neurobehavioural effects, such as decreased motor activity, in laboratory animals following oral exposure to pyrethroid pesticides (Wolansky and Harrill, 2008). However, there remains a general lack of evidence concerning long-term exposures to low levels of pyrethroids and neurological and reproductive effects in mammals, which may be due to the rapid metabolism and elimination of these compounds from the body (ATSDR, 2003; Kolaczinski and Curtis, 2004; Saillenfait et al., 2015). Allergic reactions in humans have been reported following exposure to pyrethroids; however, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found no clear and consistent pattern of effects reported to indicate conclusively whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and asthma and allergies (EPA, 2009b; Moretto, 1991; Salome et al., 2000; Vanden Driessche et al., 2010). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified permethrin and deltamethrin as not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans based on a lack of evidence (Group 3) (IARC, 1991).

The sale and use of pyrethroid pesticides is regulated in Canada by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) under the Pest Control Products Act (Canada, 2002). PMRA evaluates toxicity and potential exposure in order to determine whether a pesticide should be registered for a specific use. As part of this registration process, PMRA specifies maximum residue limits of pesticides in food. Maximum residue limits exist for several pyrethroid pesticides in food, including cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin (Health Canada, 2012). PMRA re-evaluates registered pesticides on a cyclical basis. As part of this process, Health Canada has completed the re-evaluation of deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and d-phenothrin, and determined that most uses do not present unacceptable risks to humans or the environment when used according to product label directions. As such, these products were granted continued registration (Health Canada, 2016; Health Canada 2018a; Health Canada 2018b; Health Canada 2018c). Health Canada has recently published proposed decisions for permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin (Health Canada, 2017a; Health Canada, 2017b); final re-evaluation decisions for these chemicals will be published in 2019. Fluvalinate-tau is listed on PMRA's workplan for the prioritization and re-evaluation of pesticides extending to 2023 (Health Canada, 2018d).

Pyrethroid metabolites were measured in 89 children (6–12 years) and 81 adults (18–64 years) in the province of Québec in 2005 (Fortin et al., 2008). Metabolites were identified in urine collected for 12 hours from children and in urine collected for two consecutive 12-hour periods in adults. In children, the median and 95th percentile concentrations were <0.005 µg/L and 0.02 µg/L, respectively, for 4-F-3-PBA; <0.006 µg/L and 0.09 µg/L, respectively, for cis-DBCA; 0.10 µg/L and 0.76 µg/L, respectively, for cis-DCCA; 0.24 µg/L and 4.10 µg/L, respectively, for trans-DCCA; and 0.20 µg/L and 1.54 µg/L, respectively, for 3-PBA.

In adults, the median and 95th percentile concentrations were <0.005 µg/L and 0.03 µg/L, respectively, for 4-F-3-PBA; <0.006 µg/L and 0.14 µg/L, respectively, for cis-DBCA; 0.10 µg/L and 1.15 µg/L, respectively, for cis-DCCA; 0.25 µg/L and 3.48 µg/L, respectively, for trans-DCCA; and 0.17 µg/L and 4.23 µg/L, respectively, for 3-PBA (Fortin et al., 2008).

Ferland et al. (2015) reported geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranging between 0.038 and 0.605 µmol/mol creatinine for trans-DCCA and between 0.032 and 2.56 µmol/mol creatinine for 3-PBA over the course of a three-day sampling period in 12 workers on a corn production farm in Québec (92% male, mean age of 39 years). In a study of 26 agricultural workers in Québec exposed to cypermethrin (85% male, median age of 37 years, eight of whom provided two serial urinary measurements following different tasks), the GM concentrations of 3-PBA in urine during a three-day period ranged between 0.080 and 1.668 µmol/mol creatinine, while most of the samples for trans-DCCA were below the LOD (Ratelle et al., 2016).

