ARCHIVED – Social Capital and Employment Entry of Recent Immigrants to Canada

9. Appendix A

Table A.1: Social Capital and Employment Estimation Variables
Variable Definition
Dependent variable  
em 1 if LR was employed at the time of the interview, 0 otherwise
Independent variables  
Immigration category
Family 1 if LR is in Family class, 0 otherwise. (Reference category)
Skilled Workers (PA) 1 if LR landed as a Skilled Worker principal applicant, 0 otherwise
Skilled Workers (S&D) 1 if LR landed as a Skilled Worker spouse and dependant, 0 otherwise
Refugees 1 if LR landed as a Refugee, 0 otherwise
Others 1 if LR landed in a immigration category other than Family, Skilled Worker (principal applicant and spouse and dependant), and Refugee, which mostly consists of business immigrants in economic class
Demographic variables  
Female 1 if LR is female, 0 otherwise
Male 1 if LR is male, 0 otherwise
Age Age in years
Age2 Age square/100
Married 1 if LR is married or living with a common-law partner, 0 if LR is single, separated or divorced, or widowed
Number of children Number of children.
Number of children in school age Number of children in 4-14
Number of preschool children Number of young kids (younger than 4)
Province of residence  
Atlantic Provinces 1 if LR is living in Atlantic provinces:
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island or Newfoundland, 0 otherwise.
Quebec 1 if LR is living in Quebec, 0 otherwise.
Ontario 1 if LR is living in Ontario, 0 otherwise. (Reference category)
Manitoba and Saskatchewan  1 if LR is living in Saskatchewan or Manitoba, 0 otherwise.
Alberta 1 if LR is living in Alberta, 0 otherwise.
BC 1 if LR is living in British Columbia, 0 otherwise.
Census metropolitan areas (CMAs)  
Not in the Big 5 CMAs 1 if LR is living in an area other than the big 5 CMAs: Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa and Calgary, 0 otherwise.
Region of birth  
Asia and Pacific 1 if region of birth is Asia and Pacific, 0 otherwise.
North America, UK and Western Europe 1 if region of birth is North America, UK and Western Europe, 0 otherwise. (Reference category)
Central and South America 1 if region of birth is Central America and South America, 0 otherwise.
Europe except UK and Western Europe 1 if region of birth is Europe except UK and Western Europe, 0 otherwise.
Africa and Middle-East 1 if region of birth is Africa and Middle-East, 0 otherwise.
Population group  
White 1 if LR is white, 0 otherwise. (Reference category)
Chinese 1 if LR is Chinese, 0 otherwise.
South Asian 1 if LR is South Asian, 0 otherwise.
Black 1 if LR is Black, 0 otherwise.
Filipino 1 if LR is Filipino, 0 otherwise.
Latin 1 if LR is Latin, 0 otherwise.
West Asian and Arab 1 if LR is West Asian and Arab, 0 otherwise.
Other Asian 1 if LR is other Asian---South East Asian, Korean, Japanese, 0 otherwise.
Other Visible Minority 1 if LR is other visible minority---Visible minority n.i.e., Multiple visible minorities, White and visible minority, 0 otherwise.
Languages  
Eng 1 if LR has the knowledge of English (speaking fairly well or better), 0 otherwise (poorly or none).
Fre 1 if LR has the knowledge of French (speaking fairly well or better), 0 otherwise (poorly or none).
Education  
High school diploma or less 1 if LR has less than high school education or a high school diploma, 0 otherwise.
Some post-secondary education 1 if LR has some post-secondary education, 0 otherwise. 
College diploma or some university 1 if LR has a college diploma or some university education, 0 otherwise.
Bachelor's Degree 1 if LR has a bachelor's degree, 0 otherwise. (Reference category)
Master's degree or above 1 if LR has a master's degree or above, 0 otherwise.
Currently in school 1 if LR is in school at the time of the interview, 0 otherwise
Experience  
Had work experience before landing 1 if LR had work experience before landing, 0 otherwise
Number of weeks in Canada after landing Number of weeks in Canada
Number of weeks in Canada after landing2 (Number of weeks in Canada after landing)2/100
Had an arranged job upon landing 1 if LR had an arranged job when landing, 0 otherwise
Visited Canada before landing 1 if LR visited relatives or friends in Canada or visited Canada as a tourist before landing, 0 otherwise
Worked in Canada before landing 1 if LR worked in Canada before landing, 0 otherwise
Studied in Canada before landing 1 if LR studied in Canada before landing, 0 otherwise
Social capital  
_Family and relatives
Spouse currently employed 1 if spouse is currently working at the time of the interview, 0 otherwise.
Number of relatives in Canada Number of types of relatives (spouse, children, parents, grandparents, brothers or sisters, etc.) in Canada, ranging from 0 to 11.
Relatives living nearby upon landing 1 if most of relatives are living in the same city or same province as LR, 0 otherwise.
Frequency of contact with family sponsors Frequency of contact with family sponsor (0~1) :
0--- No sponsor or having not seen or talked to sponsors since arriving;
Between 0 and 1 --- Seeing or talking to sponsors in varied frequencies; the higher the index is, the more frequently LR contacts with sponsors.
1--- Seeing or talking to sponsors every day. 
_Friends  
Friends living nearby upon landing 1 if most of the existing friends are living in the same city or same province as LR, 0 otherwise.
Number of sources meeting friends Number of sources meeting new friends other than workplace, ranging from 0 to 14.
Ethnic diversity of friends Ethnical diversity of friend network (0~1):
0--- No friends or all friends belong to the same ethnic or cultural groups as LR;
Between 0 and 1 --- Some friends belong to the same ethnic or cultural groups as LR; the higher the index is, the more ethnically diversified is the friend network.
1--- None of the friends belong to the same ethnic or cultural groups as LR.
Cohort diversity of friends Immigrant diversity of friend network (0~1) (only available in Wave 2):
0--- No friends or all friends are newcomers to Canada;
Between 0 and 1 --- Some friends are newcomers; the higher the index is, the relatively less friends are newcomers.
1--- None of the friends are newcomers.
Frequency of contact with friends Frequency of contact with friends (0~1) :
0--- No friends or having not seen or talked to friends since arriving;
Between 0 and 1 --- Seeing or talking to friends in varied frequencies; the higher the index is, the more frequently LR contacts with friends.
1--- Seeing or talking to friends every day.
_Group and organizational network  
Number of organizations participated in Number of organizations or groups LR participated in. ranging from 0 to 13.
Ethnic diversity of organizational network Ethnical diversity of organizational network (0~1):
0--- Not participated in any organization or all the members of all organizations belong to the same ethnic or cultural groups as LR;
Between 0 and 1 --- Some members of organizations belong to the same ethnic or cultural groups as LR; the higher the index is, the more ethnically diversified is the organizational network.
1--- None of the members of organizations belong to the same ethnic or cultural groups as LR.
Frequency of activity with organizations Frequency of activities with organizations (0~1):
0--- Not participated in any organization;
Between 0 and 1 --- Having taken part in organizational activities in varied frequencies; the higher the index is, the more frequently LR takes part in activities.
1--- Having taken part in activities every day.
Volunteered time for organizations 1 if LR volunteered time for organizations or groups, 0 otherwise.
Time effect  
Wave 2 1 if observation is in Wave 2 and 0 otherwise.
Wave 3 1 if observation is in Wave 3 and 0 otherwise.
Interactions  
Wave 2 * Ethnic diversity of friends Time effect in Wave 2 interacts with diversity of friendship
Wave 3 * Ethnic diversity of friends Time effect in Wave 3 interacts with diversity of friendship
SWPA * Ethnic diversity of friends Skilled worker dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
SWSD * Ethnic diversity of friends Skilled worker spouse and dependant dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Refugees * Ethnic diversity of friends Refugee dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Others * Ethnic diversity of friends Other immigration category dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Chinese * Ethnic diversity of friends Chinese dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
South Asian * Ethnic diversity of friends South Asian dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Black * Ethnic diversity of friends Black dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Filipino * Ethnic diversity of friends Filipino dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Latin * Ethnic diversity of friends Latin dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
West Asian and Arab * Ethnic diversity of friends West Asian and Arab dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Other Asian * Ethnic diversity of friends Other Asian dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Other Visible Minority * Ethnic diversity of friends Other visible minority dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
High school diploma or less * Ethnic diversity of friends High school or less dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Some post-secondary education * Ethnic diversity of friends Some post-secondary education dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
College diploma or some university * Ethnic diversity of friends College diploma or some university dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
Master's degree or above * Ethnic diversity of friends Master's degree dummy variable interacts with diversity of friendship
English * Ethnic diversity of friends English ability interacts with diversity of friendship: Eng*frdiv
French * Ethnic diversity of friends French ability interacts with diversity of friendship: Fre*frdiv

