ARCHIVED - A Follow-up Survey of Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverage Products

Background

Benzene, a known carcinogen to humans, is naturally occurring (for example, in crude oil) but is also manufactured for use in the industrial sector. Benzene is released into the air from various sources, including industrial emissions, fires, vehicle exhaust and tobacco smoke. Because benzene readily evaporates into the air from gasoline, gas stations are also a source of benzene to the air. Accidental spills and industrial waste water, for example, may introduce benzene to water and soil. Since benzene is an environmental contaminant that can be absorbed by plants and animals, food products may contain trace levels of benzene.

However, in the early 1990s, it was found that low levels of benzene can also be formed in soft drinks containing certain food preservatives and nutrient additives. It was shown that benzoate salts, used as an anti-microbial agent in certain soft drink products, can react with ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) to form benzene, especially in the presence of light and elevated temperatures. Ascorbic acid may be either naturally present from a fruit juice ingredient in the soft drink or added as an antioxidant food additive.

Shortly after the finding that benzoates and ascorbic acid can react to form benzene, Health Canada conducted a survey of benzene in fruits, fruit juices, fruit drinks, and soft drinks (Page et al., 1992). Benzene levels in the drinks were below the Canadian guideline (maximum acceptable concentration) of 5 microgram per liter (µg/L) benzene in drinking water. Benzene levels in the fruit samples were also below 5 µg/L. These levels were determined to be of very low concern to human health.

In 2005, a private laboratory in the United States informed the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that levels of benzene in a small number of soft drinks containing benzoate salts and ascorbic acid exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 µg/L for benzene in drinking water. In early 2006, Health Canada initiated a survey of benzene in soft drinks as well as in some low alcohol drinks and cocktail mixes in order to assess benzene levels in products available in Canada (Cao et al., 2007). Samples of 118 products were analyzed for benzene. Benzene was found in samples of four of the products at levels above the Canadian guideline of 5 µg/L benzene in drinking water. In these samples, average benzene concentrations ranged from 6.0 to 23.0 µg/L (2006 benzene survey results).

In order to continue to work with the beverage industry to ensure that the formation of benzene during manufacturing is eliminated from beverages sold in Canada, Health Canada was also committed in June 2006 to conduct a follow-up survey in 2007. Samples of 139 soft drinks and beverages were collected in early 2007 and analyzed for benzene. Benzene was found in samples of three of the products at levels above the Canadian guideline of 5 µg/L benzene in drinking water. Compared to the 2006 survey, the average benzene levels in most products from this survey remained low, and only a few products still contained benzene at marginally elevated levels.

Sampling Plan and Analytical Methodology for Soft Drinks and other Beverage Products

In the 2007 survey, samples of a total of 139 products were collected, of which 110 were the same products as those collected in the 2006 survey. The remaining 29 products collected in this survey were either new products or not available during the previous survey. With the exception of reformulated Kool Aid drinks surveyed in 2006 which did not contain benzoate salts, the surveyed products contained benzoate salts according to their product labels or were known to contain benzoic acid as a natural constituent (e.g., for cranberry drinks). The samples spanned a wide range of domestic and imported products, and consisted of carbonated and non-carbonated drinks, cocktail mixes, low-alcohol (0.5% alcohol by volume) drinks, and energy drinks, packaged in aluminum, plastic, or glass containers. At least three samples of each of the 139 products were purchased in April 2007 in local grocery stores in Ontario.

The samples were analyzed by an improved laboratory method based on headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis (Method for Determination of Benzene in Soft Drink).

Data Summary: Benzene Levels in Soft Drinks and other Beverage Products

Table 1(a) summarizes the levels of benzene determined in samples of ready-to-consume products, and the corresponding results from the 2006 survey for comparison. Table 1(b) summarizes the levels in concentrated products that require dilution before drinking. The average benzene levels in three of the products from different lots are shown in parallel in the tables.

In the 2007 survey, samples of three products contained benzene at levels greater than the Canadian guideline of 5 µg/L for benzene in drinking water. Only one of these three products contained an average benzene concentration above the WHO guideline for benzene in drinking water (10 µg/L). Two of these products would not be destined for consumption by children (they are mixes for alcoholic beverages).

