ARCHIVED - Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008
Appendix I: Québec Incidence Study – 2008 Guidebook
For a copy, please go to http://www.cwrp.ca/cis–2008/study–documents
The Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect – CIS 2008 – is the third national study of reported child abuse and neglect investigations in Canada. Results from the CIS–2003, the CIS–1998, and its precursor, the Ontario Incidence Study 1993, have been widely disseminated in conferences, reports, books, and journal articles (see the Centre of Excellence for Child Welfare website, at http://www.cecw–cepb.ca/cis–publications , and the Public Health Agency of Canada website, at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cm–vee/public–eng.php), and have influenced the development of child protection services and policies across Canada.
CIS–2008 is funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada. The project is managed by a team of researchers at McGill University’s Centre for Research on Children and Families, the University of Toronto’s Factor– Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, and the University of Calgary Faculty of Social Work.
One hundred and eighteen child welfare service (CWS) areas were randomly selected from among all of the child protection offices and agencies across Canada that provide these services. At lease one child welfare service area was selected in each province and territory.
Québec Component of the Canadian Incidence Study
Additional funding for the Québec component was provided by the Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec in order to achieve oversampling. This was also the case for the Ontario, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and First Nations component. The purpose of this oversampling is to obtain fair and valid provincial estimates that will facilitate the production of a descriptive report for Québec, in addition to contributing to the national CIS–2008 estimates. The Québec sample consists of 50% of retained “signalements” [reports] received during the period of October 1 to December 31, 2008.
The primary objective of CIS–2008 and the Étude d’incidence québécoise 2008 – ÉIQ–2008 [Québec Incidence Study – 2008] is to provide reliable estimates of the scope and characteristics of reported child abuse and neglect in Canada and Québec. More specifically, ÉIQ–2008 has the following objectives:
To produce estimates of the incidence of reported child abuse, neglect, or serious behavioural problems in Québec in 2008.
To contribute to national estimates of the incidence of reported child abuse and neglect in Canada in 2008.
To examine changes in the reporting of child abuse, neglect, and serious behavioural problems between 1998, 2003, and 2008 in Québec.
To examine the differences and similarities between the various Canadian provinces that were oversampled.
To increase knowledge concerning the nature and severity of reported child maltreatment.
To collect the data necessary for the development of programs and policies for at–risk children and teens, and to help channel the resources to those youths who face the highest risk of maltreatment.
To explore the relationship between certain determinants of health (e.g., physical and social environment, social support, income, social status, healthy childhood development, and personal adaptation methods) and the rate and characteristics of child maltreatment.
Procedure For Collecting ÉIQ Data
The procedure that was developed for collecting data for Québec was based on two objectives:
- Using the information that already existed in the PIJ (Projet Intégration Jeunesse) system.
- Prioritizing the procedure for inputting information that is used at child welfare agencies, namely computerized input.
The Canadian CIS form is a three–page paper document. The ÉIQ electronic form was adapted from the Canadian form in the following manner. First, it was translated from English to French, and adapted to reflect the specific reality of Québec in terms of the vocabulary used, the intervention process, and the subtleties of the Youth Protection Act. The ÉIQ electronic form examines a range of family, child, and case status variables. It includes demographic data concerning the household, a profile of the caregivers, the source of the referral, determinants of health, outcomes of the investigation on a child–specific basis (including up to three forms of maltreatment), the nature of the harm, the duration of the maltreatment, the identity of the alleged perpetrator, placement in care, child welfare and criminal court involvement. It consists of 8 pages of questions and 1 page of comments. These pages, which are tabbed, include the following details:
1: Information concerning the referral.
2: Significant individuals and cohabitants.
3–4: Cohabitating caregivers.
5: Child’s living environment and references.
6: Level of functioning of the evaluated child.
7–8: Events reported and evaluated.
9: Comments/Other information pertaining to the referral and the evaluation, the living environment, and the evaluated child.
Some of the question fields in the form are pre–populated, based on the information available through PIJ. It should take approximately 15 minutes to complete the other questions.
The following measures have been implemented in order to facilitate the collection of data:
- Training sessions (approximately three hours long) are provided for everyone who is involved in data collection.