1 LR: Longitudinal Respondent.
Source: Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2005).

Table A.2: Survey means of variables in the estimations
  Male
N=9843
Female
N=7674
Weighted Mean Standard Error Weighted Mean Standard Error
Employed at the time of the interview 0.766 0.005 0.685 0.006
Family 0.187 0.004 0.288 0.006
Skilled Workers (PA) 0.574 0.005 0.212 0.005
Skilled Workers (S&D) 0.123 0.004 0.397 0.006
Refugees 0.053 0.002 0.047 0.002
Others 0.062 0.003 0.055 0.003
Age 36.301 0.106 34.611 0.119
Age2 14.155 0.084 12.923 0.093
Married 0.778 0.004 0.795 0.005
Number of children 1.020 0.012 1.013 0.012
Number of children in school age 0.529 0.009 0.515 0.010
Number of preschool children 0.197 0.005 0.195 0.005
Atlantic Provinces 0.007 0.001 0.007 0.001
Quebec 0.155 0.004 0.136 0.004
Ontario 0.554 0.005 0.565 0.006
Manitoba and Saskatchewan  0.026 0.002 0.024 0.002
Alberta 0.096 0.003 0.089 0.003
BC 0.161 0.004 0.178 0.004
Not in the Big 5 CMAs 0.198 0.004 0.193 0.005
Asia and Pacific 0.593 0.005 0.615 0.006
North America, UK and Western Europe 0.054 0.002 0.054 0.003
Central and South America 0.056 0.002 0.068 0.003
Europe except UK and Western Europe 0.109 0.003 0.119 0.004
Africa and Middle-East 0.188 0.004 0.144 0.004
White 0.204 0.004 0.212 0.005
Chinese 0.194 0.004 0.222 0.005
South Asian 0.271 0.005 0.253 0.005
Black 0.053 0.002 0.046 0.003
Filipino 0.080 0.003 0.085 0.004
Latin 0.022 0.002 0.032 0.002
West Asian and Arab 0.109 0.003 0.082 0.003
Other Asian 0.054 0.003 0.054 0.003
Other Visible Minority 0.012 0.001 0.014 0.002
High school diploma or less 0.191 0.004 0.240 0.005
Some post-secondary education 0.055 0.002 0.049 0.003
College diploma or some university 0.116 0.003 0.170 0.005
Bachelor's degree 0.405 0.005 0.375 0.006
Master's degree or above 0.232 0.005 0.167 0.005
Currently in school 0.140 0.004 0.146 0.004
English 0.904 0.003 0.847 0.004
French 0.166 0.004 0.155 0.004
Had work experience before landing 0.889 0.003 0.759 0.005
Number of weeks in Canada after landing 72.888 0.332 74.893 0.364
Number of weeks in Canada after landing2 62.429 0.419 64.830 0.459
Had an arranged job upon landing 0.089 0.003 0.043 0.002
Visited Canada before landing 0.171 0.004 0.168 0.005
Worked in Canada before landing 0.041 0.002 0.023 0.002
Studied in Canada before landing 0.041 0.002 0.040 0.002
Spouse currently employed 0.275 0.005 0.412 0.006
Number of relatives in Canada 0.752 0.010 0.849 0.012
Relatives living nearby upon landing 0.464 0.005 0.537 0.006
Frequency of contact with family sponsors 0.201 0.004 0.296 0.006
Friends living nearby upon landing 0.517 0.005 0.463 0.006
Number of sources meeting friends 1.950 0.017 1.969 0.020
Ethnic diversity of friends 0.491 0.003 0.479 0.003
Frequency of contact with friends 0.782 0.002 0.773 0.003
Number of organizations participated in 0.367 0.007 0.348 0.008
Ethnic diversity of organizational network 0.017 0.000 0.017 0.000
Frequency of activity with organizations 0.168 0.003 0.160 0.003
Volunteered time for organizations 0.166 0.004 0.148 0.004

Data source: Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (2005).