The benzene levels found in the 2006 reformulated Kool Aid drinks ranged from not detected to 0.34 µg/L (close to the detection limit for the method used in the previous survey). Benzene was not detected in these products in the 2006 survey because the method used for sample analysis had a higher detection limit. Thus the results for Kool Aid drinks from both surveys are consistent. The previous formulations of these Kool Aid drinks have been discontinued from production, replaced by newly formulated products of the same name.

The average benzene levels in samples of the Mr & Mrs T Margarita Mix product from four different lots were 11, 17, 17, and 18 µg/L. These results are higher than the results for the same product in the 2006 survey (9.9 µg/L for the sample product purchased from a local store in Ottawa, and 2.5 µg/L for the sample product provided by the manufacturer after reformulation in 2006). However, this product was further reformulated in 2007 by removing sodium benzoate after the results were communicated to the manufacturer, and Health Canada re-tested these reformulated products in December 2007. The average benzene levels in these final samples of Mr & Mrs T Margarita Mix was 0.041 µg/L.

The average benzene level in Rose's Cocktail Infusion - cranberry twist mix was 0.09 µg/L. This is consistent with the result (not detected) for the same product provided by the producer in the 2006 survey due to the higher detection limit of the method used in 2006 survey.

The average benzene levels in A&W diet root beer products from four different lots were 9.1, 0.91, 0.06, and 0.18 µg/L, respectively, for lots 1 to lot 4. It could be determined from the lot numbers that products from lots 2-4 were produced after the product from lot 1. Given that the remaining three lots contained very low trace levels of benzene, it was therefore concluded that the one elevated lot would not have resulted from benzene in-situ formation.

Conclusions

At the time of release of the 2006 survey results, distribution of previous formulations of certain soft drinks found to have higher levels of benzene was ceased, and a voluntary reformulation of products took place. Re-evaluation of these same products in 2007 shows decisively that these new formulations have resulted in a clear reduction of benzene formation. Where required, follow-up with manufacturers has continued in order to ensure that sources of benzene formation in products surveyed in 2007 are effectively controlled. Health Canada's 2007 survey of benzene in soft drinks supports the update of its Health Risk Assessment conducted in May 2006. The 2007 health risk assessment concludes that low-dose exposure to benzene levels found in soft drinks do not pose a health risk to the general population, nor to susceptible consumers, in particular to children.

Notes for the Tables:

  • "n.d." means that benzene was not detected. Where benzene was detected, confirmation of benzene identity was based on two criteria: (1) the retention time (within ±0.01 min. of the standard); (2) the ion ratios of m/z 77/78 and 51/78 (both ion ratios have to be within ±25% of the standard). Benzene was not considered to be detected if these two criteria were not met.
  • "< 1" means that benzene was detected in the products, but the levels were less than the reporting limit of the GC-MS method, 1 µg/L (the reporting limit is the lowest concentration that can be reliably measured).
  • "not available" means the product was not available for analysis.
  • In 2006 the detection limits for method 1 and method 2 respectively were: 1.0 µg/L and 2.0 µg/L
  • In 2007, the detection limit for method 2 (improved method 2) was 0.016 µg/L
  • It should be noted that the absence of any particular brand from this survey means only that the brand was not included in the survey. No particular inference should be drawn from the presence or absence of any brand.
  • It should be noted that differences between foods and brands do not necessarily reflect differences in exposure or potential risk that would be faced by consumers. The results shown in the table are exploratory and should not be used as indices of good product choices for consumers.

Table 1(a). Concentrations (µg/L) of benzene in ready-to-consume soft drink and other beverage products