- A local respondent and research coordinator can be contacted by email or by telephone (record the contact information for these people on the inside of the front cover of the ÉIQ–2008 Guidebook) in order to answer questions and to resolve problems related to the form.
The following measures have been implemented in order to ensure that confidentiality is maintained throughout the data collection and analysis phase:
The evaluated child and the youth protection caseworker are identified by a numerical code in the form in order to preserve their anonymity. In addition, the last names and first names (along with any other identifying information) recorded for questions 4, 10, 23, 44, 45, and 46 will be deleted before the data are collected by the research team.
Once the identifying information has been removed, the ÉIQ Maltreatment Evaluation Forms (Excel format) will be collected by the Québec research team, which will then forward them to the Canadian team for data processing. The forms will then be stored in a double–locked location (an RCMP–approved locked filing cabinet inside a locked office). All access to the forms for other verification purposes will be restricted to the team of researchers who are duly authorized by the Public Health Agency of Canada.
The analyses will be published at the national level, and at the provincial level in Alberta, Ontario, Québec, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan. Upon request from a centre, some of the data may be transmitted in order for an internal summary report to be written. However, information related to the clientele of a specific establishment will not be shared with others. Data that relates specifically to those who are involved in collecting the data (caseworkers and teams) cannot be disclosed to anyone under any circumstances.
Procedure For Completing The ÉIQ Form
The ÉIQ Maltreatment Evaluation Form must be completed by the assessing caseworker when he or she is notified by the PIJ system that the case has been sampled for the ÉIQ. Sampling is random, with 50% of the “signalements” received between October 1 and December 31, 2008 that are the subject of an evaluation being selected.
For cases which are closed at the end of evaluation (e.g., SDNC) and that are sampled for the ÉIQ, the caseworker can access the form by clicking on the “OTHER ACTIONS” button in the evaluation service window once he or she enters the decision resulting from the evaluation. The ÉIQ form must be opened and saved for the first time in order to close the evaluation service.
For cases that are sent to orientation and are sampled for the ÉIQ, the caseworker can access the form by clicking on the “OTHER ACTIONS” button in the orientation service window once the orientation begins. The ÉIQ form must be opened and saved for the first time in order to close the orientation service, and once the orientation is opened if it began more than one month earlier.
The caseworker can complete the entire form as soon as it is opened, or exit, and return to complete it at a later time. To re–open an ÉIQ form that has already been created, the caseworker must access it through the evaluation service window for the child in question. If there are data missing in the ÉIQ form, it will appear as “not finalized” to the local respondent.
It is essential to check off all of the boxes in the ÉIQ Form. If you are not certain, check the “UNKNOWN” or “NOT APPLICABLE” box. Verify that all of the questions have been answered. If the categories do not adequately describe a case, enter a comment on Page 9. If you have any questions during the study, please do not hesitate to contact your respondent or the research coordinator.
Frequently Asked Questions
1: For what cases should I complete an ÉIQ maltreatment evaluation form?
You must complete the ÉIQ Form for all cases for which you receive a notice to this effect from the PIJ system. In the event that the case is closed after evaluation, the notice will be sent when the decision to close is entered in PIJ. If the case is sent to orientation, the notice will appear when the orientation is complete or once the orientation is opened if it began more than one month earlier. This notice will be sent according to the sampling procedure applied by the PIJ system that randomly selects 50% of the evaluated “signalements” that are received between October 1 and December 31, 2008.
2: Should I complete an ÉIQ Form for cases that are already active when the study begins?
Yes, the study targets all cases that were signalled during the data collection period and that have been evaluated, including cases that were already active in the system.
3: When should I complete the ÉIQ Form?
In all cases, it is strongly recommended that the form be fully completed as early as possible in order to remember all of the characteristics of the situation that was evaluated.
For cases closed after evaluation la sécurité ou le développement est non compromis – SDNC [security and development is not involved] that have been sampled, the caseworker can access the ÉIQ form as soon as he or she enters the decision to close in PIJ. If the ÉIQ form option on the “OTHER ACTIONS” menu is shaded, this indicates that the case has not been sampled for the study. When a case closed after evaluation is sampled, the caseworker must open and save the ÉIQ form at least once in order to close the evaluation service.