Table A.3: Estimation of employment likelihood of male immigrants in the labour force in the initial 4 years in Canada
Sample coverage: Male immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Ordinary Logit Models (No individual specific effects) Panel Models (With individual specific effects)
Wave 1 (6 months after landing) Wave 2 (2 years after landing) Wave 3 (4 years after landing) Pooled Logit Model (W1, 2 & 3) Fixed-effects Logit Model Random-effects Logit Model GEE Population-averaged Model
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std.Err Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Immigration category [Family]  
Skilled Workers (PA) -0.272 0.284 -0.26 0.260 -0.629b 0.254 -0.342b 0.149     -0.23 0.173 -0.314b 0.159
Skilled Workers (S&D) -0.568b 0.289 -0.473a 0.267 -0.685c 0.251 -0.544c 0.153     -0.437b 0.180 -0.533c 0.161
Refugees -0.297 0.292 -0.543b 0.261 -0.437 0.268 -0.405c 0.153     -0.742c 0.179 -0.393b 0.166
Others -0.404 0.324 -0.067 0.281 -0.498a 0.277 -0.235 0.166     -0.166 0.196 -0.212 0.182
Demographic variables  
Age 0.024 0.039 0.183c 0.038 0.229c 0.043 0.12c 0.022 0.047 0.107 0.147c 0.026 0.119c 0.023
Age2 -0.082a 0.048 -0.25c 0.045 -0.294c 0.049 -0.182c 0.026 0.173 0.113 -0.224c 0.031 -0.182c 0.027
Married -0.028 0.161 -0.123 0.166 0.192 0.185 0.038 0.096 -0.512b 0.224 -0.058 0.112 0.019 0.098
Number of children 0.03 0.097 0.082 0.098 0.12 0.094 0.105a 0.054 0.59c 0.171 0.146b 0.060 0.11a 0.057
Number of children in school age -0.052 0.111 -0.159 0.105 -0.26b 0.111 -0.171c 0.060 -0.54c 0.160 -0.227c 0.067 -0.18c 0.063
Number of preschool children -0.042 0.147 0.01 0.144 -0.038 0.150 -0.052 0.081 -0.502c 0.191 -0.146 0.092 -0.058 0.086
Province of residence [Ontario]  
Atlantic Provinces 0.382 0.698 -0.53 0.570 1.86b 0.922 0.181 0.409 0.062 0.989 0.573 0.440 0.165 0.365
Quebec -0.759c 0.190 -0.842c 0.194 -0.736c 0.257 -0.785c 0.117 -1.39b 0.623 -0.885c 0.138 -0.763c 0.129
Manitoba and Saskatchewan  0.66a 0.367 0.017 0.366 0.026 0.389 0.234 0.222 -0.903 0.816 0.242 0.233 0.234 0.230
Alberta 0.345b 0.166 0.02 0.167 0.425b 0.193 0.252b 0.099 -0.466 0.497 0.265b 0.113 0.261b 0.110
BC -0.339b 0.138 -0.207 0.140 -0.171 0.154 -0.205b 0.080 0.183 0.408 -0.264c 0.095 -0.189b 0.088
Census metropolitan areas (CMAs)  
Not in the Big 5 CMAs 0.03 0.141 -0.022 0.136 -0.163 0.145 -0.048 0.080 -0.329 0.227 -0.041 0.091 -0.058 0.087
Region of birth [North America, UK and Western Europe]  
Asia and Pacific 0.516 0.360 -0.608 0.409 -0.426 0.468 -0.23 0.234     -0.294 0.274 -0.228 0.272
Central and South America 0.181 0.394 0.069 0.460 0.166 0.513 0.062 0.257     0.039 0.289 0.079 0.283
Europe except UK and Western Europe 0.243 0.294 -0.297 0.327 0.147 0.347 -0.085 0.180     -0.248 0.215 -0.094 0.198
Africa and Middle-East -0.428 0.322 -0.527 0.364 0.22 0.388 -0.344a 0.201     -0.396a 0.233 -0.34 0.230
Population group [White]  
Chinese -1.209c 0.300 -0.5 0.319 -0.185 0.381 -0.66c 0.191     -0.798c 0.231 -0.685c 0.220
South Asian -0.47a 0.284 0.228 0.319 0.38 0.378 0.059 0.188     0.077 0.222 0.045 0.218
Black -0.352 0.310 -0.042 0.334 -0.5 0.377 -0.287 0.191     -0.359a 0.207 -0.302 0.219
Filipino 0.011 0.352 0.748a 0.397 1.000b 0.455 0.6c 0.230     0.598b 0.270 0.596b 0.259
Latin -0.307 0.451 -0.272 0.491 0.04 0.549 -0.272 0.283     -0.327 0.325 -0.308 0.288
West Asian and Arab -0.457a 0.272 -0.245 0.274 -0.835c 0.310 -0.481c 0.161     -0.598c 0.186 -0.5c 0.190
Other Asian -1.399c 0.345 -0.254 0.365 -0.509 0.411 -0.673c 0.212     -0.781c 0.261 -0.705c 0.249
Other Visible Minority 0.006 0.462 -0.484 0.453 -0.638 0.554 -0.284 0.276     -0.344 0.350 -0.288 0.324
Education [Bachelor's Degree]  
High school diploma or less -0.177 0.181 0.173 0.177 -0.462b 0.198 -0.231b 0.104 -0.942 0.831 -0.228a 0.123 -0.25b 0.116
Some post-secondary education 0.045 0.252 0.194 0.248 0.487 0.316 0.144 0.149 -0.893 0.858 0.181 0.169 0.122 0.159
College diploma or some university -0.039 0.164 0.112 0.171 -0.268 0.183 -0.058 0.096 -0.409 0.587 -0.175 0.118 -0.058 0.105
Master's degree or above -0.032 0.128 -0.079 0.133 -0.262a 0.157 -0.091 0.077 0.35 0.507 -0.07 0.095 -0.085 0.087
Currently in school -1.212c 0.115 -0.819c 0.130 -0.246 0.260 -0.868c 0.075 -0.826c 0.112 -1.03c 0.083 -0.838c 0.075
Sample coverage: Male immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)  
  Models
Independent variables Ordinary Logit Models (No individual specific effects) Panel Models (With individual specific effects)
Wave 1 (6 months after landing) Wave 2 (2 years after landing) Wave 3 (4 years after landing) Pooled Logit Model (W1, 2 & 3) Fixed-effects Logit Model Random-effects Logit Model GEE Population-averaged Model
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std.Err Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Language Proficiency  
English -0.1 0.154 0.315a 0.173 0.554c 0.190 0.186a 0.096 0.111 0.172 0.207b 0.105 0.174a 0.098
French -0.164 0.193 -0.126 0.204 -0.013 0.260 -0.102 0.118 -0.726c 0.257 -0.13 0.133 -0.137 0.127
Experience  
Had work experience before landing 0.624c 0.201 0.108 0.183 0.096 0.187 0.352c 0.109     0.415c 0.130 0.379c 0.117
Number of weeks in Canada after landing 0.334b 0.157 -0.602b 0.253 -0.067 0.572 0.003 0.009 0.003 0.012 0.001 0.009 0.001 0.008
Number of weeks in Canada after landing2 -0.5a 0.257 0.343b 0.147 0.043 0.290 0.007 0.007 0.004 0.011 0.01 0.008 0.009 0.007
Had an arranged job upon landing 2.161c 0.325 0.857c 0.296 1.007c 0.306 1.373c 0.179     1.495c 0.194 1.41c 0.189
Visited Canada before landing 0.168 0.167 0.017 0.162 0.492c 0.185 0.186a 0.095     0.179 0.115 0.178a 0.106
Worked in Canada before landing -0.212 0.382 0.744 0.454 0.501 0.470 0.309 0.238     0.408 0.271 0.279 0.250
Studied in Canada before landing 0.615b 0.253 0.681b 0.278 -0.23 0.281 0.33b 0.162     0.282 0.192 0.355a 0.195
Social networks  
_Family and relatives
Spouse currently employed 0.392c 0.123 0.599c 0.118 0.148 0.172 0.383c 0.073 0.45c 0.098 0.486c 0.078 0.368c 0.073
Number of relatives in Canada 0.121 0.088 -0.137a 0.080 -0.108 0.087 -0.048 0.049 -1.075c 0.392 -0.076 0.056 -0.046 0.053
Relatives living nearby upon landing 0.115 0.157 0.319b 0.152 0.184 0.167 0.246c 0.090     0.278c 0.107 0.252b 0.100
Frequency of contact with family sponsors 0.222 0.239 0.174 0.220 -0.224 0.215 0.16 0.125 0.594b 0.249 0.389c 0.142 0.203 0.129
_Friends  
Friends living nearby upon landing 0.183 0.112 0.049 0.107 0.125 0.117 0.119a 0.063     0.168b 0.075 0.123a 0.070
Number of sources meeting friends -0.159c 0.040 -0.041 0.030 -0.097b 0.043 -0.109c 0.019 -0.071b 0.030 -0.131c 0.022 -0.103c 0.019
Ethnic diversity of friends 0.84c 0.213 -0.337 0.255 -0.537a 0.274 0.291b 0.121 0.275 0.172 0.283b 0.126 0.283b 0.124
Cohort diversity of friends     0.743c 0.232 0.865c 0.245                
Frequency of contact with friends 0.155 0.200 0.097 0.210 -0.344 0.401 0.235a 0.130 0.206 0.198 0.298b 0.143 0.251a 0.129
_Groups and organizational network  
Number of organizations participated in 0.189 0.229 -0.18 0.185 -0.209 0.200 -0.083 0.115 -0.076 0.172 -0.056 0.123 -0.077 0.115
Ethnic diversity of organizational network 0.19 3.557 3.673 3.016 -0.512 3.285 1.685 1.825 1.324 2.860 1.766 1.996 1.549 1.812
Frequency of activity with organizations -0.251 0.303 -0.211 0.282 0.379 0.307 -0.0 85 0.164 -0.284 0.238 -0.207 0.177 -0.111 0.167
Volunteered time for organizations -0.086 0.206 -0.087 0.191 0.404a 0.221 0.086 0.113 0.353b 0.162 0.177 0.120 0.122 0.112
_cons -4.51a 2.448 24.726b 10.835 0.274 28.116 -1.067b 0.513     -1.336b 0.594 -1.024a 0.529
No. of observations 2996 3360 3450 9843 3880 9843 9843
No. of groups (for panel models)         1379 3659 3659
Pseudo R2 0.196 0.124 0.1227 0.145     0.186
Percent correctly predicted 0.753 0.789   0.789 0.584 0.780 0.790
Prob > Chi-Square 
Joint test for network size = 0 0.0006 0.1157 0.0311 0.0000 0.0041 0.0000 0.0000
Joint test for network diversity = 0, if applicable 0.0004 0.0074 0.0051 0.0262 0.2399 0.0403 0.0447
Joint test for network density = 0 0.5319 0.7052 0.3831 0.1579 0.0454 0.0050 0.0823

a p<0.1; b p<0.05; c p<0.01.
Reference categories are in brackets.
Data source: Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2005).