Five pyrethroid metabolites (see Table 13.2.1) were measured in the urine of CHMS participants aged 6–79 years in cycle 1 (2007-2009) and aged 3–79 years in cycle 2 (2009-2011) and cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data from these cycles are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine (Tables 13.2.2 to 13.2.11). Finding a measurable amount of pyrethroid metabolites in urine is an indicator of exposure to pyrethroid pesticides and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 13.2.2: 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2516 100 0.43
(0.35–0.53)
0.079
(0.066–0.091)
0.36
(0.29–0.43)
2.6Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.6–3.6)
5.9Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(2.2–9.5)
5 (2016–2017) 2706 100
(99.9–100)
0.53
(0.42–0.66)
0.091
(0.065–0.12)
0.46
(0.37–0.55)
3.6Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.7–5.4)
9.7Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(3.6–16)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1256 100 0.37
(0.30–0.46)
0.073
(0.053–0.092)
0.33
(0.27–0.39)
1.9Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.85–3.0)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1348 100
(99.9–100)
0.46
(0.37–0.56)
0.074Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.044–0.10)
0.41
(0.30–0.52)
2.6
(1.7–3.4)
4.3Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(2.5–6.1)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1260 100 0.49
(0.37–0.64)
0.084
(0.069–0.10)
0.38
(0.27–0.48)
3.9Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.6–6.2)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1358 100
(99.7–100)
0.62
(0.46–0.83)
0.096
(0.082–0.11)
0.49
(0.36–0.61)
Table footnote F 15Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(6.1–24)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.2 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 99.9
(99.4–100)
0.32
(0.23–0.45)
0.078
(0.057–0.099)
0.27
(0.21–0.33)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 551 100 0.40
(0.30–0.54)
0.079Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.047–0.11)
0.33
(0.25–0.42)
2.9Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.80–5.1)
6.3Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(3.7–9.0)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1025 99.3
(97.9–99.8)
0.21
(0.16–0.28)
0.047
(0.034–0.060)
0.19
(0.14–0.24)
1.1
(0.76–1.4)
1.7Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.51–2.9)
2 (2009–2011) 515 100 0.30
(0.25–0.35)
0.079
(0.063–0.095)
0.24
(0.19–0.30)
1.2
(0.79–1.6)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 534 100 0.47
(0.39–0.57)
0.10
(0.082–0.12)
0.38
(0.30–0.45)
2.7Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.4–4.0)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 977 99.8
(98.8–100)
0.28
(0.21–0.38)
0.059Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.030–0.088)
0.25
(0.18–0.32)
2.0Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.0–3.0)
3.2Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(2.0–4.5)
2 (2009–2011) 509 100 0.36
(0.29–0.45)
0.096
(0.085–0.11)
0.27
(0.20–0.35)
2.3Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.2–3.4)
5.6Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(2.8–8.3)
5 (2016–2017) 533 100 0.45
(0.34–0.60)
0.094Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.053–0.13)
0.37
(0.28–0.47)
3.0Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.8–4.2)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1159 99.6
(97.5–99.9)
0.25
(0.20–0.32)
0.051
(0.036–0.067)
0.21
(0.16–0.26)
1.4
(1.0–1.8)
2.5Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.6–3.5)
2 (2009–2011) 345 100 0.61Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.41–0.91)
0.094Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.056–0.13)
0.48Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.28–0.67)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 375 100
(99.9–100)
0.61Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.34–1.1)
0.074Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.032–0.12)
0.48Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.29–0.67)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1216 99.2
(98.4–99.6)
0.27
(0.21–0.34)
0.046
(0.032–0.060)
0.25
(0.18–0.32)
1.7Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.91–2.5)
3.5Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(2.0–5.0)
2 (2009–2011) 346 100 0.40
(0.29–0.55)
0.064Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.041–0.088)
0.36
(0.24–0.48)
2.4Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.2–3.5)
4.2Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(2.0–6.4)
5 (2016–2017) 359 99.9
(99.5–100)
0.55
(0.41–0.74)
0.12Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.060–0.19)
0.53
(0.34–0.71)
2.7Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(1.5–4.0)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1073 99.3
(96.8–99.8)
0.24
(0.20–0.29)
0.051
(0.041–0.062)
0.21
(0.17–0.25)
1.3
(0.88–1.7)
2.2
(1.5–2.8)
2 (2009–2011) 279 100 0.36Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.24–0.54)
0.074
(0.055–0.093)
0.27Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.14–0.41)
2.4Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.97–3.8)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 354 100 0.48Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.33–0.70)
0.075Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(0.041–0.11)
0.41
(0.27–0.54)
Table footnote F 9.3Table 13.2.2 footnote E
(4.4–14)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.01, 0.01, and 0.012 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.2.3: 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2506 100 0.42
(0.34–0.51)
0.10
(0.093–0.11)
0.33
(0.26–0.39)
2.3Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.2–3.4)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 2676 100
(99.9–100)
0.52
(0.43–0.62)
0.11
(0.088–0.13)
0.39
(0.33–0.44)
3.2
(2.1–4.2)
Table footnote F
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1252 100 0.31
(0.26–0.38)
0.088
(0.072–0.10)
0.26
(0.21–0.32)
1.3Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.69–1.9)
2.7Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.77–4.6)
5 (2016–2017) 1333 100
(99.9–100)
0.39
(0.34–0.46)
0.099
(0.083–0.12)
0.29
(0.22–0.36)
2.3Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.5–3.2)
3.7
(2.9–4.5)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1254 100 0.56
(0.44–0.72)
0.11
(0.093–0.13)
0.41
(0.31–0.51)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1343 100
(99.7–100)
0.68
(0.53–0.88)
0.15
(0.12–0.17)
0.50
(0.41–0.59)
Table footnote F 18Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(6.3–29)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.3 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 521 99.9
(99.4–100)
0.56
(0.40–0.78)
0.15
(0.10–0.19)
0.46
(0.35–0.57)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 542 100 0.70
(0.58–0.85)
0.16Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.081–0.25)
0.53
(0.42–0.65)
4.2Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.8–6.6)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1022 99.3
(97.9–99.8)
0.32
(0.26–0.40)
0.099
(0.082–0.12)
0.27
(0.22–0.33)
1.3Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.72–1.9)
3.0Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.4–4.6)
2 (2009–2011) 513 100 0.34
(0.29–0.41)
0.12
(0.10–0.14)
0.26
(0.19–0.33)
1.3
(0.89–1.7)
2.7Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.1–4.2)
5 (2016–2017) 526 100 0.56
(0.47–0.68)
0.15
(0.13–0.18)
0.41
(0.32–0.49)
3.3Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.6–5.1)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 975 99.8
(98.8–100)
0.25
(0.19–0.32)
0.067
(0.052–0.082)
0.19
(0.14–0.25)
1.4Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.83–2.0)
2.9Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.7–4.0)
2 (2009–2011) 507 100 0.27
(0.22–0.34)
0.081
(0.070–0.092)
0.21
(0.15–0.26)
1.4Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.89–2.0)
2.6
(2.1–3.1)
5 (2016–2017) 526 100 0.35
(0.28–0.44)
0.087
(0.075–0.098)
0.28
(0.24–0.32)
1.9Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.54–3.2)
4.9Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.6–8.1)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1155 99.6
(97.5–99.9)
0.28
(0.22–0.35)
0.073
(0.052–0.094)
0.23
(0.17–0.29)
1.3Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.75–1.9)
2.4
(1.5–3.2)
2 (2009–2011) 343 100 0.52Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.36–0.75)
0.10
(0.083–0.13)
0.35Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.22–0.48)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 371 100
(99.9–100)
0.54Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.34–0.86)
0.099
(0.081–0.12)
0.37Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.17–0.56)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1211 99.2
(98.4–99.6)
0.34
(0.28–0.43)
0.084
(0.068–0.10)
0.30
(0.24–0.35)
1.9Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.1–2.6)
2.9
(2.2–3.7)
2 (2009–2011) 344 100 0.41
(0.33–0.50)
0.10
(0.088–0.12)
0.35
(0.25–0.45)
1.8Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.2–2.5)
3.4Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.2–5.6)
5 (2016–2017) 358 99.9
(99.5–100)
0.51
(0.43–0.60)
0.13
(0.11–0.16)
0.39
(0.29–0.49)
3.0Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(1.9–4.2)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1073 99.3
(96.8–99.8)
0.34
(0.28–0.40)
0.090
(0.079–0.10)
0.29
(0.24–0.34)
1.6Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.94–2.2)
3.0
(1.9–4.1)
2 (2009–2011) 278 100 0.42Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.29–0.63)
0.092
(0.075–0.11)
0.32
(0.24–0.41)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 353 100 0.55
(0.40–0.76)
0.11Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(0.066–0.15)
0.44
(0.31–0.58)
3.3Table 13.2.3 footnote E
(<LOD–5.7)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.2.4: 4-Fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4-F-3-PBA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.4 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2539 58.6
(53.1–63.9)
<LOD 0.0091
(<LOD–0.010)
0.049Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.028–0.070)
0.11Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.040–0.17)
5 (2016–2017) 2649 34.5
(28.3–41.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.048
(0.036–0.060)
0.082
(0.055–0.11)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1268 57.4
(52.0–62.6)
<LOD 0.0090
(<LOD–0.012)
0.055Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.032–0.079)
0.10Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.044–0.16)
5 (2016–2017) 1319 34.2
(26.0–43.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.049Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.027–0.072)
0.082
(0.060–0.10)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1271 59.8
(52.5–66.6)
<LOD 0.0092
(0.0083–0.010)
0.049Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.015–0.082)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1330 34.9
(28.3–42.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.044
(0.031–0.057)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.4 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 517 49.6
(41.1–58.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.043
(0.031–0.056)
0.050
(0.032–0.067)
5 (2016–2017) 539 34.5Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(20.6–51.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.047Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.017–0.077)
0.079Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.040–0.12)
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 998 41.5
(36.3–46.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.023Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.014–0.032)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 514 56.7
(48.3–64.8)
<LOD 0.0087
(<LOD–0.011)
0.037
(0.026–0.048)
0.056Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.028–0.085)
5 (2016–2017) 525 38.4
(29.2–48.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.041Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.018–0.064)
0.072Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.035–0.11)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 947 50.7
(45.3–56.0)
<LOD Table footnote F 0.035
(0.025–0.045)
0.060Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.017–0.10)
2 (2009–2011) 510 58.8
(50.5–66.7)
<LOD 0.0090
(<LOD–0.011)
0.032Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.0098–0.054)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 530 30.1
(23.5–37.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.039Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.013–0.064)
0.071
(0.051–0.090)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1100 44.7
(36.9–52.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.038Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.015–0.062)
0.089Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.030–0.15)
2 (2009–2011) 352 61.3
(49.9–71.6)
<LOD 0.0093
(<LOD–0.012)
Table footnote F 0.11Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.033–0.19)
5 (2016–2017) 367 32.8Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(21.1–47.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.057Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.031–0.083)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1161 39.6
(32.2–47.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.037
(0.026–0.048)
0.079Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.048–0.11)
2 (2009–2011) 357 62.8
(51.5–72.9)
<LOD 0.0094
(0.0083–0.010)
0.057Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.018–0.097)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 345 40.7
(28.2–54.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.046Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.020–0.073)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1018 38.6
(32.7–44.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.032Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.014–0.050)
0.069Table 13.2.4 footnote E
(0.021–0.12)