Product ID Product Name Brand Name/Producer Average concentration (µg/L)
2007 2006
Method 1 (without Na2SO4) Method 2 (with
Na2SO4)
B07-019 7 up, carbonated soft drink Pepsi-Cola 0.06   n.d.
B07-174 7 up, diet Pepsi-Cola Canada Ltd. n.d.    
B07-108 A & W famous Root Beer A & W 0.09   n.d.
B07-107 A & W Famous Root Beer, diet, sugar-free A & W a 9.10; 0.91; 0.06; 0.18   < 2
B07-114 Barq's Root Beer Coca-Cola 0.12   n.d.
B07-025 BARR Ginger Beer BARR/TFB & Associates Ltd. 0.10   n.d.
B07-088 BARR's IRN-BRU Scottish soft drink TFB & Associates Ltd. n.d.   n.d.
B07-098 Bottle Green Cranberry & Orange Bottle Green 0.23   n.d.
B07-087 Brio Chinitto Beverages Ltd. 0.104   < 2
B07-111 Canada Dry - Ginger Ale, diet Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.24   n.d.
B07-113 Canada Dry - Lemon Ginger Ale Cadbury Beverages Canada 1.59   n.d.
B07-112 Canada Dry - Tonic Water Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.10   < 2
B07-067 Canada Dry, ginger ale Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.04   n.d.
B07-193 Canadian Beaver Buzz citrus energy drink DD Beverage Company n.d. not available
B07-031 Casal Domingo light wine cooler - Cranberry Ice Casal Domingo Light Wine 0.92   < 2
B07-060 Casal Domingo Light Wine Cooler - Lemonade Casal Domingo Light Wine 0.57   < 2
B07-063 Casal Domingo Light Wine Cooler - Peach Fantasy Casal Domingo Light Wine 1.09 3.4 (range 1.6 to 5.3)  
B07-064 Casal Domingo Light Wine Cooler - Summer Passion Casal Domingo Light Wine 0.27 1.8  
B07-061 Casal Domingo Light Wine Cooler - Tropical Splash Casal Domingo Light Wine a 2.01; 0.82; 2.77; 2.60; 1.92; 1.11 3.7 (range 3.3 to 4.4)  
B07-062 Casal Domingo Light Wine Cooler - Wild Harvest Berry Casal Domingo Light Wine 0.39   < 2
B07-185 Chubby - cotton candy soda Cott Beverage Canada n.d. not available
B07-184 Chubby - wacky watermelon soda Cott Beverage Canada n.d. not available
B07-092 Chubby bubble gum soda Cott Beverages n.d.   n.d.
B07-093 Chubby crash n' cream Cott Beverages 0.07   n.d.
B07-024 Chubby Fruit Punch Cott Beverages Canada 0.22 < 1  
B07-096 Chubby go grape go soda Cott Beverages n.d.   n.d.
B07-095 Chubby kola champagne Cott Beverages n.d.   < 2
B07-021 Coke, diet Coca Cola 0.09 < 1  
B07-018 Cplus orange Burst, contains Sunkist Juice, in plastic bottle Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.90   < 2
B07-027 Cplus orange Burst, contains Sunkist Juice, in can Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.47   < 2
B07-030 Cranberry cocktail President's Choice/Loblaws INC. 1.20 1.3  
B07-130 Crush Cream Soda Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.05   n.d.
B07-138 Crush Diet Cream Soda Cadbury Beverages Canada n.d.   n.d.
B07-150 Crush Diet Orange Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.06 n.d.  
B07-149 Crush Orange, in can Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.04 n.d.  
B07-197 Crush Orange soda, in plastic bottle Cadbury Beverage Canada n.d. not available
B07-037 D & B Dandelion & Burdock, flavoured soft drink BARR/TFB & Associates Ltd. 0.51   n.d.
B07-173 Dew Fuel energy drink Pepsi-Cola Canada Ltd. n.d. not available
B07-028 Dr. Pepper Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.10   n.d.
B07-132 Dr. Pepper Diet sugar-free soda Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.40   < 2
B07-176 Dole Sparklers - cranberry raspberry Pepsi-Cola Canada Ltd. n.d. not available
B07-175 Dole Sparklers - orange Pepsi-Cola Canada Ltd. n.d. not available