Table A.4: Estimation of employment likelihood of female immigrants in the labour force in the initial 4 years in Canada
Sample coverage: Female immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Ordinary Logit Models (No individual specific effects) Panel Models (With individual specific effects)
Wave1 (6 months after landing) Wave2 (2 years after landing) Wave3 (4 years after landing) Pooled Logit Model (W1, 2 & 3) Fixed-effects Logit Model Random-effects Logit Model GEE Population-averaged Model
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std.Err Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Immigration category [family]  
Skilled Workers (PA) 0.314 0.318 0.335 0.250 0.363 0.253 0.345b 0.147     0.384b 0.166 0.356b 0.154
Skilled Workers (S&D) 0.189 0.289 0.078 0.222 -0.073 0.210 0.096 0.129     0.078 0.143 0.11 0.136
Refugees -0.089 0.325 0.059 0.256 -0.511b 0.232 -0.198 0.151     -0.357b 0.163 -0.194 0.162
Others -0.003 0.352 -0.12 0.282 -0.215 0.267 -0.086 0.165     -0.106 0.184 -0.086 0.169
Demographic variables  
Age 0.014 0.044 0.073a 0.039 0.045 0.044 0.05b 0.023 0.178 0.111 0.059b 0.024 0.051b 0.024
Age2 -0.044 0.057 -0.113b 0.048 -0.092a 0.052 -0.091c 0.029 -0.112 0.125 -0.109c 0.029 -0.092c 0.030
Married -0.349a 0.187 -0.075 0.181 0.295 0.183 -0.01 0.102 -0.578b 0.257 -0.061 0.108 -0.016 0.104
Number of children -0.039 0.112 -0.008 0.089 0.096 0.085 0.038 0.052 -0.021 0.174 0.022 0.056 0.037 0.055
Number of children in school age 0.022 0.123 -0.105 0.102 -0.273c 0.098 -0.134b 0.059 -0.482c 0.161 -0.146b 0.064 -0.142b 0.061
Number of preschool children -0.609c 0.180 -0.965c 0.136 -0.848c 0.130 -0.827c 0.080 -1.063c 0.188 -0.903c 0.088 -0.832c 0.083
Province of residence [Ontario]  
Atlantic Provinces -0.081 0.614 -0.395 0.652 -0.95a 0.533 -0.535 0.349 -0.561 0.875 -0.411 0.348 -0.554 0.353
Quebec -0.279 0.202 -0.488b 0.220 -0.391 0.239 -0.406c 0.121 -0.737 0.554 -0.43c 0.136 -0.415c 0.131
Manitoba and Saskatchewan  0.299 0.390 0.477 0.367 0.241 0.403 0.386a 0.222 -0.184 0.782 0.407a 0.231 0.375 0.241
Alberta 0.544c 0.182 -0.036 0.151 0.318a 0.183 0.244b 0.096 -0.747 0.510 0.328c 0.108 0.244b 0.100
BC -0.089 0.147 -0.069 0.133 0.034 0.139 -0.046 0.079 -1.085a 0.564 -0.096 0.088 -0.047 0.083
Census metropolitan areas (CMAs)  
Not in the Big 5 CMAs -0.001 0.150 -0.168 0.132 0.135 0.142 -0.022 0.079 -0.307 0.258 0.004 0.087 -0.022 0.083
Region of birth [North America, UK and Western Europe]  
Asia and Pacific -0.274 0.408 -0.841a 0.429 -0.7 0.479 -0.599b 0.244     -0.692c 0.266 -0.596b 0.271
Central and South America -0.469 0.407 -0.793a 0.445 -0.209 0.486 -0.576b 0.244     -0.665b 0.279 -0.57b 0.256
Europe except UK and Western Europe -0.39 0.307 -0.418 0.338 -0.526 0.375 -0.449b 0.183     -0.566c 0.204 -0.458b 0.201
Africa and Middle-East -0.888b 0.362 -1.006c 0.387 -0.78a 0.414 -0.904c 0.213     -1.019c 0.232 -0.911c 0.235
Population group [White]  
Chinese 0.054 0.346 -0.004 0.328 -0.146 0.346 -0.106 0.196     -0.157 0.222 -0.113 0.215
South Asian -0.035 0.337 0.244 0.326 0.046 0.343 0.093 0.193     0.057 0.217 0.083 0.212
Black 0.146 0.339 0.512 0.336 0.62a 0.345 0.423b 0.193     0.505b 0.214 0.429b 0.211
Filipino 0.695a 0.385 1.149c 0.378 1.12c 0.427 0.973c 0.225     1.005c 0.254 0.967c 0.249
Latin 0.523 0.444 0.09 0.404 -0.174 0.464 0.192 0.244     0.157 0.285 0.194 0.260
West Asian and Arab -0.114 0.335 -0.058 0.296 -0.026 0.302 -0.044 0.174     -0.146 0.192 -0.042 0.196
Other Asian -0.396 0.417 -0.053 0.365 0.018 0.385 -0.114 0.220     -0.188 0.249 -0.123 0.241
Other Visible Minority 0.133 0.473 0.495 0.517 -0.722 0.463 0.008 0.287     -0.15 0.327 0.012 0.286
Education [Bachelor's Degree]  
High school diploma or less -0.053 0.168 -0.002 0.151 -0.218 0.161 -0.102 0.090 1.255a 0.684 -0.093 0.102 -0.098 0.093
Some post-secondary education 0.013 0.243 0.109 0.231 0.26 0.247 0.115 0.137 0.242 0.754 0.085 0.151 0.107 0.139
College diploma or some university 0.196 0.165 0.118 0.144 -0.069 0.155 0.08 0.088 0.133 0.576 0.058 0.100 0.084 0.092
Master's degree or above -0.101 0.156 -0.119 0.154 0.173 0.176 -0.049 0.090 1.173 0.714 -0.032 0.104 -0.047 0.097
Currently in school -0.904c 0.121 -0.914c 0.136 -0.268 0.263 -0.794c 0.082 -0.816c 0.122 -0.926c 0.088 -0.796c 0.083
Sample coverage: Female immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Ordinary Logit Models (No individual specific effects) Panel Models (With individual specific effects)
Wave 1 (6 months after landing) Wave 2 (2 years after landing) Wave 3 (4 years after landing) Pooled Logit Model (W1, 2 & 3) Fixed-effects Logit Model Random-effects Logit Model GEE Population-averaged Model
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std.Err Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Language Proficiency  
English -0.193 0.148 0.11 0.152 0.162 0.156 0 0.087 0.103 0.157 0.071 0.092 0.006 0.091
French -0.305 0.199 -0.018 0.207 -0.14 0.234 -0.156 0.118 -0.202 0.266 -0.244a 0.128 -0.158 0.127
Experience  
Had work experience before landing 0.154 0.163 0.368c 0.140 0.422c 0.142 0.335c 0.083     0.42c 0.092 0.343c 0.088
Number of weeks in Canada after landing 0.234 0.174 -0.166 0.215 0.356 0.419 -0.029c 0.009 -0.03b 0.013 -0.029c 0.009 -0.029c 0.009
Number of weeks in Canada after landing2 -0.364 0.286 0.109 0.126 -0.164 0.214 0.031c 0.007 0.03c 0.011 0.032c 0.007 0.031c 0.007
Had an arranged job upon landing 2.185c 0.439 1.424c 0.395 0.822b 0.374 1.528c 0.230     1.781c 0.243 1.55c 0.230
Visited Canada before landing -0.228 0.173 0.265 0.166 0.265 0.177 0.109 0.096     0.155 0.108 0.098 0.104
Worked in Canada before landing 0.125 0.488 0.123 0.417 0.532 0.474 0.224 0.255     0.052 0.278 0.224 0.251
Studied in Canada before landing 0.249 0.293 -0.097 0.282 0.109 0.361 0.059 0.174     -0.031 0.196 0.062 0.190
Social networks  
_Family and relatives
Spouse currently employed 0.336b 0.130 0.255b 0.127 -0.022 0.148 0.142b 0.071 0.077 0.090 0.191c 0.072 0.125a 0.069
Number of relatives in Canada 0.055 0.083 0.019 0.072 0.119 0.085 0.069 0.045 -0.126 0.374 0.052 0.051 0.075 0.050
Relatives living nearby upon landing 0.189 0.160 0.331b 0.140 -0.021 0.160 0.17a 0.087     0.273c 0.097 0.169a 0.095
Frequency of contact with family sponsors 0.07 0.258 -0.123 0.204 -0.056 0.186 0.011 0.114 0.357 0.238 -0.013 0.124 0.012 0.117
_Friends  
Friends living nearby upon landing 0.304b 0.125 0.382c 0.111 0.104 0.112 0.289c 0.065     0.337c 0.073 0.283c 0.069
Number of sources meeting friends -0.124c 0.044 -0.16c 0.031 -0.177c 0.040 -0.154c 0.020 -0.086c 0.031 -0.168c 0.022 -0.148c 0.021
Ethnic diversity of friends 0.258 0.226 0.55b 0.250 0.332 0.243 0.45c 0.118 0.367b 0.186 0.479c 0.124 0.454c 0.118
Cohort diversity of friends     0.333 0.214 0.081 0.210                
Frequency of contact with friends 0.337 0.217 0.52b 0.207 0.89b 0.352 0.517c 0.129 0.413b 0.195 0.527c 0.136 0.499c 0.130
_Groups and organizational network  
Number of organizations participated in 0.083 0.257 0.127 0.215 0.308 0.227 0.159 0.127 0.143 0.187 0.212 0.131 0.144 0.127
Ethnic diversity of organizational network -2.616 3.694 2.548 2.962 -1.071 3.339 0.025 1.875 -0.242 2.795 -0.395 1.932 0.129 1.860
Frequency of activity with organizations 0.067 0.319 -0.379 0.316 -0.531 0.332 -0.262 0.183 -0.05 0.252 -0.308a 0.183 -0.234 0.185
Volunteered time for organizations 0.219 0.237 -0.068 0.209 -0.09 0.208 -0.037 0.120 -0.102 0.169 -0.089 0.124 -0.047 0.122
_cons -2.937 2.736 5.552 9.247 -18.864 20.570 0.309 0.526     0.31 0.551 0.277 0.538
No. of observations 2070 2724 2851 7674 3477 7674 7674
No. of groups (for panel models)         1284 3201 3201
Pseudo R2 1.109 0.123 0.1046 0.112      
Percent correctly predicted 0.669 0.716   0.721 0.584 0.703 0.719
Prob > Chi-Square 
Joint test for network size = 0 0.0399 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0391 0.0000 0.0000
Joint test for network diversity = 0, if applicable 0.4541 0.0008 0.2298 0.0006 0.1426 0.0006 0.0006
Joint test for network density = 0 0.4632 0.0484 0.0329 0.0005 0.0971 0.0007 0.0012

a p<0.1; b p<0.05; c p<0.01.
Reference categories are in brackets.
Data source: Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2005).