2 (2009–2011) 289 48.6
(42.7–54.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 343 29.3
(20.8–39.6)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.008, 0.008, and 0.0060 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.2.5: 4-Fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (4-F-3-PBA) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.5 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2529 58.6
(53.1–63.9)
<LOD 0.0099
(<LOD–0.012)
0.048Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.030–0.066)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 2619 34.5
(28.3–41.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.034
(0.026–0.043)
0.084Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.045–0.12)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1264 57.4
(52.0–62.6)
<LOD 0.0079
(<LOD–0.010)
0.036Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.019–0.054)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1304 34.2
(26.0–43.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.036Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.021–0.052)
0.085Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.036–0.13)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1265 59.8
(52.5–66.6)
<LOD 0.0099
(0.0093–0.011)
0.050Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.024–0.076)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1315 34.9
(28.3–42.1)
<LOD <LOD 0.032
(0.021–0.044)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.5 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 516 49.6
(41.1–58.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.048Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.030–0.066)
0.091Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.056–0.12)
5 (2016–2017) 530 34.5Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(20.6–51.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.062Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.036–0.089)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 995 41.5
(36.3–46.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.039
(0.031–0.048)
0.071Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.044–0.099)
2 (2009–2011) 512 56.7
(48.3–64.8)
<LOD 0.0092
(<LOD–0.0097)
0.037
(0.026–0.048)
0.065Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.024–0.11)
5 (2016–2017) 517 38.4
(29.2–48.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.052Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.022–0.082)
0.098Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.043–0.15)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 945 50.7
(45.3–56.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.029
(0.024–0.035)
0.044Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.015–0.074)
2 (2009–2011) 508 58.8
(50.5–66.7)
<LOD 0.0068
(<LOD–0.0083)
0.024Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.011–0.038)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 523 30.1
(23.5–37.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.028
(0.024–0.031)
0.049Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.025–0.073)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1096 44.7
(36.9–52.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.040Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.025–0.055)
Table footnote F
2 (2009–2011) 350 61.3
(49.9–71.6)
<LOD 0.0085
(<LOD–0.011)
0.050Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.020–0.080)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 363 32.8Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(21.1–47.2)
<LOD <LOD 0.029Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.016–0.043)
Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1156 39.6
(32.2–47.5)
<LOD <LOD 0.043
(0.032–0.053)
0.081Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.041–0.12)
2 (2009–2011) 355 62.8
(51.5–72.9)
<LOD 0.0095
(0.0083–0.011)
0.051Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.017–0.084)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 344 40.7
(28.2–54.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1018 38.6
(32.7–44.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.038Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.019–0.058)
0.095Table 13.2.5 footnote E
(0.026–0.16)
2 (2009–2011) 288 48.6
(42.7–54.5)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 342 29.3
(20.8–39.6)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.2.6: cis-3-(2,2-Dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DBCA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.6 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2535 59.6
(52.5–66.3)
0.012
(0.010–0.014)
<LOD 0.0094
(0.0084–0.010)
0.066
(0.045–0.087)
0.15Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.076–0.23)
5 (2016–2017) 2633 79.5
(73.6–84.3)
0.019
(0.016–0.023)
<LOD 0.019
(0.016–0.021)
0.11
(0.083–0.13)
0.18
(0.13–0.22)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1272 61.7
(54.5–68.4)
0.012
(0.010–0.015)
<LOD 0.0096
(0.0068–0.012)
0.070Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.044–0.095)
0.14Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.048–0.23)
5 (2016–2017) 1305 78.7
(71.6–84.4)
0.019
(0.015–0.023)
<LOD 0.018
(0.015–0.020)
0.12
(0.077–0.15)
0.20
(0.13–0.26)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1263 57.5
(48.6–66.0)
0.011
(0.0092–0.013)
<LOD 0.0092
(0.0069–0.011)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1328 80.2
(73.3–85.8)
0.020
(0.016–0.024)
<LOD 0.019
(0.016–0.022)
0.10
(0.082–0.12)
0.17
(0.12–0.22)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.6 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 522 65.9
(55.6–74.8)
0.014
(0.010–0.018)
<LOD Table footnote F 0.092Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.054–0.13)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 544 87.7
(83.9–90.7)
0.030
(0.022–0.041)
<LOD 0.025
(0.017–0.033)
0.23Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.11–0.35)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 974 48.0
(39.8–56.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.045
(0.033–0.056)
0.097
(0.064–0.13)
2 (2009–2011) 513 70.6
(57.8–80.8)
0.015
(0.012–0.020)
<LOD Table footnote F 0.098Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.030–0.17)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 526 93.3
(91.1–95.1)
0.035
(0.029–0.042)
0.0077
(0.0059–0.0095)
0.026
(0.020–0.032)
0.23Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.091–0.37)
0.39Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.19–0.59)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 927 56.3
(44.2–67.6)
<LOD 0.0072Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.011)
0.048
(0.035–0.060)
0.085
(0.069–0.10)
2 (2009–2011) 507 65.2
(55.6–73.7)
0.014
(0.012–0.017)
<LOD Table footnote F 0.092
(0.062–0.12)
0.19
(0.14–0.24)
5 (2016–2017) 521 85.4
(75.2–91.8)
0.026
(0.020–0.032)
<LOD 0.024
(0.018–0.030)
0.13
(0.10–0.15)
0.18Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.075–0.29)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1055 47.1
(38.1–56.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.037
(0.025–0.050)
0.085Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.051–0.12)
2 (2009–2011) 355 58.8
(47.4–69.3)
0.012
(0.0086–0.015)
<LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 363 79.6
(67.5–88.0)
0.019
(0.014–0.025)
<LOD 0.019
(0.014–0.023)
0.10Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.056–0.14)
0.15Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.097–0.21)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1109 45.4
(37.4–53.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.045
(0.035–0.055)
0.067
(0.056–0.077)
2 (2009–2011) 352 58.2
(47.8–68.0)
<LOD 0.0093
(0.0060–0.013)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 342 75.4
(59.7–86.4)
0.015
(0.011–0.021)
<LOD 0.015
(0.011–0.019)
0.085Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.036–0.13)
0.14Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.082–0.19)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 957 46.1
(38.4–54.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.042
(0.033–0.052)
0.071
(0.052–0.091)
2 (2009–2011) 286 54.5
(46.5–62.4)
<LOD 0.0089Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(<LOD–0.013)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 337 76.4
(66.9–83.8)
0.018
(0.013–0.025)
<LOD 0.018
(0.013–0.023)
Table footnote F 0.22Table 13.2.6 footnote E
(0.10–0.35)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.006, 0.006, and 0.0059 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.2.7: cis-3-(2,2-Dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DBCA) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.7 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2525 59.6
(52.5–66.3)
0.011
(0.0097–0.013)
<LOD 0.0099
(0.0091–0.011)
0.060Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.035–0.085)
0.12Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.069–0.17)
5 (2016–2017) 2603 79.5
(73.6–84.3)
0.019
(0.016–0.022)
<LOD 0.017
(0.014–0.020)
0.097
(0.076–0.12)
0.16
(0.13–0.19)
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1268 61.7
(54.5–68.4)
0.010
(0.0085–0.012)
<LOD 0.0098
(0.0082–0.011)
0.059Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.036–0.081)
0.11Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.043–0.18)
5 (2016–2017) 1290 78.7
(71.6–84.4)
0.016
(0.014–0.019)
<LOD 0.015
(0.012–0.018)
0.079
(0.051–0.11)
0.15
(0.098–0.20)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1257 57.5
(48.6–66.0)
0.013
(0.011–0.015)
<LOD 0.010Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.0062–0.014)
0.066Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.027–0.10)
0.14Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.071–0.21)
5 (2016–2017) 1313 80.2
(73.3–85.8)
0.021
(0.018–0.026)
<LOD 0.021
(0.017–0.025)
0.098
(0.083–0.11)
0.16
(0.11–0.22)
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.7 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 521 65.9
(55.6–74.8)
0.023
(0.017–0.031)
<LOD 0.020
(<LOD–0.026)
0.13Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.065–0.19)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 535 87.7
(83.9–90.7)
0.052Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.035–0.078)
<LOD 0.043Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.026–0.059)
0.26
(0.17–0.36)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 971 48.0
(39.8–56.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.065
(0.047–0.082)
0.13Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.074–0.19)
2 (2009–2011) 511 70.6
(57.8–80.8)
0.018
(0.013–0.024)
<LOD 0.016Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.024)
0.11Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.033–0.19)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 518 93.3
(91.1–95.1)
0.040
(0.033–0.049)
0.011
(0.0090–0.013)
0.032
(0.027–0.036)
0.21Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.094–0.32)
Table footnote F
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 925 56.3
(44.2–67.6)
<LOD 0.0077
(<LOD–0.0091)
0.039
(0.034–0.044)
0.071
(0.050–0.092)
2 (2009–2011) 505 65.2
(55.6–73.7)
0.011
(0.0090–0.012)
<LOD 0.0099
(<LOD–0.011)
0.063Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.033–0.093)
0.12
(0.090–0.16)
5 (2016–2017) 514 85.4
(75.2–91.8)
0.020
(0.016–0.024)
<LOD 0.017
(0.014–0.021)
0.095
(0.066–0.13)
0.15
(0.11–0.19)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1051 47.1
(38.1–56.4)
<LOD <LOD 0.040
(0.028–0.052)
0.083Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.047–0.12)
2 (2009–2011) 353 58.8
(47.4–69.3)
0.0097
(0.0071–0.013)
<LOD 0.0092
(<LOD–0.012)
0.045Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.014–0.076)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 359 79.6
(67.5–88.0)
0.017
(0.014–0.021)
<LOD 0.015
(0.012–0.017)
0.073Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.040–0.11)
0.11
(0.080–0.14)
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1104 45.4
(37.4–53.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.047
(0.037–0.058)
0.088
(0.059–0.12)
2 (2009–2011) 350 58.2
(47.8–68.0)
<LOD 0.0099
(0.0082–0.012)
0.056Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.018–0.095)
0.10Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.039–0.17)
5 (2016–2017) 341 75.4
(59.7–86.4)
0.014
(0.010–0.019)
<LOD 0.015Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.0093–0.021)
0.063
(0.043–0.083)
0.11Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.051–0.16)
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 957 46.1
(38.4–54.0)
<LOD <LOD 0.057
(0.046–0.069)
0.081
(0.061–0.10)
2 (2009–2011) 285 54.5
(46.5–62.4)
<LOD 0.0099Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(<LOD–0.014)
0.073Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.024–0.12)
0.18Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.079–0.27)
5 (2016–2017) 336 76.4
(66.9–83.8)
0.021
(0.016–0.028)
<LOD 0.019Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.010–0.027)
0.11Table 13.2.7 footnote E
(0.050–0.16)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.2.8: cis-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.8 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2553 99.4
(98.0–99.8)
0.12
(0.10–0.15)
0.024
(0.021–0.028)
0.093
(0.076–0.11)
0.85Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.47–1.2)
2.2Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.78–3.6)
5 (2016–2017) 2715 100
(99.9–100)
0.18
(0.13–0.24)
0.029Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.016–0.042)
0.15
(0.11–0.19)
1.1Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.43–1.8)
Table footnote F
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1277 99.2
(96.8–99.8)
0.10
(0.087–0.13)
0.024
(0.018–0.029)
0.088
(0.068–0.11)
0.55
(0.43–0.68)
1.2Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.39–2.1)
5 (2016–2017) 1355 100
(99.9–100)
0.16
(0.12–0.22)
0.027Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.011–0.042)
0.13
(0.089–0.18)
1.1Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.61–1.5)
2.5Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.96–4.0)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1276 99.6
(97.9–99.9)
0.15
(0.11–0.20)
0.025
(0.020–0.030)