B07-177 Dole Sparklers - pink grapefruit Pepsi-Cola Canada Ltd. 0.04 not available
B07-110 Fresca sugar-free natural and artificial cherry citrus flavoured sparkling soda Coca-Cola 0.05 n.d.  
B07-109 Fresca sugar-free natural and artificial grapefruit flavoured beverage Coca-Cola n.d. n.d.  
B07-192 Full Throttle Fury energy drink, citrus flavoured Coca-Cola 0.57 not available
B07-191 Full Throttle Fury energy drink, tropical flavoured Coca-Cola 0.10 not available
B07-034 Genuine Caribbean Taste, Banana Grace n.d.   n.d.
B07-086 Gioia Bitter pre-digestive Molisana Imports n.d.   < 2
B07-181 Grace genuine Caribbean taste cream soda Grace n.d. not available
B07-097 Grace Genuine Caribbean Taste Ginger Beer drink Grace n.d.   n.d.
B07-090 Grace Genuine Caribbean Taste Grapefruit drink Grace 0.06   n.d.
B07-091 Grace Genuine Caribbean Taste Kola Champagne drink Grace n.d.   n.d.
B07-089 Grace Genuine Caribbean Taste Pineapple drink Grace n.d.   n.d.
B07-123 Hires Root Beer soft drink Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.40   n.d.
B07-171 Kool Aid Jammers - blue raspberry, new formulation Kraft Canada n.d. not available
B102 Kool Aid Jammers - blue raspberry, old formulation Kraft Canada not available 2.6  
B07-165 Kool Aid Jammers - cherry, new formulation Kraft Canada 0.132 n.d.  
B07-170 Kool Aid Jammers - grape, new formulation Kraft Canada n.d. not available
B104 Kool Aid Jammers - grape, old formulation Kraft Canada not available 3.1  
B07-172 Kool Aid Jammers - kiwi strawberry, new formulation Kraft Canada n.d. not available
B105 Kool Aid Jammers - kiwi strawberry, old formulation Kraft Canada not available 1.6  
B07-169 Kool Aid Jammers - orange, low sugar, new formulation Kraft Canada n.d. not available
B103 Kool Aid Jammers - orange, old formulation Kraft Canada not available 1.9  
B07-166 Kool Aid Jammers - tropical punch, new formulation Kraft Canada 0.174 n.d.  
B07-168 Kool Aid Jammers 10 - cherry, low sugar, new formulation Kraft Canada 0.277 n.d.  
B029 Kool Aid Jammers 10 - cherry, low sugar, old formulation Kraft Canada not available   15 (range 13 to 21)
B07-167 Kool Aid Jammers 10 - tropical punch, low sugar, new formulation Kraft Canada 0.338    
B106 Kool Aid Jammers 10 - tropical punch, low sugar, old formulation Kraft Canada not available 18, 23  
B07-142 Lipton Diet Iced Tea, sugar-free, diet lemon Unilever Canada, Pepsi/Lipton 0.02 n.d.  
B07-128 Lipton Green Tea with citrus Unilever Canada, Pepsi/Lipton n.d.   n.d.
B07-134 Lipton Iced Tea, lemon Unilever Canada, Pepsi/Lipton n.d.   < 2
B07-187 Lost Five-O energy + juice Lost International 0.89 not available
B07-032 Mio Gassosa National Dry Company Ltd. n.d.   n.d.
B07-188 Monster energy + juice Monster Beverage Co 0.78 not available
B07-190 Monster energy drink Monster Beverage Co n.d. not available
B07-189 Monster energy drink, reduced carb Monster Beverage Co 0.04 not available
B07-153 Mountain Dew, caffeine free Pepsi-Cola Canada Ltd. n.d.   n.d.
B07-124 Mug Root Beer, no caffeine Pepsi-Cola Canada Ltd. 0.41   < 2
B07-023 Nestle Pure Life Orange Splash, naturally fruit flavoured water beverage Nestle Waters Canada 0.03   n.d.
B07-100 Ocean Spray Cranberry and Mixed Berry Ocean Spray Int. Inc. 0.22   < 2
B07-099 Ocean Spray Cranberry Cocktail Ocean Spray Int. Inc. 0.35 < 1  
B07-026 Old Jamaican Ginger Beer Old Tyme Jamaican Style Products Inc. 0.09   n.d.
B07-183 OLDTYME Jamaican style ginger beer   n.d. not available
B07-020 Pepsi, diet Pepsi-Cola 0.55   < 2