 

Table A.5: GEE population-averaged estimations of employment likelihood of male immigrants in the initial 4 years in Canada
Sample coverage: Male immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Model M.1 Model M.2 Model M.3 Model M.4 Model M.5 Marginal Effects
No social capital All social capital indicators Kinship and friendship indicators Social capital and time effects Final specification Final specification
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. dy/dx1 Std. Err.
Immigration category [family]  
Skilled Workers (PA) -0.519c 0.125 -0.314b 0.159 -0.309a 0.159 -0.435c 0.131 -0.431c 0.131 -0.067c 0.020
Skilled Workers (S&D) -0.737c 0.127 -0.533c 0.161 -0.525c 0.161 -0.672c 0.135 -0.655c 0.134 -0.117c 0.027
Refugees -0.558c 0.146 -0.393b 0.166 -0.388b 0.165 -0.508c 0.149 -0.494c 0.149 -0.085c 0.028
Others -0.394b 0.156 -0.212 0.182 -0.206 0.182 -0.33b 0.162 -0.317a 0.161 -0.053a 0.029
Demographic variables  
Age 0.116c 0.023 0.119c 0.023 0.119c 0.023 0.114c 0.023 0.117c 0.023 0.018c 0.004
Age2 -0.178c 0.028 -0.182c 0.027 -0.181c 0.027 -0.176c 0.027 -0.179c 0.027 -0.028c 0.004
Married 0.006 0.098 0.019 0.098 0.02 0.098 0.017 0.098 0.025 0.098 0.004 0.015
Number of children 0.113a 0.058 0.11a 0.057 0.11a 0.057 0.111a 0.057 0.111a 0.057 0.017a 0.009
Number of children in school age -0.191c 0.063 -0.18c 0.063 -0.181c 0.063 -0.18c 0.063 -0.181c 0.063 -0.028c 0.010
Number of preschool children -0.064 0.086 -0.058 0.086 -0.06 0.086 -0.067 0.086 -0.06 0.086 -0.009 0.013
Province of residence [Ontario]  
Atlantic Provinces 0.151 0.356 0.165 0.365 0.166 0.366 0.15 0.369 0.149 0.365 0.022 0.052
Quebec -0.782c 0.129 -0.763c 0.129 -0.762c 0.128 -0.785c 0.128 -0.771c 0.128 -0.139c 0.026
Manitoba and Saskatchewan  0.267 0.235 0.234 0.230 0.225 0.231 0.214 0.232 0.211 0.232 0.031 0.032
Alberta 0.261b 0.108 0.261b 0.110 0.261b 0.110 0.243b 0.109 0.247b 0.109 0.036b 0.015
BC -0.176b 0.086 -0.189b 0.088 -0.191b 0.088 -0.204b 0.087 -0.207b 0.087 -0.033b 0.015
Census metropolitan areas (CMAs)  
Not in the Big 5 CMAs -0.041 0.086 -0.058 0.087 -0.055 0.087 -0.068 0.087 -0.065 0.086 -0.01 0.014
Region of birth [North America, UK and Western Europe]  
Asia and Pacific -0.248 0.270 -0.228 0.272 -0.233 0.271 -0.219 0.273 -0.226 0.271 -0.035 0.042
Central and South America 0.139 0.283 0.079 0.283 0.072 0.282 0.08 0.282 0.071 0.280 0.011 0.042
Europe except UK and Western Europe -0.093 0.196 -0.094 0.198 -0.1 0.197 -0.083 0.196 -0.092 0.196 -0.015 0.032
Africa and Middle-East -0.319 0.229 -0.34 0.230 -0.34 0.229 -0.332 0.229 -0.341 0.228 -0.056 0.039
Population group [White]  
Chinese -0.766c 0.220 -0.685c 0.220 -0.685c 0.219 -0.682c 0.220 -0.679c 0.220 -0.12c 0.043
South Asian 0.068 0.217 0.045 0.218 0.048 0.217 0.039 0.217 0.041 0.217 0.006 0.033
Black -0.312 0.219 -0.302 0.219 -0.289 0.218 -0.287 0.218 -0.29 0.217 -0.048 0.039
Filipino 0.629b 0.256 0.596b 0.259 0.598b 0.258 0.59b 0.258 0.591b 0.257 0.078c 0.028
Latin -0.359 0.291 -0.308 0.288 -0.298 0.288 -0.294 0.288 -0.3 0.286 -0.051 0.052
West Asian and Arab -0.497c 0.189 -0.5c 0.190 -0.504c 0.189 -0.494c 0.188 -0.495c 0.188 -0.085b 0.036
Other Asian -0.775c 0.246 -0.705c 0.249 -0.718c 0.247 -0.748c 0.248 -0.748c 0.247 -0.14c 0.053
Other Visible Minority -0.276 0.324 -0.288 0.324 -0.282 0.324 -0.255 0.321 -0.244 0.321 -0.041 0.057
Education [Bachelor's Degree]  
High school diploma or less -0.215a 0.114 -0.25b 0.116 -0.247b 0.116 -0.242b 0.115 -0.246b 0.115 -0.04b 0.019
Some post-secondary education 0.177 0.158 0.122 0.159 0.124 0.159 0.138 0.157 0.129 0.157 0.019 0.023
College diploma or some university -0.03 0.104 -0.058 0.105 -0.058 0.105 -0.055 0.105 -0.055 0.104 -0.009 0.017
Master's degree or above -0.093 0.086 -0.085 0.087 -0.081 0.086 -0.081 0.086 -0.082 0.086 -0.013 0.014
Currently in school -0.853c 0.074 -0.838c 0.075 -0.836c 0.075 -0.822c 0.075 -0.84c 0.075 -0.154c 0.016
Sample coverage: Male immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Model M.1 Model M.2 Model M.3 Model M.4 Model M.5 Marginal Effects
No social capital All social capital indicators Kinship and friendship indicators Social capital and time effects Final specification Final specification
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. dy/dx1 Std. Err.
Language Proficiency  
English 0.183a 0.097 0.174a 0.098 0.177a 0.098 0.175a 0.098 0.178a 0.098 0.029a 0.017
French -0.131 0.127 -0.137 0.127 -0.136 0.126 -0.12 0.126 -0.126 0.126 -0.02 0.021
Experience  
Had work experience before landing 0.373c 0.117 0.379c 0.117 0.381c 0.117 0.401c 0.117 0.381c 0.117 0.064c 0.021
Number of weeks in Canada after landing -0.01 0.008 0.001 0.008 0 0.008 0.035b 0.017 0.001 0.008 0 0.001
Number of weeks in Canada after landing2 0.018c 0.007 0.009 0.007 0.009 0.007 -0.019a 0.011 0.009 0.007 0.001 0.001
Had an arranged job upon landing 1.43c 0.188 1.41c 0.189 1.411c 0.189 1.417c 0.188 1.402c 0.188 0.15c 0.012
Visited Canada before landing 0.222b 0.104 0.178a 0.106 0.182a 0.106 0.195a 0.105 0.189a 0.105 0.028a 0.015
Worked in Canada before landing 0.259 0.247 0.279 0.250 0.286 0.250 0.29 0.251 0.283 0.249 0.04 0.033
Studied in Canada before landing 0.363a 0.194 0.355a 0.195 0.359a 0.195 0.375a 0.195 0.368a 0.195 0.051b 0.024
Social networks  
_Family and relatives
Spouse currently employed 0.36c 0.072 0.368c 0.073 0.367c 0.073 0.393c 0.073 0.372c 0.073 0.055c 0.010
Number of relatives in Canada     -0.046 0.053 -0.046 0.053            
Relatives living nearby upon landing     0.252b 0.100 0.248b 0.100 0.184b 0.076 0.183b 0.076 0.028b 0.012
Frequency of contact with family sponsors     0.203 0.129 0.206 0.129            
_Friends  
Friends living nearby upon landing     0.123a 0.070 0.122a 0.069            
Number of sources meeting friends     -0.103c 0.019 -0.103c 0.018 -0.08c 0.019 -0.097c 0.018 -0.015c 0.003
Ethnic diversity of friends     0.283b 0.124 0.298b 0.124 0.301b 0.124 0.288b 0.123 0.045b 0.019
Frequency of contact with friends     0.251a 0.129 0.244a 0.129 0.185 0.129 0.256b 0.128 0.04b 0.020
_Groups and organizational network  
Number of organizations participated in     -0.077 0.115                
Ethnic diversity of organizational network     1.549 1.812                
Frequency of activity with organizations     -0.111 0.167                
Volunteered time for organizations     0.122 0.112                
Time effects  
Wave2             -0.213 0.373        
Wave3             0.196 0.418        
_cons -0.275 0.500 -1.024a 0.529 -1.029a 0.529 -1.507b 0.620 -0.826 0.518    
No. of observations 9843 9843 9843 9843 9843 9843
No. of groups 3659 3659 3659 3659 3659 3659
Percent correctly predicted 0.787 0.790 0.789 0.791 0.788  

a p<0.1; b p<0.05; c p<0.01.
1 Marginal effects for dummy variables are for discrete change from 0 to 1.
Reference categories are in brackets.
Data source: Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2005).