0.099
(0.077–0.12)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1360 99.9
(99.9–100)
0.19Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.13–0.29)
0.034Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.021–0.048)
0.17
(0.12–0.22)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.8 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 520 98.2
(93.1–99.6)
0.067
(0.049–0.090)
0.016
(0.011–0.022)
0.065
(0.047–0.082)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 553 99.9
(98.7–100)
0.10
(0.077–0.14)
0.023Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.014–0.031)
0.084
(0.061–0.11)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1026 97.2
(95.0–98.5)
0.054
(0.043–0.067)
0.014
(0.0099–0.018)
0.049
(0.038–0.060)
0.22
(0.15–0.28)
0.38Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.18–0.57)
2 (2009–2011) 514 99.3
(97.5–99.8)
0.069
(0.059–0.082)
0.018
(0.014–0.022)
0.056
(0.046–0.065)
0.35Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.22–0.48)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 536 99.9
(99.2–100)
0.12
(0.10–0.14)
0.030
(0.024–0.036)
0.10
(0.090–0.11)
0.77Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.32–1.2)
1.6Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.55–2.6)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 970 98.8
(95.5–99.7)
0.090
(0.067–0.12)
0.019
(0.013–0.025)
0.077
(0.055–0.099)
0.52Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.20–0.84)
1.0Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.44–1.6)
2 (2009–2011) 510 99.8
(99.4–99.9)
0.10
(0.083–0.13)
0.026
(0.022–0.030)
0.080
(0.065–0.095)
0.65Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.36–0.94)
1.7Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.90–2.4)
5 (2016–2017) 538 99.8
(99.2–100)
0.15
(0.11–0.20)
0.030Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.018–0.043)
0.11
(0.084–0.14)
0.89Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.55–1.2)
Table footnote F
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1151 98.7
(96.0–99.6)
0.086
(0.070–0.11)
0.020
(0.015–0.024)
0.076
(0.057–0.094)
0.45
(0.30–0.60)
0.75Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.35–1.1)
2 (2009–2011) 359 99.2
(93.7–99.9)
0.18Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.12–0.28)
0.027
(0.019–0.035)
0.13
(0.092–0.17)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 376 100
(99.9–100)
0.21Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.11–0.40)
Table footnote F 0.18Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.11–0.25)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1208 98.3
(96.4–99.2)
0.092
(0.073–0.12)
0.018
(0.012–0.024)
0.077
(0.054–0.099)
0.60
(0.42–0.78)
1.2
(0.91–1.5)
2 (2009–2011) 359 99.7
(98.7–99.9)
0.12
(0.089–0.16)
0.024
(0.016–0.031)
0.10Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.054–0.15)
0.64Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.32–0.96)
1.6Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.46–2.7)
5 (2016–2017) 360 100 0.19Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.13–0.27)
Table footnote F 0.16Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.061–0.26)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1076 99.1
(94.0–99.9)
0.083
(0.066–0.10)
0.019
(0.015–0.024)
0.067
(0.050–0.083)
0.42Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.25–0.58)
0.75
(0.47–1.0)
2 (2009–2011) 291 98.9
(90.0–99.9)
0.11Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.072–0.16)
0.021
(0.014–0.029)
0.086
(0.064–0.11)
0.92Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.37–1.5)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 352 100 0.17Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.11–0.26)
Table footnote F 0.15
(0.11–0.20)
1.5Table 13.2.8 footnote E
(0.69–2.3)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.007, 0.007, and 0.0045 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.2.9: cis-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.9 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2543 99.4
(98.0–99.8)
0.12
(0.10–0.15)
0.028
(0.025–0.031)
0.087
(0.072–0.10)
0.83Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.42–1.2)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 2685 100
(99.9–100)
0.17
(0.13–0.23)
0.036
(0.026–0.045)
0.14
(0.10–0.17)
1.0
(0.71–1.4)
Table footnote F
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1273 99.2
(96.8–99.8)
0.088
(0.075–0.10)
0.026
(0.023–0.029)
0.068
(0.053–0.083)
0.41Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.23–0.59)
0.96Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.46–1.5)
5 (2016–2017) 1340 100
(99.9–100)
0.14
(0.10–0.18)
0.029
(0.020–0.038)
0.10
(0.065–0.13)
0.92Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.55–1.3)
1.8Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(1.1–2.5)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1270 99.6
(97.9–99.9)
0.17
(0.13–0.22)
0.034
(0.029–0.039)
0.11
(0.077–0.14)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1345 99.9
(99.9–100)
0.21
(0.15–0.30)
0.051
(0.039–0.062)
0.17
(0.13–0.21)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.9 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 519 98.2
(93.1–99.6)
0.12
(0.085–0.16)
0.031
(0.022–0.040)
0.091
(0.068–0.11)
0.63Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.19–1.1)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 544 99.9
(98.7–100)
0.18
(0.15–0.22)
0.048
(0.033–0.062)
0.15
(0.12–0.18)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1023 97.2
(95.0–98.5)
0.083
(0.070–0.098)
0.028
(0.023–0.033)
0.071
(0.063–0.079)
0.30Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.19–0.41)
0.58Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.21–0.95)
2 (2009–2011) 512 99.3
(97.5–99.8)
0.080
(0.069–0.094)
0.026
(0.022–0.031)
0.059
(0.052–0.066)
0.39Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.24–0.54)
0.70Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–1.2)
5 (2016–2017) 528 99.9
(99.2–100)
0.14
(0.12–0.16)
0.045
(0.035–0.056)
0.10
(0.094–0.11)
0.69Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.29–1.1)
1.7Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.82–2.5)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 968 98.8
(95.5–99.7)
0.079
(0.062–0.10)
0.022
(0.018–0.025)
0.061
(0.042–0.080)
0.43Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.23–0.63)
0.98Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.55–1.4)
2 (2009–2011) 508 99.8
(99.4–99.9)
0.079
(0.063–0.099)
0.024
(0.020–0.027)
0.060
(0.046–0.074)
0.45Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.24–0.66)
0.88Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.54–1.2)
5 (2016–2017) 531 99.8
(99.2–100)
0.11
(0.088–0.14)
0.030
(0.026–0.034)
0.085
(0.062–0.11)
0.60Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.23–0.98)
1.8Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.56–3.1)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1147 98.7
(96.0–99.6)
0.096
(0.080–0.12)
0.026
(0.021–0.031)
0.084
(0.069–0.099)
0.38Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.23–0.53)
0.82Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.40–1.2)
2 (2009–2011) 357 99.2
(93.7–99.9)
0.16Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.10–0.23)
0.028
(0.024–0.033)
0.098
(0.070–0.13)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 372 100
(99.9–100)
0.18Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.10–0.32)
0.035
(0.028–0.043)
0.15Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.073–0.22)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1203 98.3
(96.4–99.2)
0.12
(0.097–0.14)
0.029
(0.023–0.035)
0.097
(0.080–0.11)
0.64
(0.42–0.86)
1.2
(0.97–1.5)
2 (2009–2011) 357 99.7
(98.7–99.9)
0.12
(0.10–0.15)
0.032
(0.023–0.041)
0.084Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.050–0.12)
0.62Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.28–0.96)
1.3Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.51–2.0)
5 (2016–2017) 359 100 0.17
(0.12–0.23)
0.034Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.019–0.049)
0.15
(0.10–0.19)
1.0Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.49–1.5)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1076 99.1
(94.0–99.9)
0.12
(0.093–0.14)
0.034
(0.031–0.037)
0.093
(0.073–0.11)
0.48Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.18–0.79)
1.2Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.61–1.7)
2 (2009–2011) 290 98.9
(90.0–99.9)
0.12Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.084–0.19)
0.030
(0.019–0.041)
0.095
(0.071–0.12)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 351 100 0.19
(0.14–0.28)
0.038Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(<LOD–0.062)
0.15Table 13.2.9 footnote E
(0.093–0.20)
0.99
(0.67–1.3)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.2.10: trans-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.10 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.10 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2558 99.4
(97.8–99.9)
0.29
(0.23–0.36)
0.051
(0.043–0.059)
0.22
(0.17–0.26)
2.0Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.90–3.2)
6.8Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(2.1–11)
5 (2016–2017) 2719 99.6
(98.7–99.9)
0.27
(0.20–0.37)
0.038Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.023–0.052)
0.23
(0.18–0.28)
2.2Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.95–3.4)
Table footnote F
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.10 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 99.3
(96.4–99.9)
0.25
(0.20–0.31)
0.048
(0.036–0.060)
0.21
(0.17–0.25)
1.3Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.82–1.8)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1355 99.7
(99.1–99.9)
0.25
(0.19–0.33)
0.036Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.0098–0.062)
0.21
(0.16–0.26)
2.1Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.3–3.0)
4.5Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.6–7.3)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.10 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1279 99.6
(97.7–99.9)
0.34
(0.25–0.46)
0.052
(0.040–0.064)
0.22
(0.16–0.28)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1364 99.5
(96.8–99.9)
0.29Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.19–0.43)
0.039
(0.029–0.050)
0.24
(0.17–0.31)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.10 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 521 99.4
(95.1–99.9)
0.22
(0.16–0.31)
0.055
(0.038–0.071)
0.19
(0.13–0.25)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 553 100
(99.9–100)
0.22
(0.16–0.30)
0.047Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.029–0.064)
0.18
(0.13–0.23)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1027 99.9
(99.6–100)
0.17
(0.15–0.21)
0.041Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.025–0.057)
0.15
(0.12–0.18)
0.82
(0.57–1.1)
1.4
(1.1–1.8)
2 (2009–2011) 516 99.7
(98.1–100)
0.21
(0.18–0.25)
0.048
(0.037–0.059)
0.17
(0.15–0.19)
1.1
(0.80–1.4)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 538 99.4
(95.5–99.9)
0.23
(0.20–0.26)
0.053
(0.039–0.066)
0.20
(0.16–0.24)
1.3Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.60–2.0)
2.9Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.2–4.6)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 978 99.9
(99.5–100)
0.24
(0.18–0.33)
0.048Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.030–0.066)
0.20
(0.16–0.24)
1.5Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.58–2.4)
3.8Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(2.0–5.6)
2 (2009–2011) 511 100 0.27
(0.21–0.34)
0.057
(0.048–0.067)
0.20
(0.16–0.25)
1.8Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.0–2.5)
4.8Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(2.1–7.5)
5 (2016–2017) 538 99.4
(98.3–99.8)
0.26
(0.19–0.35)
0.049Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.020–0.078)
0.21
(0.16–0.26)
1.7Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.80–2.6)
4.6Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.5–7.7)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1158 99.3
(97.3–99.8)
0.20
(0.16–0.24)
0.042
(0.031–0.053)
0.17
(0.14–0.21)
1.0
(0.71–1.4)
2.0Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.1–2.8)
2 (2009–2011) 359 100 0.41Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.26–0.66)
0.061
(0.040–0.082)
0.28Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.12–0.43)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 376 99.3
(93.5–99.9)
0.33Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.17–0.64)
0.036Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.012–0.061)
0.24Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.11–0.37)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1216 99.6
(98.8–99.9)
0.21
(0.17–0.26)
0.037
(0.029–0.044)
0.18
(0.13–0.22)
1.6Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.86–2.3)
3.2Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.9–4.5)
2 (2009–2011) 360 98.9
(94.4–99.8)
0.27
(0.20–0.35)
0.041Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.022–0.060)
0.22
(0.15–0.30)
1.8Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.1–2.5)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 360 99.9
(99.3–100)
0.26Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.17–0.39)
0.042Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.012–0.072)
0.25Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.14–0.35)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1078 99.6
(98.0–99.9)
0.18
(0.15–0.22)
0.040
(0.032–0.047)
0.15
(0.12–0.18)
1.1
(0.79–1.3)
1.9Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.1–2.6)
2 (2009–2011) 291 99.0
(93.3–99.9)
0.23Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.14–0.39)
0.041Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.026–0.056)
0.17Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.082–0.25)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 354 99.6
(97.7–99.9)
0.23Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.16–0.34)
0.029Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(0.011–0.048)
0.18
(0.11–0.24)
2.5Table 13.2.10 footnote E
(1.3–3.7)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LODs for cycles 1, 2, and 5 are 0.01, 0.01, and 0.0094 μg/L, respectively.