B07-072 Premium Canadian Champanade - red Ferndale Vineyards n.d.   n.d.
B07-073 Premium Canadian Champanade - sparkling cranberry Ferndale Vineyards 0.66 1.5  
B07-070 Premium Canadian Champanade - sparkling peach Ferndale Vineyards 0.37   < 2
B07-074 Premium Canadian Champanade - sparkling raspberry Ferndale Vineyards 0.94   < 2
B07-071 Premium Canadian Champanade - white Ferndale Vineyards 0.09 < 1  
B07-069 Premium Canadian Champanade - white & apple Ferndale Vineyards 0.78 1.1  
B07-117 President's Choice Cranberry Sparkling Soda Loblaws 0.07   n.d.
B07-119 President's Choice Cranberry/Raspberry Sparkling Soda Loblaws 0.44 n.d.  
B07-120 President's Choice Diet Cola Loblaws 0.37   n.d.
B07-121 President's Choice Diet Cola, low sodium, caffeine-free Loblaws 0.53   < 2
B07-116 President's Choice Diet Cranberry Raspberry Sparkling Soda Loblaws 0.41 < 1  
B07-143 President's Choice Diet Cranberry Sparkling Soda Loblaws, PC 0.31 1.1  
B07-140 President's Choice Diet Green Apple Sparkling Soda Loblaws, PC 0.22   n.d.
B07-122 President's Choice Diet Lemonade Sparkling Soda Loblaws n.d.   n.d.
B07-115 President's Choice Ginger Ale Loblaws 0.06   n.d.
B07-144 President's Choice Grape Soda Loblaws, PC n.d.   n.d.
B07-141 President's Choice Green Apple Sparkling Soda Loblaws, PC 0.44 1.3  
B07-133 President's Choice Lemon Iced Tea Loblaws n.d.   n.d.
B07-139 President's Choice Mountain Mania, citrus soda Loblaws, PC n.d. n.d.  
B07-131 President's Choice New Wave Diet Cola, low sodium, caffeine-free Loblaws 0.26   < 2
B07-136 President's Choice Orange Soda Loblaws, PC 0.04   n.d.
B07-145 President's Choice Root Beer Loblaws, PC 0.46   < 2
B07-178 President's Choice Spritz up - lemon-lime soda Loblaws n.d. not available
B07-179 President's Choice Spritz up - lemon-lime soda, diet Loblaws n.d. not available
B07-118 President's Choice Tonic Water Loblaws 0.15   n.d.
B07-196 Red rain energy drink, white Cott Corporation 0.12 not available
B07-194 Rockstar energy drink Rockstar Inc 0.14 not available
B07-186 Rockstar energy drink, diet Coca-Cola 0.43 not available
B07-125 Schweppes club soda Schweppes n.d.   n.d.
B07-127 Schweppes Ginger Ale, diet Schweppes Int. Ltd. 0.14   n.d.
B07-057 Schweppes Ginger Ale, 237 mL Cadbury Beverages Canada n.d.   n.d.
B07-148 Schweppes Ginger Ale, 355 mL Schwepps 0.02   n.d.
B07-182 Scotts Bros cherry berry cooler Scotts Bros. 0.05 not available
B07-068 Scotts Bros Ice, Vodka flavour Scotts Bros. 0.54 2.3  
B07-066 Scotts Bros Pink Grapefruit, with ginseng Scotts Bros. 1.03   < 2
B07-035 Sorrel Fizz carbonated beverage Pepsi-Cola n.d.   n.d.
B07-058 Sprite Coca-Cola 0.09   n.d.
B07-022 Spritz up, lemon-lime soda President's Choice/Loblaws INC. n.d.   n.d.
B07-017 Sunny D Sunny Delight, Orange flavoured citrus punch, Tangy Original, Florida Style Sunny D 0.09   n.d.
B07-195 Tab energy drink, sugar-free, cherry flavoured Coca-Cola 0.07 not available
B07-036 Tizer-itz red BARR/TFB & Associates Ltd. 0.05   n.d.
B07-135 Tropicana Twister - fruit fusion Tropicana Products Inc., Pepsi Cola 0.42 n.d.  
B07-129 Tropicana Twister - lemonade splash Tropicana Products Inc., Pepsi Cola n.d.   n.d.
B07-146 Tropicana Twister - Orange Citrus Swirl Tropicana Products Inc., Pepsi Cola 0.10 n.d.  
B07-151 Tropicana Twister - Strawberry Spiral Tropicana Products Inc., Pepsi Cola n.d.    
B07-126 Vernors sugar free ginger soda, diet Cadbury Beverages Canada 0.03   n.d.
B07-152 Vernors, the original ginger soda Cadbury Beverages Canada n.d.   n.d.