Table A.6: GEE population-averaged estimations of employment likelihood of female immigrants in the initial 4 years in Canada
Sample coverage: Female immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Model F.1 Model F.2 Model F.3 Model F.4 Model F.5 Marginal Effects
No social capital All social capital indicators Kinship and friendship indicators Social capital and time effects Final specification Final specification
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. dy/dx1 Std. Err.
Immigration category [family]  
Skilled Workers (PA) 0.279b 0.114 0.356b 0.154 0.36b 0.154 0.325c 0.121 0.33c 0.121 0.065c 0.023
Skilled Workers (S&D) 0.021 0.091 0.11 0.136 0.117 0.136 0.076 0.100 0.082 0.099 0.017 0.020
Refugees -0.301b 0.142 -0.194 0.162 -0.197 0.162 -0.226 0.145 -0.22 0.145 -0.047 0.032
Others -0.165 0.138 -0.086 0.169 -0.079 0.169 -0.118 0.142 -0.112 0.142 -0.024 0.031
Demographic variables  
Age 0.053b 0.023 0.051b 0.024 0.051b 0.024 0.048b 0.024 0.05b 0.024 0.01b 0.005
Age2 -0.096c 0.029 -0.092c 0.030 -0.093c 0.030 -0.089c 0.029 -0.091c 0.029 -0.019c 0.006
Married -0.043 0.102 -0.016 0.104 -0.02 0.104 -0.025 0.104 -0.02 0.104 -0.004 0.021
Number of children 0.031 0.056 0.037 0.055 0.037 0.055 0.04 0.056 0.04 0.055 0.008 0.012
Number of children in school age -0.158b 0.061 -0.142b 0.061 -0.143b 0.062 -0.144b 0.062 -0.143b 0.062 -0.03b 0.013
Number of preschool children -0.832c 0.084 -0.832c 0.083 -0.832c 0.083 -0.835c 0.083 -0.832c 0.083 -0.173c 0.017
Province of residence [Ontario]  
Atlantic Provinces -0.671a 0.343 -0.554 0.353 -0.568 0.352 -0.571 0.356 -0.578 0.354 -0.132 0.086
Quebec -0.448c 0.131 -0.415c 0.131 -0.419c 0.130 -0.431c 0.131 -0.419c 0.130 -0.092c 0.030
Manitoba and Saskatchewan  0.368 0.246 0.375 0.241 0.384 0.240 0.402a 0.241 0.397 0.242 0.076a 0.042
Alberta 0.245b 0.100 0.244b 0.100 0.245b 0.100 0.258b 0.100 0.253b 0.100 0.05c 0.019
BC -0.019 0.082 -0.047 0.083 -0.049 0.083 -0.041 0.083 -0.04 0.083 -0.008 0.017
Census metropolitan areas (CMAs)  
Not in the Big 5 CMAs 0.007 0.082 -0.022 0.083 -0.016 0.083 -0.019 0.083 -0.017 0.083 -0.003 0.017
Region of birth [North America, UK and Western Europe]  
Asia and Pacific -0.632b 0.267 -0.596b 0.271 -0.603b 0.269 -0.612b 0.269 -0.604b 0.270 -0.123b 0.054
Central and South America -0.514b 0.259 -0.57b 0.256 -0.576b 0.256 -0.56b 0.257 -0.562b 0.257 -0.127b 0.062
Europe except UK and Western Europe -0.495b 0.197 -0.458b 0.201 -0.471b 0.200 -0.479b 0.200 -0.473b 0.200 -0.104b 0.046
Africa and Middle-East -0.885c 0.229 -0.911c 0.235 -0.908c 0.233 -0.91c 0.233 -0.912c 0.234 -0.208c 0.056
Population group [White]  
Chinese -0.251 0.214 -0.113 0.215 -0.115 0.214 -0.111 0.214 -0.119 0.214 -0.025 0.046
South Asian 0.113 0.209 0.083 0.212 0.08 0.211 0.095 0.212 0.093 0.212 0.019 0.043
Black 0.373a 0.208 0.429b 0.211 0.416b 0.211 0.406a 0.212 0.407a 0.212 0.078b 0.037
Filipino 0.965c 0.248 0.967c 0.249 0.962c 0.248 0.974c 0.249 0.977c 0.249 0.165c 0.032
Latin 0.113 0.268 0.194 0.260 0.187 0.260 0.161 0.262 0.166 0.262 0.033 0.051
West Asian and Arab -0.058 0.191 -0.042 0.196 -0.053 0.196 -0.058 0.196 -0.055 0.196 -0.011 0.041
Other Asian -0.22 0.239 -0.123 0.241 -0.134 0.240 -0.131 0.240 -0.138 0.240 -0.029 0.052
Other Visible Minority 0.069 0.294 0.012 0.286 0.006 0.285 0 0.286 0.013 0.287 0.003 0.059
Education [Bachelor's Degree]  
High school diploma or less -0.061 0.093 -0.098 0.093 -0.099 0.093 -0.099 0.093 -0.1 0.093 -0.021 0.020
Some post-secondary education 0.127 0.140 0.107 0.139 0.106 0.139 0.108 0.139 0.103 0.139 0.021 0.028
College diploma or some university 0.095 0.092 0.084 0.092 0.082 0.092 0.085 0.093 0.082 0.093 0.017 0.019
Master's degree or above -0.066 0.096 -0.047 0.097 -0.044 0.097 -0.048 0.097 -0.047 0.097 -0.01 0.020
Currently in school -0.778c 0.082 -0.796c 0.083 -0.793c 0.083 -0.788c 0.083 -0.796c 0.083 -0.181c 0.020
Sample coverage: Female immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Model F.1 Model F.2 Model F.3 Model F.4 Model F.5 Marginal Effects
No social capital All social capital indicators Kinship and friendship indicators Social capital and time effects Final specification Final specification
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. dy/dx1 Std. Err.
Language Proficiency  
English 0.041 0.090 0.006 0.091 0.005 0.091 0.006 0.091 0.005 0.091 0.001 0.019
French -0.125 0.126 -0.158 0.127 -0.16 0.127 -0.158 0.127 -0.163 0.127 -0.035 0.027
Experience  
Had work experience before landing 0.387c 0.088 0.343c 0.088 0.344c 0.088 0.342c 0.088 0.342c 0.088 0.073c 0.019
Number of weeks in Canada after landing -0.045c 0.009 -0.029c 0.009 -0.03c 0.009 -0.001 0.019 -0.03c 0.009 -0.006c 0.002
Number of weeks in Canada after landing2 0.044c 0.007 0.031c 0.007 0.031c 0.007 0.015 0.012 0.032c 0.007 0.007c 0.001
Had an arranged job upon landing 1.58c 0.232 1.55c 0.230 1.567c 0.230 1.577c 0.232 1.573c 0.232 0.225c 0.019
Visited Canada before landing 0.149 0.103 0.098 0.104 0.098 0.104 0.104 0.104 0.103 0.104 0.021 0.021
Worked in Canada before landing 0.217 0.248 0.224 0.251 0.23 0.248 0.23 0.248 0.224 0.248 0.044 0.047
Studied in Canada before landing 0.135 0.190 0.062 0.190 0.07 0.190 0.078 0.191 0.078 0.190 0.016 0.038
Social networks  
_Family and relatives
Spouse currently employed 0.079 0.067 0.125a 0.069 0.125a 0.069 0.148b 0.072 0.125a 0.068 0.026a 0.014
Number of relatives in Canada     0.075 0.050 0.073 0.050            
Relatives living nearby upon landing     0.169a 0.095 0.169a 0.095 0.254c 0.075 0.255c 0.074 0.053c 0.016
Frequency of contact with family sponsors     0.012 0.117 0.014 0.117            
_Friends  
Friends living nearby upon landing     0.283c 0.069 0.276c 0.068 0.278c 0.069 0.279c 0.068 0.057c 0.014
Number of sources meeting friends     -0.148c 0.021 -0.143c 0.020 -0.136c 0.020 -0.142c 0.020 -0.03c 0.004
Ethnic diversity of friends     0.454c 0.118 0.455c 0.118 0.457c 0.117 0.458c 0.117 0.095c 0.024
Frequency of contact with friends     0.499c 0.130 0.487c 0.129 0.463c 0.130 0.484c 0.129 0.101c 0.027
_Groups and organizational network  
Number of organizations participated in     0.144 0.127                
Ethnic diversity of organizational network     0.129 1.860                
Frequency of activity with organizations     -0.234 0.185                
Volunteered time for organizations     -0.047 0.122                
Wave2             -0.569 0.410        
Wave3             -0.462 0.455        
_cons 1.213b 0.501 0.277 0.538 0.304 0.536 -0.274 0.646 0.382 0.518    
No. of observations 7674 7674 7674 7674 7674 7674
No. of groups 3201 3201 3201 3201 3201 3201
Percent correctly predicted 0.711 0.719 0.720 0.719 0.720  

a p<0.1; b p<0.05; c p<0.01.
1 Marginal effects for dummy variables are for discrete change from 0 to 1.
Reference categories are in brackets.
Data source: Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2005).