Table 13.2.11: trans-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009), cycle 2 (2009–2011), and cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.2.11 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.11 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 2548 99.4
(97.8–99.9)
0.28
(0.23–0.35)
0.062
(0.054–0.070)
0.19
(0.15–0.24)
1.9Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.72–3.1)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 2689 99.6
(98.7–99.9)
0.26
(0.20–0.34)
0.050
(0.038–0.062)
0.21
(0.15–0.26)
2.0Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(1.1–3.0)
Table footnote F
Males, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.11 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1275 99.3
(96.4–99.9)
0.21
(0.18–0.25)
0.055
(0.045–0.064)
0.17
(0.13–0.20)
1.0Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.53–1.5)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1340 99.7
(99.1–99.9)
0.21
(0.17–0.28)
0.045
(0.030–0.060)
0.17Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.11–0.23)
1.5Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.60–2.3)
3.5
(2.3–4.8)
Females, 3–79 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.11 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 1273 99.6
(97.7–99.9)
0.38
(0.29–0.51)
0.070
(0.058–0.083)
0.24
(0.18–0.30)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 1349 99.5
(96.8–99.9)
0.32
(0.22–0.45)
0.058
(0.045–0.070)
0.25
(0.20–0.31)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
3–5 years
1 (2007–2009)Table 13.2.11 footnote b
2 (2009–2011) 520 99.4
(95.1–99.9)
0.39
(0.28–0.54)
0.094
(0.065–0.12)
0.32
(0.22–0.41)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 544 100
(99.9–100)
0.38
(0.31–0.46)
0.087Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.053–0.12)
0.33
(0.29–0.37)
1.9Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(<LOD–3.2)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
1 (2007–2009) 1024 99.9
(99.6–100)
0.27
(0.24–0.31)
0.086
(0.078–0.095)
0.21
(0.19–0.24)
1.0Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.63–1.4)
2.4Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(1.3–3.6)
2 (2009–2011) 514 99.7
(98.1–100)
0.24
(0.21–0.29)
0.077
(0.067–0.087)
0.18
(0.16–0.20)
1.1Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.64–1.5)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 530 99.4
(95.5–99.9)
0.27
(0.24–0.30)
0.085
(0.071–0.099)
0.20
(0.17–0.23)
1.6Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.68–2.5)
3.4Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(1.5–5.4)
12–19 years
1 (2007–2009) 976 99.9
(99.5–100)
0.21
(0.17–0.27)
0.056
(0.047–0.065)
0.15
(0.11–0.20)
1.2Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.62–1.8)
2.4Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(1.2–3.5)
2 (2009–2011) 509 100 0.21
(0.16–0.26)
0.057
(0.049–0.065)
0.15
(0.11–0.19)
1.2Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.50–1.9)
2.4Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(1.2–3.5)
5 (2016–2017) 531 99.4
(98.3–99.8)
0.20
(0.16–0.25)
0.047
(0.040–0.054)
0.14
(0.096–0.18)
Table footnote F 3.5Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(1.2–5.9)
20–39 years
1 (2007–2009) 1154 99.3
(97.3–99.8)
0.22
(0.19–0.26)
0.058
(0.050–0.067)
0.17
(0.14–0.21)
1.0
(0.75–1.3)
2.3Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(1.4–3.3)
2 (2009–2011) 357 100 0.35Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.23–0.53)
0.059
(0.040–0.078)
0.22Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.13–0.30)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 372 99.3
(93.5–99.9)
0.29Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.16–0.52)
0.048
(0.033–0.063)
0.22Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.11–0.33)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
1 (2007–2009) 1216 99.6
(98.8–99.9)
0.27
(0.23–0.32)
0.062
(0.057–0.068)
0.20
(0.17–0.23)
1.7
(1.1–2.3)
3.6
(2.9–4.4)
2 (2009–2011) 358 98.9
(94.4–99.8)
0.27
(0.23–0.32)
0.065
(0.051–0.079)
0.19Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.12–0.27)
1.6Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.89–2.2)
Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 359 99.9
(99.3–100)
0.24
(0.17–0.32)
0.049Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.030–0.068)
0.23Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.14–0.31)
1.5Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(<LOD–2.5)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
1 (2007–2009) 1078 99.6
(98.0–99.9)
0.25
(0.21–0.31)
0.066
(0.060–0.073)
0.20
(0.16–0.24)
1.3Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.68–1.9)
2.9Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(1.7–4.2)
2 (2009–2011) 290 99.0
(93.3–99.9)
0.27Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.16–0.44)
0.052
(0.035–0.070)
0.18Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.10–0.27)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
5 (2016–2017) 353 99.6
(97.7–99.9)
0.27
(0.19–0.37)
0.047Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(0.029–0.065)
0.20
(0.13–0.27)
2.1Table 13.2.11 footnote E
(1.0–3.2)
Table footnote F

