Health Status of Canadians 2016: Report of the Chief Public Health Officer - What is influencing our health? - Housing
What is influencing our health?
Poor housing conditions have been linked to poor health and well-being, as well as increased stress and feelings of vulnerability.Footnote 2-5 Core housing need is an indicator that measures whether or not Canadians are living in a house that meets Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)'s housing standards. This includes not meeting at least one standard that assesses adequacy (e.g., does it need repairs?), affordability (e.g., how much does it cost?) or suitability (e.g., does it have enough bedrooms for the number and types of occupants?).Footnote 1
The proportion of Canadian households in core housing need has remained unchanged.Footnote 1
- 14% in 2001.
- 13% in 2011.
In 2011, 50% of low income households and less than 1% of high income households were in core housing need.Footnote 6
In 2011, the proportion of Canadians in core housing need differed by sub-population:Footnote 6
- 29% of single parent households where the parent was a woman;
- 27% of people who were renting a place;
- 24% of single woman households;
- 19% of Indigenous households;
- 17% of immigrant households;
- 15% of households whose primary maintainer was between the ages of 15 to 29 years; and
- 14% of senior households.
Generally, Indigenous populations have higher rates of core housing need.Footnote 1,Footnote 6-8 Almost 100,000 or 19% of Indigenous households were in core housing need (as defined by CMHC) in 2011 compared to 12% of non-Indigenous households.Footnote 6
|First Nations - Status Indian||23%|
|First Nations - Non-Status Indian||19%|
For First Nations on-reserve, the definition of housing need differs from CMHC's definition in that it does not include the need to meet affordability standards. This means the data above are not comparable to the data presented below. Based on this definition, First Nations on-reserve were more likely to be in core housing need than the overall Canadian population.Footnote 8
International comparison: Data on housing are not collected such that they can be compared across countries.
Notes to the reader
- The primary household maintainer is the person in the household responsible for major household payments such as the rent or mortgage.Footnote 6
- Indigenous populations consist of First Nations, Métis and Inuit.
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