 

Table A.7: GEE population-averaged estimations of employment likelihood of male immigrants in the initial 4 years in Canada with interaction effects
Sample coverage: Male immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Model M.int.1 Model M.int.2 Model M.int.3 Model M.int.4 Model M.int.5
Time effect interactions Immigration category interactions Ethnic group interactions Education interactions Official language interactions
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Immigration category [family]  
Skilled Workers (PA) -0.443c 0.131 -0.821c 0.191 -0.429c 0.131 -0.421c 0.130 -0.432c 0.131
Skilled Workers (S&D) -0.678c 0.135 -1.04c 0.236 -0.649c 0.135 -0.636c 0.135 -0.655c 0.135
Refugees -0.515c 0.149 -0.607c 0.230 -0.49c 0.150 -0.477c 0.149 -0.496c 0.149
Others -0.335b 0.162 -0.506a 0.262 -0.324b 0.162 -0.305a 0.161 -0.318b 0.161
Demographic variables  
Age 0.116c 0.023 0.12c 0.023 0.118c 0.023 0.115c 0.023 0.117c 0.023
Age2 -0.179c 0.027 -0.184c 0.027 -0.179c 0.028 -0.177c 0.027 -0.179c 0.027
Married 0.019 0.098 0.024 0.098 0.03 0.098 0.023 0.098 0.025 0.098
Number of children 0.111a 0.057 0.109a 0.057 0.108a 0.058 0.113b 0.057 0.111a 0.057
Number of children in school age -0.181c 0.063 -0.178c 0.063 -0.18c 0.063 -0.181c 0.063 -0.181c 0.063
Number of preschool children -0.068 0.086 -0.055 0.086 -0.065 0.086 -0.06 0.086 -0.061 0.086
Province of residence [Ontario]  
Atlantic Provinces 0.141 0.366 0.145 0.369 0.181 0.372 0.139 0.365 0.153 0.366
Quebec -0.782c 0.128 -0.774c 0.128 -0.77c 0.128 -0.772c 0.128 -0.771c 0.129
Manitoba and Saskatchewan  0.212 0.232 0.209 0.233 0.209 0.232 0.22 0.232 0.211 0.232
Alberta 0.24b 0.109 0.241b 0.109 0.229b 0.109 0.247b 0.109 0.248b 0.109
BC -0.204b 0.087 -0.214b 0.087 -0.211b 0.087 -0.21b 0.087 -0.207b 0.087
Census metropolitan areas (CMAs)  
Not in the Big 5 CMAs -0.065 0.087 -0.067 0.086 -0.064 0.087 -0.065 0.087 -0.065 0.086
Region of birth [North America, UK and Western Europe]  
Asia and Pacific -0.217 0.273 -0.215 0.272 -0.244 0.270 -0.223 0.271 -0.224 0.271
Central and South America 0.076 0.282 0.084 0.283 0.012 0.277 0.075 0.279 0.075 0.280
Europe except UK and Western Europe -0.082 0.196 -0.081 0.197 -0.087 0.198 -0.083 0.196 -0.089 0.196
Africa and Middle-East -0.334 0.229 -0.332 0.229 -0.342 0.228 -0.335 0.228 -0.339 0.228
Population group [White]  
Chinese -0.683c 0.220 -0.68c 0.219 -0.806c 0.272 -0.677c 0.220 -0.68c 0.219
South Asian 0.039 0.217 0.012 0.217 0.157 0.272 0.036 0.217 0.041 0.217
Black -0.29 0.217 -0.29 0.218 0.263 0.331 -0.293 0.216 -0.289 0.217
Filipino 0.594b 0.258 0.582b 0.256 1.319c 0.401 0.593b 0.257 0.59b 0.257
Latin -0.299 0.288 -0.309 0.288 -0.6 0.455 -0.306 0.285 -0.302 0.286
West Asian and Arab -0.49c 0.187 -0.506c 0.187 -0.501a 0.262 -0.499c 0.187 -0.495c 0.187
Other Asian -0.749c 0.248 -0.749c 0.247 -0.211 0.356 -0.742c 0.248 -0.748c 0.247
Other Visible Minority -0.25 0.323 -0.248 0.321 0.037 0.571 -0.246 0.321 -0.244 0.321
Education [Bachelor's Degree]  
High school diploma or less -0.238b 0.115 -0.276b 0.115 -0.232b 0.116 -0.118 0.176 -0.246b 0.115
Some post-secondary education 0.136 0.157 0.122 0.157 0.141 0.158 0.062 0.272 0.129 0.157
College diploma or some university -0.056 0.105 -0.058 0.104 -0.04 0.105 -0.073 0.197 -0.056 0.104
Master's degree or above -0.081 0.086 -0.078 0.086 -0.076 0.086 -0.095 0.169 -0.082 0.086
Currently in school -0.83c 0.075 -0.84c 0.075 -0.84c 0.075 -0.842c 0.075 -0.84c 0.075
Language Proficiency  
English 0.171a 0.098 0.216b 0.100 0.174a 0.099 0.189a 0.099 0.199 0.157
French -0.12 0.126 -0.128 0.126 -0.137 0.126 -0.126 0.126 -0.153 0.190
Experience  
Had work experience before landing 0.393c 0.117 0.377c 0.116 0.375c 0.117 0.377c 0.116 0.381c 0.117
Number of weeks in Canada after landing 0.035b 0.017 0 0.008 0.001 0.008 0 0.008 0.001 0.008
Number of weeks in Canada after landing2 -0.019a 0.011 0.009 0.007 0.009 0.007 0.009 0.007 0.009 0.007
Had an arranged job upon landing 1.413c 0.188 1.394c 0.188 1.415c 0.189 1.395c 0.188 1.403c 0.188
Visited Canada before landing 0.192a 0.105 0.195a 0.105 0.195a 0.105 0.191a 0.105 0.188a 0.105
Worked in Canada before landing 0.286 0.250 0.279 0.250 0.268 0.251 0.286 0.250 0.283 0.249
Studied in Canada before landing 0.369a 0.194 0.349a 0.195 0.36a 0.196 0.364a 0.195 0.369a 0.196
Sample coverage: Male immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Model M.int.1 Model M.int.2 Model M.int.3 Model M.int.4 Model M.int.5
Time effect interactions Immigration category interactions Ethnic group interactions Education interactions Official language interactions
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Social networks  
Spouse currently employed 0.392c 0.073 0.376c 0.073 0.37c 0.073 0.373c 0.073 0.372c 0.073
Relatives living nearby upon landing 0.183b 0.075 0.183b 0.076 0.18b 0.076 0.182b 0.075 0.183b 0.076
Number of sources meeting friends -0.081c 0.019 -0.095c 0.018 -0.098c 0.018 -0.097c 0.018 -0.097c 0.018
Ethnic diversity of friends 0.584c 0.175 -0.334 0.281 0.448b 0.219 0.332a 0.192 0.323 0.324
Frequency of contact with friends 0.145 0.130 0.312b 0.131 0.267b 0.130 0.269b 0.128 0.256b 0.129
Time effects  
Wave2 -0.055 0.395                
Wave3 0.437 0.431                
Interactions  
Wave2 * Ethnic diversity of friends -0.355 0.242                
Wave3 * Ethnic diversity of friends -0.526b 0.243                
SWPA * Ethnic diversity of friends     0.831c 0.317            
SWSD * Ethnic diversity of friends     0.824b 0.407            
Refugees * Ethnic diversity of friends     0.342 0.382            
Others * Ethnic diversity of friends     0.447 0.466            
Chinese * Ethnic diversity of friends         0.426 0.372        
South Asian * Ethnic diversity of friends         -0.194 0.328        
Black * Ethnic diversity of friends         -0.955b 0.461        
Filipino * Ethnic diversity of friends         -1.521b 0.653        
Latin * Ethnic diversity of friends         0.639 0.658        
West Asian and Arab * Ethnic diversity of friends         0.018 0.341        
Other Asian * Ethnic diversity of friends         -1.021b 0.504        
Other Visible Minority * Ethnic diversity of friends         -0.571 1.091        
High school diploma or less * Ethnic diversity of friends             -0.286 0.289    
Some post-secondary education * Ethnic diversity of friends             0.139 0.525    
College diploma or some university * Ethnic diversity of friends             0.03 0.341    
Master's degree or above * Ethnic diversity of friends             0.027 0.315    
English * Ethnic diversity of friends                 -0.055 0.321
French * Ethnic diversity of friends                 0.05 0.259
_cons -1.611b 0.624 -0.659 0.520 -0.927a 0.544 -0.831 0.521 -0.834 0.524
No. of observations 9843 9843 9843 9843 9843
No. of groups 3659 3659 3659 3659 3659
Percent correctly predicted 0.792 0.789 0.789 0.789 0.788

a p<0.1; b p<0.05; c p<0.01.
Reference categories are in brackets.
Data source: Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2005).