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

13.3 Ethylene bisdithiocarbamates

Ethylene bisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) are a group of pesticides used primarily as broad-spectrum organometallic fungicides. Three EBDCs were registered for use in Canada during the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cycle 5 sampling period (2016–2017), namely mancozeb, metiram, and nabam (Health Canada, 2019). Ethylene thiourea (ETU) (CASRN 96-45-7), also known as 2-imidazolidinethione, is a metabolite, an environmental degradation product and synthesis contaminant of EBDCs. ETU can also be produced commercially and is used primarily in plastic and rubber production (CDC, 2016; Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017; EPA, 2016; IARC, 2001; NTP, 2016).

EBDCs enter the environment as a result of their use as fungicides. They break down rapidly to ETU and other metabolites. As a result, they are not expected to be present in drinking water (Health Canada, 2018c; Health Canada, 2018d). Conversely, ETU is moderately persistent and more mobile than the parent fungicides; therefore, it may be present in the water column (NTP, 2016). In soil, ETU is highly mobile, but biodegrades rapidly, while in air it is photochemically degraded. ETU may also be released to the environment during plastic and rubber production. While the curing of rubber converts ETU to other compounds, residual amounts of ETU may be present (IARC, 1974). Therefore, ETU can potentially migrate from rubber surfaces.

EBDCs are used in a range of applications. Nabam is a broad-spectrum biocide registered for use in Canada to control slime-forming microorganisms in process fluids for a number of industries. As a slime-control agent, it is used in air washers, cooling towers, evaporative condensers, pulp and paper mills, drilling fluids for oil field operations, and secondary and tertiary petroleum recovery (Health Canada, 2012). Mancozeb and metiram are protectant contact fungicides with a multi-site mode of action and have historically been used to control a broad spectrum of plant diseases in a variety of food and feed crops. Following a 2018 re-evaluation decision, Health Canada cancelled all uses of metiram with the exception of foliar application in potatoes (Health Canada, 2018d). Health Canada has also recently proposed to phase out all uses of mancozeb, with the exception of use on greenhouse tobacco (Health Canada, 2018c).

Exposure of the general population may occur from the ingestion of food treated with EBDCs. Other routes of exposure include inhalation during activity in areas adjacent to fields treated with EBDCs. ETU exposure results from its presence as a contaminant in the applied fungicide, the degradation of the parent fungicide, or as a product of heating food contaminated with an EBDC (IARC, 2001). As a result of EBDC use, ETU may also be present as a contaminant in food or drinking water. Cigarette smoke may also be an important source of EBDCs and ETU exposure owing to the use of fungicides on tobacco crops (Houeto et al., 1995; IARC, 2001). Exposure to EBDCs and ETU can also occur through dermal contact with pesticide products; direct ETU exposure may result from dermal contact with rubber that contains ETU (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017; EPA, 2016; Health Canada, 2012; Health Canada, 2018c; Health Canada, 2018d; HSDB, 2010).

EBDCs are primarily absorbed by ingestion, less so by inhalation or dermally, and are metabolized rapidly in the body to produce ETU and other substances (CDC, 2016; Houeto, 1995). ETU itself is readily absorbed following oral exposure and excreted in urine as unchanged ETU and other oxidative metabolites (CDC, 2016; Houeto et al., 1995). Once absorbed, ETU distributes throughout the body, with predominant distribution to the thyroid gland (IARC, 2001). ETU can cross the placental barrier and has been measured in the milk of lactating laboratory animals (CDC, 2016; HSDB, 2010). ETU elimination following EBDC exposure has a reported half-life in humans ranging from 32 to 100 hours (Kurttio and Savolainen, 1990). Animal and human studies report that ETU is rapidly eliminated, mainly through urine, with a small amount excreted in feces (CDC, 2016, Houeto et al., 1995). ETU measured in urine reflects recent exposure to EBDCs or ETU (CDC, 2016).

Potential human health risks from exposure to EBDCs and their metabolite ETU include key effects on the thyroid. Of the EBDC fungicides, nabam has the greatest toxicity, possibly due to its higher water solubility and absorbability (Frakes and Hicks, 1993). Overall, the toxicity of parent EBDC compounds is relatively low; most is attributed to the metabolites, particularly ETU (Frakes and Hicks, 1993). Acute oral exposure to ETU has been reported to result in thyroid gland hyperplasia and reduced thyroid hormone levels, while short-term inhalation exposure may irritate the respiratory tract (EPA, 2016; Houeto et al., 1995). Acute exposure to higher levels of ETU can result in symptoms ranging from nausea and sweating to pulmonary edema leading to death. Animal studies show that the target organ for chronic ETU toxicity is the thyroid gland; consequently, several symptoms associated with reduced thyroid hormone may be observed, such as myxedema and goiter. Damage to liver, kidneys, or pituitary gland may also occur (HSDB, 2010).

Experimental animal studies have also shown that ETU is a potential endocrine disruptor, as it interferes with the synthesis of thyroid hormones; and that it is teratogenic, with effects such as musculoskeletal and central nervous system abnormalities reported in laboratory animals (CDC, 2016; EPA, 1991; Hurley, 1998). Evidence suggests that ETU may be weakly genotoxic. Exposure in laboratory animals has resulted in liver tumours and benign pituitary tumours by a less understood mode of action (Health Canada, 2018c; IARC, 2001; NTP, 2016). Studies suggest that ETU is carcinogenic, as exposed animals have been shown to develop thyroid tumours with a clear non-genotoxic mode of action. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified ETU as not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3) (IARC, 2001). To date, IARC has not assessed the EBDC fungicides registered for use in Canada for their carcinogenic potential.

The sale and use of EBDC fungicides are regulated in Canada by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) under the Pest Control Products Act (Canada, 2002). PMRA evaluates toxicity and potential exposure in order to determine whether a pesticide should be registered for a specific use. As part of this registration process, PMRA specifies maximum residue limits (MRLs) of pesticides in food. All established maximum residue limits for EBDCs are currently proposed for revocation, and an MRL on potatoes for metiram has been proposed (Health Canada, 2018b). PMRA re-evaluates registered pesticides on a cyclical basis. As part of this process, Health Canada has completed the re-evaluation of nabam and metiram, and recently published a proposed re-evaluation decision for mancozeb (Health Canada, 2014; Health Canada 2018c; Health Canada, 2018d).

The Government of Canada has conducted a science-based screening assessment under the Chemicals Management Plan to determine whether ETU presents or may present a risk to the environment or human health as per the criteria set out in section 64 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) (Canada, 1999; Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017). The assessment proposes to conclude that ETU does not meet any of the criteria for being considered toxic under CEPA 1999 (Environment and Climate Change Canada and Health Canada, 2017). Although exposure is not of concern at current levels, according to the draft screening assessment, ETU is associated with human health effects and there may be concern if exposure were to increase; follow-up activities to track changes in exposure or commercial use patterns are under consideration (Canada, 2017). ETU is included in the List of Contaminants and Other Adulterating Substances in Foods found in Division 15 of the Food and Drug Regulations, which prohibits the presence of contaminants in certain food and includes Maximum Levels (MLs) for other ones (Canada, 1978; Health Canada, 2018a). The list stipulates that no amount of ETU is acceptable in food except for fruits, vegetables, and cereals for which an ML has to be respected (Health Canada, 2018a).