a results for samples from different lots

Table 1(b). Concentrations (µg/L) of benzene in concentrated soft drink and other beverage products
(These concentrated products are diluted prior to consumption)

Product Name Producer Dilution instructions, as provided on product label, for consumption as a beverage Average Concentration, µg/L
2007 2006
Method 1 (without Na2SO4) Method 2 (with
Na2SO4)
Amaretto syrup Chateau Thierry Brand/I-D Foods Co. 1 part syrup to 2 parts 30 U.P. alcohol, gin or Vodka (according to taste). Serve as is, on the rocks or frappe. 7.14 5
Crème de Cassis syrup Chateau Thierry Brand/I-D Foods Co. 1 part syrup to 2 parts 30 U.P. alcohol, gin or Vodka (according to taste). Serve as is, on the rocks or frappe. 0.08   n.d.
Crème de menthe syrup Chateau Thierry Brand/I-D Foods Co. 1 part syrup to 2 parts 30 U.P. alcohol, gin or Vodka (according to taste). Serve as is, on the rocks or frappe. 0.22   n.d.
Granthams Grenadine Syrup Grantham Foods Ltd. Various recipes provided, for example, mix syrup with equal parts Vodka or Brandy and serve "on the rocks." n.d.   n.d.
Grenadine Syrup Chateau Thierry Brand/I-D Foods Co. Use to make cocktails: Tequila Sunrise, Singapore Sling, Pink Lady, Clover Club, Zombie n.d.   n.d.
MOTT's Mr & Mrs T Margarita Mix Mott's Inc. Combine 4 oz. mix, 1.5 oz. of tequila, 1 oz. of water and the juice of 1/4 lime. Shake well with 1/2 cup of ice. Strain into a cocktail glass rimmed with salt. b 17; 11; 17; 18 9.9
MOTT's Mr & Mrs T Margarita Mix, reformulated (benzoate removed)c Mott's Inc. Combine 4 oz. mix, 1.5 oz. of tequila, 1 oz. of water and the juice of 1/4 lime. Shake well with 1/2 cup of ice. Strain into a cocktail glass rimmed with salt. 0.041 Not available
MOTT's Mr & Mrs T Pina Colada mix Mott's Inc. Combine 4.5 oz. mix with 1.5 oz. light rum. Blend with 2 cups of ice until slushy. 1.02 not available
MOTT's Mr & Mrs T Strawberry Daiquiri Mix Mott's Inc. Combine 4 oz. mix, 1.5 oz. of light rum, 1.5 oz. of water and the juice of 1/4 lime. Shake well with 1/2 cup of ice. 0.44 < 1  
Peach Schnapps Syrup Chateau Thierry Brand/I-D Foods Co. 2 parts syrup to 3 parts 30 U.P. alcohol, gin or Vodka (according to taste). Serve as is, on the rocks or blend with orange juice. 0.23 n.d.
Rose's Cocktail Infusion - blue raspberry mix Cadbury Beverages Canada 1 part infusion to 1 part vodka. Shake with ice and strain into martini glass. 1.75 1.5  
Rose's Cocktail Infusion - cranberry twist mix Cadbury Beverages Canada 1 part infusion to 1 part vodka. Shake with ice and strain into martini glass. 0.09 6  
Rose's Cocktail Infusion - sour apple mix Cadbury Beverages Canada 1 part infusion to 1 part vodka. Shake with ice and strain into martini glass. 0.38 4.7  
Rose's Grenadine Mott's Inc. Various recipes provided, for example, Tequila Sunrise: mix 2 oz. Tequila, 3/4 oz. grenadine, 4 oz. orange juice. Stir and serve on the rocks. 0.11 n.d.

b results for samples from different lots
c samples provided by the producer (Cadbury)

References

Cao, X.-L.; Casey, V.; Seaman, S.; Tague, B.; Becalski (2007) A. Determination of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. AOAC International, Vol. 90, No. 2, 479-484.

Cao, X-L; Casey, V. (2008). Improved method for the determination of benzene in soft drinks at sub-ppb levels. Food Additives and Contaminants, 25(4): 401-405.

Page, BD; Conacher, HBS; Weber, D; Lacroix, G (1992) A survey of benzene in fruits and retail fruit juices, fruit drinks, and soft drinks. Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 75, No. 2, 334-340.

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