Table A.8: GEE population-averaged estimations of employment likelihood of female immigrants in the initial 4 years in Canada with interaction effects
Sample coverage: Female immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
  Models
Independent variables Model F.int.1 Model F.int.2 Model F.int.3 Model F.int.4 Model F.int.5
Time effect interactions Immigration category interactions Ethnic group interactions Education interactions Official language interactions
Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Immigration category [family]  
Skilled Workers (PA) 0.322c 0.122 0.04 0.199 0.324c 0.121 0.331c 0.121 0.33c 0.121
Skilled Workers (S&D) 0.07 0.100 -0.121 0.157 0.078 0.101 0.081 0.100 0.084 0.099
Refugees -0.223 0.147 -0.402a 0.215 -0.212 0.145 -0.223 0.146 -0.211 0.145
Others -0.117 0.142 -0.485a 0.251 -0.112 0.143 -0.117 0.142 -0.112 0.141
Demographic variables  
Age 0.047b 0.024 0.051b 0.024 0.049b 0.024 0.05b 0.024 0.05b 0.024
Age2 -0.087c 0.030 -0.093c 0.030 -0.09c 0.030 -0.091c 0.029 -0.092c 0.029
Married -0.018 0.105 -0.01 0.104 -0.022 0.104 -0.019 0.104 -0.022 0.104
Number of children 0.04 0.056 0.041 0.056 0.04 0.056 0.041 0.055 0.038 0.055
Number of children in school age -0.144b 0.062 -0.142b 0.062 -0.145b 0.062 -0.145b 0.062 -0.142b 0.062
Number of preschool children -0.83c 0.084 -0.837c 0.083 -0.834c 0.083 -0.835c 0.083 -0.831c 0.083
Province of residence [Ontario]  
Atlantic Provinces -0.558 0.364 -0.597a 0.358 -0.619a 0.351 -0.582a 0.351 -0.575 0.354
Quebec -0.434c 0.131 -0.423c 0.130 -0.438c 0.131 -0.418c 0.131 -0.416c 0.131
Manitoba and Saskatchewan  0.386 0.242 0.38 0.243 0.395 0.241 0.399 0.243 0.396 0.243
Alberta 0.262c 0.100 0.245b 0.100 0.248b 0.100 0.252b 0.100 0.252b 0.100
BC -0.043 0.083 -0.052 0.083 -0.04 0.083 -0.043 0.083 -0.04 0.083
Census metropolitan areas (CMAs)  
Not in the Big 5 CMAs -0.018 0.083 -0.023 0.083 -0.005 0.083 -0.015 0.083 -0.014 0.083
Region of birth [North America, UK and Western Europe]  
Asia and Pacific -0.594b 0.271 -0.583b 0.270 -0.629b 0.270 -0.609b 0.270 -0.618b 0.270
Central and South America -0.552b 0.260 -0.516b 0.258 -0.621b 0.255 -0.577b 0.257 -0.58b 0.257
Europe except UK and Western Europe -0.465b 0.202 -0.463b 0.200 -0.502b 0.200 -0.477b 0.200 -0.488b 0.200
Africa and Middle-East -0.891c 0.235 -0.895c 0.234 -0.915c 0.232 -0.915c 0.234 -0.927c 0.234
Population group [White]  
Chinese -0.114 0.216 -0.114 0.215 -0.236 0.279 -0.115 0.214 -0.112 0.215
South Asian 0.088 0.214 0.072 0.213 -0.004 0.263 0.096 0.212 0.098 0.212
Black 0.401a 0.213 0.403a 0.212 0.787b 0.310 0.412a 0.213 0.405a 0.212
Filipino 0.963c 0.250 0.978c 0.249 0.419 0.372 0.98c 0.249 0.986c 0.249
Latin 0.165 0.264 0.134 0.263 0.113 0.503 0.177 0.263 0.178 0.262
West Asian and Arab -0.059 0.197 -0.054 0.196 -0.302 0.275 -0.057 0.197 -0.051 0.196
Other Asian -0.134 0.242 -0.137 0.241 0.01 0.336 -0.137 0.240 -0.13 0.241
Other Visible Minority -0.021 0.290 0.016 0.286 -0.784 0.538 0.011 0.288 0.008 0.288
Education [Bachelor's Degree]  
High school diploma or less -0.104 0.094 -0.112 0.094 -0.097 0.094 -0.038 0.147 -0.102 0.094
Some post-secondary education 0.113 0.140 0.107 0.138 0.106 0.140 0.138 0.251 0.101 0.139
College diploma or some university 0.089 0.093 0.084 0.093 0.087 0.093 0.173 0.170 0.082 0.092
Master's degree or above -0.044 0.097 -0.046 0.097 -0.043 0.097 0.179 0.187 -0.045 0.097
Currently in school -0.784c 0.083 -0.789c 0.083 -0.797c 0.083 -0.796c 0.083 -0.799c 0.083
Language Proficiency  
English 0.008 0.091 0.019 0.091 0.007 0.092 0.002 0.091 -0.109 0.140
French -0.159 0.127 -0.167 0.126 -0.155 0.126 -0.16 0.127 0.002 0.194
Experience  
Had work experience before landing 0.35c 0.088 0.349c 0.088 0.336c 0.089 0.34c 0.088 0.343c 0.088
Number of weeks in Canada after landing 0.001 0.019 -0.03c 0.009 -0.03c 0.009 -0.03c 0.009 -0.03c 0.009
Number of weeks in Canada after landing2 0.013 0.012 0.031c 0.007 0.031c 0.007 0.032c 0.007 0.031c 0.007
Had an arranged job upon landing 1.596c 0.235 1.57c 0.233 1.572c 0.232 1.573c 0.232 1.576c 0.232
Visited Canada before landing 0.097 0.105 0.11 0.104 0.102 0.104 0.11 0.105 0.101 0.104
Worked in Canada before landing 0.23 0.247 0.225 0.249 0.216 0.247 0.231 0.249 0.218 0.249
Studied in Canada before landing 0.075 0.192 0.061 0.192 0.087 0.190 0.071 0.191 0.068 0.190
Sample coverage: Female immigrants who participated in the labour force.
Dependent variable em (conditional on the participation in the labour force)
Social networks  
Spouse currently employed 0.145b 0.072 0.12a 0.069 0.13a 0.069 0.125a 0.069 0.127a 0.068
Relatives living nearby upon landing 0.255c 0.075 0.257c 0.074 0.252c 0.075 0.253c 0.075 0.254c 0.074
Friends living nearby upon landing 0.279c 0.069 0.281c 0.068 0.283c 0.069 0.277c 0.069 0.278c 0.068
Number of sources meeting friends -0.134c 0.020 -0.141c 0.020 -0.143c 0.020 -0.142c 0.020 -0.141c 0.020
Ethnic diversity of friends -0.094 0.193 0.12 0.206 0.303 0.204 0.612c 0.189 0.263 0.303
Frequency of contact with friends 0.543c 0.133 0.515c 0.130 0.482c 0.130 0.483c 0.129 0.487c 0.130
Time effects  
Wave2 -1.006b 0.424                
Wave3 -0.827a 0.466                
Interactions  
Wave2 * Ethnic diversity of friends 0.89c 0.252                
Wave3 * Ethnic diversity of friends 0.731c 0.246                
SWPA * Ethnic diversity of friends     0.597a 0.323            
SWSD * Ethnic diversity of friends     0.437a 0.263            
Refugees * Ethnic diversity of friends     0.427 0.359            
Others * Ethnic diversity of friends     0.85a 0.462            
Chinese * Ethnic diversity of friends         0.249 0.377        
South Asian * Ethnic diversity of friends         0.183 0.288        
Black * Ethnic diversity of friends         -0.664 0.439        
Filipino * Ethnic diversity of friends         1.301a 0.680        
Latin * Ethnic diversity of friends         0.165 0.654        
West Asian and Arab * Ethnic diversity of friends         0.455 0.378        
Other Asian * Ethnic diversity of friends         -0.329 0.497        
Other Visible Minority * Ethnic diversity of friends         1.559a 0.864        
High school diploma or less * Ethnic diversity of friends             -0.132 0.269    
Some post-secondary education * Ethnic diversity of friends             -0.08 0.443    
College diploma or some university * Ethnic diversity of friends             -0.197 0.303    
Master's degree or above * Ethnic diversity of friends             -0.473 0.328    
English * Ethnic diversity of friends                 0.307 0.299
French * Ethnic diversity of friends                 -0.3 0.262
_cons -0.152 0.648 0.459 0.521 0.497 0.537 0.312 0.523 0.431 0.521
No. of observations 7674 7674 7674 7674 7674
No. of groups 3201 3201 3201 3201 3201
Percent correctly predicted 0.720 0.721 0.722 0.720 0.721

a p<0.1; b p<0.05; c p<0.01.
Reference categories are in brackets.
Data source: Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2005).

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