ETU was analyzed in the urine of CHMS participants aged 3–79 years in cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data from this cycle are presented as both μg/L and μg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of ETU in urine is an indicator of direct exposure to ETU or an EBDC fungicide and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 13.3.1: Ethylene thiourea (ETU) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.3.1 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2704 97.0
(93.5–98.6)
0.42
(0.35–0.51)
0.074Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(0.043–0.11)
0.44
(0.36–0.51)
2.0
(1.6–2.5)
3.5Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(2.0–4.9)
Males, 3-79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1354 96.8
(91.7–98.8)
0.43
(0.33–0.54)
0.074Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.12)
0.46
(0.38–0.53)
2.1Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(1.1–3.0)
3.9Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(1.9–5.9)
Females, 3-79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1350 97.2
(93.6–98.8)
0.41
(0.34–0.49)
0.075Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(0.047–0.10)
0.41
(0.34–0.49)
1.9
(1.4–2.4)
2.7
(1.7–3.6)
3-5 years
5 (2016–2017) 553 99.0
(87.7–99.9)
0.54
(0.42–0.70)
0.11Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(0.050–0.18)
0.47Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(0.29–0.66)
2.7
(2.0–3.4)
3.7
(3.0–4.4)
6-11 years
5 (2016–2017) 534 96.9
(85.9–99.4)
0.50
(0.40–0.61)
0.094
(0.067–0.12)
0.53
(0.36–0.70)
2.1
(1.7–2.5)
3.7
(2.5–4.9)
12-19 years
5 (2016–2017) 537 96.8
(88.9–99.1)
0.49
(0.36–0.68)
0.075Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(0.034–0.12)
0.53
(0.34–0.72)
2.4
(1.5–3.3)
3.7
(2.8–4.7)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 375 97.9
(89.3–99.6)
0.41
(0.32–0.53)
0.076Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(0.040–0.11)
0.41
(0.31–0.51)
2.1Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(0.99–3.1)
Table footnote F
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 355 95.3
(85.0–98.6)
0.38
(0.29–0.49)
0.072Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.11)
0.42
(0.27–0.57)
1.5
(0.95–2.0)
Table footnote F
60-79 years
5 (2016–2017) 350 97.9
(93.7–99.3)
0.42
(0.31–0.56)
0.076Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.12)
0.43
(0.32–0.55)
2.1Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(1.2–3.0)
3.8Table 13.3.1 footnote E
(1.8–5.8)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.033 μg/L.

Table 13.3.2: Ethylene thiourea (ETU) (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.3.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3-79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2677 97.0
(93.5–98.6)
0.41
(0.34–0.50)
0.075
(0.054–0.096)
0.46
(0.37–0.55)
2.0
(1.5–2.5)
3.4
(2.6–4.1)
Males, 3-79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1340 96.8
(91.7–98.8)
0.37
(0.29–0.48)
0.073Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(<LOD–0.10)
0.40
(0.28–0.52)
2.0Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(1.2–2.7)
3.5
(2.6–4.4)
Females, 3-79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1337 97.2
(93.6–98.8)
0.45
(0.37–0.54)
0.086Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(0.050–0.12)
0.50
(0.43–0.57)
2.0
(1.4–2.5)
3.3
(2.4–4.3)
3-5 years
5 (2016–2017) 543 99.0
(87.7–99.9)
0.91
(0.65–1.3)
0.20Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(0.11–0.29)
0.81Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(0.47–1.2)
4.2
(3.4–5.0)
5.7
(4.1–7.3)
6-11 years
5 (2016–2017) 529 96.9
(85.9–99.4)
0.59
(0.46–0.74)
0.13Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(0.079–0.19)
0.58
(0.39–0.78)
2.5
(2.0–3.1)
3.3
(2.2–4.3)
12-19 years
5 (2016–2017) 531 96.8
(88.9–99.1)
0.38
(0.29–0.49)
0.073Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(0.028–0.12)
0.42
(0.29–0.56)
1.7
(1.4–2.0)
2.1
(1.8–2.3)
20-39 years
5 (2016–2017) 371 97.9
(89.3–99.6)
0.37
(0.28–0.49)
0.083Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(0.051–0.12)
0.37Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(0.23–0.51)
1.8Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(0.67–3.0)
Table footnote F
40-59 years
5 (2016–2017) 354 95.3
(85.0–98.6)
0.34
(0.26–0.46)
0.055Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(<LOD–0.094)
0.47
(0.31–0.63)
1.3Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(0.70–1.9)
2.9Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(1.1–4.7)
60-79 years
5 (2016–2017) 349 97.9
(93.7–99.3)
0.48
(0.36–0.63)
0.090
(<LOD–0.12)
0.51
(0.34–0.68)
2.9Table 13.3.2 footnote E
(1.4–4.3)
3.8
(2.9–4.6)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

13.4 ortho-Phenylphenol

ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) (CASRN 90-43-7), also known as 2-phenylphenol or biphenyl-2-ol, is a synthetic phenol compound that has the appearance of white- to pink-coloured flaky crystals under ambient conditions (ANSES, 2014; IARC, 1999). OPP can be synthesized by a number of chemical processes. For example, it can be produced from cyclohexanone using a catalyst (ANSES, 2014, Dow, 2008). OPP and its salts are used as fungicides, germicides, and bacteriostats for commercial/industrial, agricultural, and residential purposes (Appel, 2000; Brusick, 2005). In Canada, they are registered to control fungal and bacterial growth on pears (Health Canada, 2008b). OPP and its salts are also used domestically and commercially as hard-surface disinfectants, wood preservatives, and material preservatives in items such as ceramic glazes, felt gaskets, paper dyes, laundry starches, concrete additives, adhesives, paints, leathers, textiles, metalworking fluids, fire extinguisher solutions, floor-wax emulsions, chemical toilets, construction materials, and polyvinyl alcohol (Appel, 2000; Brusick, 2005; CDC, 2016; EPA, 2006; Health Canada, 2008b; Health Canada, 2014).

OPP does not occur naturally. It is released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Entry into the environment may occur when emissions from manufacturing and processing facilities are released into air or water (Dow, 2008; IARC, 1999). OPP may also potentially be released into the environment from the use of commercial or residential products.

Exposure of the general population to OPP can occur through environmental media, such as outdoor and indoor air, and through consumer products, such as disinfectants or items treated with OPP (CDC, 2016). Children may be exposed via ingestion after touching floors or textiles treated with OPP (Health Canada, 2008a). Exposure can also occur through ingestion of treated food (Appel, 2000; CDC, 2016).

While no human studies on absorption via oral exposure or inhalation were identified, occupational studies have shown that OPP is readily absorbed by dermal contact (Bomhard et al., 2002; INRS, 2016; IARC, 1999; European Commission, 2015). Experimental animal studies have demonstrated absorption following oral and inhalation exposures (ANSES, 2014; INRS, 2016). OPP is rapidly distributed throughout the body following absorption (ANSES, 2014; INRS, 2016). Some evidence from human and animal studies suggests that OPP does not accumulate in the body; this is supported by its short elimination half-life (0.8 hours) (ANSES, 2014; Bomhard et al., 2002; CDC, 2016; European Commission, 2002). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that OPP is metabolized extensively by cytochrome p450. The main metabolic pathways are conjugation of OPP with glucuronide or sulphate (European Commission, 2002). The two major metabolites, OPP-glucuronide and OPP-sulfate, are inactive compounds; in vitro studies also demonstrate that multiple metabolic pathways can produce a variety of OPP metabolites, including active compounds such as phenylhydroquinone and phenylbenzoquinone (ANSES, 2014; Brusick, 2005; INRS, 2016). Elimination is rapid and occurs mainly through urine (90%) as well as feces (5%). Experimental animal studies have shown that 99% of OPP is eliminated as metabolites after 48 hours. Urinary levels of OPP reflect recent exposure (CDC, 2016).

