Risk of Lyme disease to Canadians

Learn about the risks of getting Lyme disease and where in Canada you are most at risk.

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What is the risk to Canadians?

The risk of getting a tick bite starts when the weather warms up in the spring, through until the fall. Ticks can also be active in the winter, if the winter is mild and there is not much snow. However, the greatest risk occurs during the spring and summer months.

Blacklegged ticks are most often found in forests, wooded areas, shrubs, tall grass and leaf piles. Because tick populations are spreading, it is possible to be bitten outside of these areas.

Who is most at risk?

If you work outdoors or participate in outdoor activities, you may be at a greater risk for tick bites. When engaging in the following activities, you should take  precautions against tick bites:

  • golfing
  • hunting
  • camping
  • fishing
  • hiking

Where in Canada are you at risk?

The greatest risk of acquiring Lyme disease occurs where populations of ticks that carry the bacteria (B. burgdorferi) that causes Lyme disease, have become established.

Surveillance in recent years indicates that populations of blacklegged ticks are spreading in eastern and central Canada. Areas in Canada where there is evidence for the occurrence of reproducing populations of known tick vector species (particularly blacklegged ticks and western blacklegged ticks) and the likely transmission of B. burgdorferi are called: Lyme disease risk areas (See the Lyme Disease risk areas map for more details).

The occurrence of these risk areas is determined by tick surveillance and risk assessment methods described in detail in the Lyme disease case definition.

Following are the currently identified risk areas in Canada:

British Columbia

In British Columbia (B.C.), currently identified risk areas for Lyme disease are:

  • Vancouver Island
  • Southern Mainland
  • Coast of British Columbia facing Vancouver Island
  • River valleys across the southern part of the province

The B.C. Ministry of Health has reported a plateau in the number of infected tick populations in the past decade. This contrasts to the spread seen in the rest of Canada. This is due to:

  • the western blacklegged ticks spread into B.C. much earlier than the blacklegged ticks found in central and eastern Canada
  • far fewer western blacklegged ticks being infected with the Lyme disease bacterium than blacklegged ticks found in central and eastern Canada

Manitoba

In Manitoba, currently identified risk areas for Lyme disease are:

  • Agassiz Provincial Forrest
  • Assiniboine River (from Winnipeg to the west of Brandon)
  • Beaudry Provincial Park
  • Belair area
  • Bellsite area
  • Binscarth area
  • Birtle area
  • Buffalo Point area
  • Crystal City area
  • Eriksdale area
  • Grand Valley Provincial Park
  • Grunthal area
  • Langford Trails
  • Macdonald/ Delta Beach area
  • McCreary area
  • Minnedosa area
  • Moose Lake Provincial Park
  • Norris Lake Provincial Park
  • parts of southern Manitoba along the border with the United States from south of Brandon to Lake of the Woods
  • Patricia Beach Provincial Park
  • Pembina escarpment
  • Pembina Valley Provincial Park
  • Pinawa area
  • Rainbow Beach Provincial Park
  • Roseau River area
  • Sandilands Provincial Forrest
  • Solsgirth area
  • Souris area
  • Sprucewoods Provincial Park
  • Squirrel Hills Trails
  • St Ambroise Provincial Park
  • St. Malo Provincial Park
  • Stuartburn area
  • Tolstoi area
  • Treherne area
  • Turtle Mountain Provincial Park
  • Vita/Arbakka area
  • Wasagaming (Riding Mountain National Park) area
  • Whitemud Watershed Wildlife Management Area
  • Whiteshell Provicial Park (Falcon Lake, West Hawk Lake)
  • William's Lake Provincial Park
  • Winnipeg Beach area
  • Winnipeg (areas within and around)

Ontario

In Ontario, currently identified risk areas for Lyme disease are:

  • Along the north shores of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario
  • parts of Thousand Islands National Park
  • Kingston and surrounding area along the St. Lawrence Valley to the border with Quebec and northeast towards Ottawa
  • Northwestern Ontario in the region of Lake of the Woods
  • Pinery Park on the shore of Lake Huron

Quebec

In Quebec, currently identified risk areas for Lyme disease are in the following regions:

  • Montérégie (south of Québec)
  • southwest of Mauricie et Centre-du-Québec
  • north and west of Estrie
  • southwest of Outaouais

New Brunswick

In New Brunswick, currently identified risk areas for Lyme disease are:

  • Areas of Charlotte County
  • Areas Saint John County
  • Areas of Kings County
  • Areas of Albert County
  • Areas of Westmorland County
  • Areas of York County

Nova Scotia

All of Nova Scotia is identified as Lyme disease risk areas.

Other areas

As ticks attach themselves to birds, they can be found in areas across Canada, other than those noted above. The Public Health Agency of Canada, in partnership with provincial and territorial public health organizations is conducting ongoing surveillance to help identify the spread of blacklegged tick populations in Canada.

Because localized tick populations can spread, it is difficult to define the geographic limits of a population. Canadians living or visiting areas next to established tick populations are advised to take precautions against ticks.

Lyme Disease risk areas map

Lyme disease risk areas in Canada where tick populations and Borrelia burgdorferi are known or most likely to occur, as of 2016, based on available evidence.

Lyme Disease risk areas map. Text version below.
Lyme Disease risk areas map - Text description

This figure contains 5 insets which display locations where the risk from tick bites and Lyme disease is known to occur, and where risk of tick bites and Lyme disease is possible.

Hatched areas are locations where ticks and Lyme disease risk are known and are called "risk areas".

Inset 1 - Southern Manitoba and Western Ontario

Risk areas can be found stretching from the Ontario border west to Turtle Mountain Provincial Park, and from the US border extending to the south shores of Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipeg and into southern parts of the Interlake.

Inset 2 - Southern Ontario

Risk areas can be found along the north shores of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and on the south shore of Lake Huron.

Inset 3 - Southeastern Ontario and Southern Quebec

Risk areas are locations around Kingston in the Saint Lawrence valley that extend north east towards Ottawa, locations covering much of Montérégie, and parts of Outaouais, Estrie and Centre du Québec in the south of Québec.

Inset 4 - Maritime Provinces

In New Brunswick, risk areas are identified in the counties of York, Charlotte, Saint John, Kings, Albert and Westmorland.

All of Nova Scotia is identified as risk areas.

Inset 5 - Southern British Columbia

Risk areas include much of Vancouver Island and the coast of British Columbia facing Vancouver Island, as well as river valleys across southern British Columbia.

For more information about lyme disease risk areas in the provinces highlighted on the map, please visit:

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