ARCHIVED – Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada – Client profile and performance indicators
LINC Performance Indicators
In order to measure the performance of clients that have enrolled in the LINC program, a composite measure of language ability based on CLB (Canadian Language Benchmark) entry and exit scores is used. The composite measure is derived using CLB scores upon entry and exit of a completed LINC course. [ Note 28 ]
Entry-level composite measure – This is calculated as the sum of the assessment tests (CLB scores) of the four language competencies before LINC training has started. The four competencies included in the assessment tests are:
- Listening; and
Therefore, a client who is assessed with CLB scores of 3, 4, 3, 3, (for speaking, reading, listening and writing) would have an entry-level composite measure of 13.
Exit-level composite measure – This is calculated as the sum of the exit-level scores (CLB scores) for the four language competencies after the completion of a LINC course. The four competencies included in exit scores are:
- Listening; and
Therefore a client who completed a LINC level and has exit scores of 4, 4, 4, 4 (for speaking, reading, listening and writing) would have an exit-level composite measure of 16.
The benefit of this type of performance indicator is that it allows for one overall performance measure/indicator for a completed LINC course. It also provides a consistent framework, both in terms of CLB scores for the identical competencies identified at entry and exit of completed LINC courses. However, a drawback to this method/measure is that scores at completion of LINC courses are not necessarily done in the same way as upon entry into LINC training.
First-time entry scores for clients who enter LINC training are usually formally assessed on the four competencies identified above while exit scores are determined through both formal and informal tests performed within the classroom. Therefore, differences in grading (from entry and exit of completed LINC course) may occur. Despite this caveat, it is felt that the composite measure based on CLB entry and exit scores is the best available option at this point.
Clients who do not have a CLB score for each one of the identified competencies at entry and exit from a completed LINC course are excluded from the entry and exit composite measures.
Composite Measure – Performance Score
For this analysis, LINC performance scores are calculated by subtracting the exit-level composite measure from the entry-level composite measure. For example, a client with an entry-level composite measure of 12 and an exit-level composite measure of 16 would have a performance score of +4. The performance scores are put into ranges that correspond to 3 different performance groupings as outlined below:
Meeting LINC level requirements – A client is defined as meeting LINC level requirements if the calculated performance score of the client is 0,1,2,3 or 4. This range was chosen to account for possible differences in exit-level grading of the different service providing organizations (SPOs). For instance, a client that successfully meets LINC level requirements, some SPOs give identical entry and exit CLB scores for each of the 4 competencies (speaking, reading, listening and writing. In contrast, other SPOs give exit-level CLB scores that are 1 higher than entry for each of the 4 competencies upon meeting the LINC level requirements. [ Note 29 ] Therefore it is possible for clients who have completed a LINC course, and have met the LINC level requirements, to have performance scores that range from 0 to 4. [ Note 30 ]
Not meeting LINC level requirements – A client is defined as not meeting LINC level requirements if the calculated performance score is negative. That is, the exit-level composite measure is less than the entry-level composite measure. This would indicate clients are not meeting the LINC level requirements of the course in which they were enrolled.
Exceeding LINC level requirements – A client is defined as exceeding LINC level requirements if the calculated performance score is 5 or greater. That is, the exit-level composite measure is at least 5 greater than the entry-level composite measure. This would indicate clients are exceeding the LINC level requirements of the course in which they were enrolled.
Average hours taken to complete a LINC course
The average hour calculation used in this analysis represents an adjusted average (mean) number of hours taken to complete a LINC course. Note that adjustments have been made to exclude records that are inconsistent with “normal” durations associated with LINC language training. As a result, records with negative, zero, very small or extremely high numbers of hours taken to complete a course have been excluded.
For this analysis, it is assumed that the average hours taken to complete a LINC level reflects a normal distribution that clusters around the mean. However, due to the nature of administrative data and the possibility of data-entry errors, outliers were removed and the mean scores represent the mean of the centre 99.7% of the distribution.
28. A composite measure is calculated for every completed LINC course. Therefore it is possible for a unique client to have more than 1 completion with associated entry-level and exit level scores.
29. Anecdotal evidence suggests that either 1 of the following 2 general “rules of thumb” are used by a majority of the SPOs when grading exit CLB scores for each of the 4 competencies. The first method gives clients an exit score equal to the entry score for the 4 competencies once they have met all the requirements of a LINC level. The second method gives clients an exit score that is 1 greater than the entry CLB score for each of the 4 competencies once they have meet all the requirements of a LINC level.
30. The calculated performance score used in the ranges are open to interpretation and warrant further analysis.
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