Experimental animal studies have reported minimal toxicity following acute oral and inhalation exposure to OPP; however, OPP is a strong skin irritant and moderate eye irritant (Bomhard et al., 2002; CDC, 2016; Stouten, 1998). No human data evaluating chronic toxicity were identified, but animal studies have reported systemic toxicity following chronic oral exposure to OPP, including anemia, weight loss, and increased weight of several organs (ANSES, 2014; CDC, 2016). Long-term exposure via skin contact showed only local toxicity (skin lesions) but no systemic effects (Stouten, 2018). High doses of OPP in animal studies have been associated with bladder and kidney tumours. This finding is supported by in vitro studies reporting mutagenic effects for OPP (Bomhard et al., 2002; CDC, 2016, IARC 1999). According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), OPP is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3) based on inadequate evidence in humans and limited evidence in experimental animals; however, sodium OPP is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) based on inadequate evidence in humans and sufficient evidence in experimental animals (IARC, 1999).

The sale and use of OPP as a pesticide is regulated in Canada by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) under the Pest Control Product Act (Canada, 2006). The PMRA registration process also recognizes the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for OPP in food, established under the Food and Drugs Act; the Act prohibits the sale of foods containing pesticides that exceed the established MRLs. OPP is currently registered in Canada as a post-harvest treatment for pears and as a material preservative in a wide range of products (Health Canada, 2008b). In 2008, the PMRA re-evaluated OPP and determined that these uses do not present unacceptable risks to humans or the environment when used according to product label directions; it granted them continued registration.

Hard-surface disinfectants are regulated as drugs and subject to the requirements of the Food and Drug Act and its Regulations; in 2014, Health Canada issued guidelines on labelling and the use of products intended for use as hard-surface disinfectants, including OPP (Health Canada, 2014).

Two metabolites of OPP (ortho-phenylphenol-glucuronide and ortho-phenylphenol-sulfate) were analyzed in the urine of Canadian Health Measure Survey participants aged 3–79 years in cycle 5 (2016–2017). Data from this cycle are presented as both µg/L and µg/g creatinine. Finding a measurable amount of OPP in urine can be an indicator of exposure to OPP and does not necessarily mean that an adverse health effect will occur.

Table 13.4.1: ortho-Phenylphenol-glucuronide — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.4.1 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2620 12.4
(9.3–16.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.18Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.27)
0.38Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(0.18–0.58)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1303 15.9
(11.1–22.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.25Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.36)
0.43Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(0.18–0.67)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1317 8.8Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(5.8–13.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 531 14.3Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(8.0–24.3)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 521 12.3Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(7.4–19.7)
<LOD <LOD Table footnote F 0.44Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(0.17–0.71)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 507 12.6
(8.8–17.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.22
(0.15–0.28)
0.37
(0.28–0.46)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 361 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 351 17.5Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(9.7–29.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.25Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.40)
0.44Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.74)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 349 7.6Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(4.3–13.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.21Table 13.4.1 footnote E
(<LOD–0.30)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.15 μg/L.

Table 13.4.2: ortho-Phenylphenol-glucuronide (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.4.2 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2599 12.4
(9.3–16.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.29
(<LOD–0.34)
0.39
(0.31–0.47)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1293 15.9
(11.1–22.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.28
(<LOD–0.34)
0.36
(0.31–0.42)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1306 8.8Table 13.4.2 footnote E
(5.8–13.1)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.42Table 13.4.2 footnote E
(<LOD–0.65)
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 524 14.3Table 13.4.2 footnote E
(8.0–24.3)
<LOD <LOD 0.46
(<LOD–0.58)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 516 12.3Table 13.4.2 footnote E
(7.4–19.7)
<LOD <LOD 0.27
(<LOD–0.31)
0.43
(0.30–0.56)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 503 12.6
(8.8–17.8)
<LOD <LOD 0.23
(0.17–0.29)
0.33
(0.26–0.41)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 358 Table footnote F <LOD <LOD <LOD Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 350 17.5Table 13.4.2 footnote E
(9.7–29.6)
<LOD <LOD 0.30
(<LOD–0.40)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 348 7.6Table 13.4.2 footnote E
(4.3–13.0)
<LOD <LOD <LOD 0.35
(<LOD–0.41)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Table 13.4.3: ortho-Phenylphenol-sulfate — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/L) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.4.3 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2694 99.8
(99.1–100)
1.7
(1.5–2.0)
0.42
(0.31–0.53)
1.6
(1.4–1.8)
7.0
(4.8–9.1)
13Table 13.4.3 footnote E
(7.8–18)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1345 99.7
(98.1–99.9)
2.0
(1.6–2.4)
0.51Table 13.4.3 footnote E
(0.31–0.71)
1.7
(1.3–2.1)
8.9Table 13.4.3 footnote E
(5.1–13)
14Table 13.4.3 footnote E
(8.6–19)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1349 100
(99.8–100)
1.6
(1.3–1.8)
0.39
(0.31–0.47)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)
6.2
(4.3–8.2)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 550 100 1.7
(1.3–2.3)
0.48
(0.30–0.65)
1.5
(1.2–1.8)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 535 100 1.7
(1.6–1.9)
0.58
(0.50–0.67)
1.6
(1.3–1.9)
5.5
(4.1–6.8)
9.3Table 13.4.3 footnote E
(5.3–13)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 532 99.8
(99.2–100)
1.9
(1.7–2.1)
0.67
(0.52–0.82)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
5.2
(4.5–6.0)
8.7
(5.7–12)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 371 100
(99.7–100)
1.7
(1.2–2.4)
Table footnote F 1.6
(1.1–2.2)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 352 99.6
(95.5–100)
2.0
(1.4–2.7)
0.42Table 13.4.3 footnote E
(0.23–0.61)
1.7
(1.1–2.2)
9.7Table 13.4.3 footnote E
(5.1–14)
15Table 13.4.3 footnote E
(7.3–23)
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 354 99.8
(98.4–100)
1.5
(1.3–1.7)
0.36
(0.24–0.47)
1.5
(1.3–1.6)
5.5Table 13.4.3 footnote E
(3.2–7.8)
8.7
(6.9–10)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

Note: The LOD for cycle 5 is 0.092 μg/L.

Table 13.4.4: ortho-Phenylphenol-sulfate (creatinine adjusted) — Geometric means and selected percentiles of urine concentrations (μg/g creatinine) for the Canadian population aged 3–79 years by age group, Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 5 (2016–2017)
Cycle n Detection Frequency
(95% CI)
GMTable 13.4.4 footnote a
(95% CI)
10th
(95% CI)
50th
(95% CI)
90th
(95% CI)
95th
(95% CI)
Total, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 2673 99.8
(99.1–100)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
0.62
(0.53–0.71)
1.4
(1.2–1.6)
5.4
(4.3–6.5)
8.3Table 13.4.4 footnote E
(5.0–12)
Males, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1335 99.7
(98.1–99.9)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
0.59
(0.48–0.69)
1.5
(1.3–1.8)
5.4
(4.1–6.7)
7.2Table 13.4.4 footnote E
(4.1–10)
Females, 3–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 1338 100
(99.8–100)
1.7
(1.5–1.9)
0.65
(0.53–0.77)
1.4
(1.2–1.5)
5.3
(3.6–6.9)
Table footnote F
3–5 years
5 (2016–2017) 543 100 2.9
(2.4–3.6)
1.1
(0.77–1.4)
2.4
(1.9–2.9)
9.5
(7.2–12)
Table footnote F
6–11 years
5 (2016–2017) 530 100 2.0
(1.8–2.2)
0.85
(0.76–0.95)
1.8
(1.5–2.0)
5.3
(3.7–6.9)
7.5
(5.2–9.9)
12–19 years
5 (2016–2017) 528 99.8
(99.2–100)
1.4
(1.2–1.6)
0.56
(0.45–0.68)
1.3
(1.1–1.5)
3.9
(2.8–5.1)
5.8
(4.8–6.7)
20–39 years
5 (2016–2017) 368 100
(99.7–100)
1.5
(1.2–1.9)
0.63
(<LOD–0.79)
1.3
(1.0–1.6)
Table footnote F Table footnote F
40–59 years
5 (2016–2017) 351 99.6
(95.5–100)
1.8
(1.4–2.3)
0.60
(0.46–0.75)
1.4
(1.0–1.7)
5.9
(4.0–7.8)
Table footnote F
60–79 years
5 (2016–2017) 353 99.8
(98.4–100)
1.7
(1.5–2.0)
0.58
(0.48–0.69)
1.4
(1.2–1.7)
5.8
(4.5–7.1)
8.5Table 13.4.4 footnote E
(5.2–12)

CI: confidence interval; GM: geometric mean; LOD: limit of detection

References

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