For cases that are sent to orientation that have been sampled, the caseworker can access the ÉIQ form as soon as the orientation service is opened. If the ÉIQ form option on the “OTHER ACTIONS” menu is shaded, this indicates that the case has not been sampled for the study. When a case that has been sent to orientation is sampled, the caseworker must open and save the ÉIQ form at least once in order to close the orientation service. The caseworker must open and save the ÉIQ form at least once if the sampled case has been active for more than one month in orientation.
4: Who should complete the ÉIQ Form when more than one individual is involved in the investigation?
The caseworker who is responsible for the evaluation or orientation must complete the form. If the case is sampled, this individual will be advised to do this.
5: What should I do if more than one child is investigated?
The ÉIQ form is specific to the individual child being investigated. A separate ÉIQ form must be completed for each child whose evaluation is sampled. Therefore, a form must be completed for each child for whom you receive a sampling notice, even if you have already completed one for other children in the same family.
6: Will I receive training for the ÉIQ Form?
All caseworkers in each child welfare agency in Québec who carry out evaluations and orientations will receive training before the start of the data collection period. If a case worker is unable to attend the training session or is hired after the data collection phase begins, he or she should contact the appropriate respondent or research coordinator in order to receive a brief training and to discuss any questions related to the form.
7: What should I do with the completed forms?
Once the caseworker exits the ÉIQ form, the form will be automatically stored in the child welfare agency’s database. If data are missing when the form is saved, it will be marked as “not finalized” in the database. Once a form is fully completed, it is marked as “finalized” in the database. All finalized forms will be examined by the respondent, who will contact you in the case of questionable or contradictory information. The respondent may also issue a reminder to case workers whose forms have been inactive and marked as “not finalized” for more than one week.
8: Is the information in the ÉIQ Form confidential?
The information that you provide is confidential. No identifying information will leave your child welfare agency, because all identifying information is removed from the forms before they are collected by the researchers. Please refer to the section entitled Confidentiality.
Description of Questions in the ÉIQ Form
Page 1 – Signalement
Question 1: Date “signalement” received at RTS or RTT (pre–populated field)
This field indicates the date when the “signalement” was received by the RTS (reception et traitement des signalements) department and the RTT (reception et traitement des transferts) department in the following format: YYYY–MM–DD.
Question 2: Date “signalement” retained (pre–populated field)
This field indicates the date when the “signalement” was retained by the RTS or RTT department in the following format: YYYY–MM–DD.
Question 3: Source of “signalement” (pre–populated field)
These two fields indicate the source of the “signalement” by category and sub–category of the declarants identified in PIJ.
Question 4: Please describe the allegations reported in the “Signalement” and the results of the evaluation/orientation (including alleged maltreatment/ behavioural problem or risk of maltreatment/behavioural problem, if applicable)
Provide a short description of the signalled incident, including the maltreatment that led to an evaluation and the main results, as appropriate, (e.g., type of maltreatment, substantiation, injuries). You can cut and paste the information from your evaluation report. The conclusion section of your report may be sufficient. However, be careful not to include first names or other identifying information in the text.
- To cut and paste from an evaluation or orientation report, select the text from the report and press both the Ctrl key + the C key on your keyboard at the same time. Then, position your cursor over the response field for Question 4, and press the Ctrl key + the V key.
- If you type the description into the field manually and you would like to begin a new paragraph, place your cursor at the location where you would like the paragraph to begin, and press the Ctrl key + the Enter key on your keyboard at the same time.
Question 5: Most recent decision concerning this file (pre–populated field)
This field indicates the most recent decision pertaining to the case that was made during the evaluation or orientation. This field will read fait fonde SDNC; fait non–fonde SDNC or SDC.
Question 6: File number (pre–populated field)
This field indicates the agency number of the child identified in the form.
Question 7: Code identifying the evaluating worker (pre–populated field)
This field contains the code that identifies the caseworker who is responsible for the evaluation, and who must complete the form.
Question 8: Postal code of evaluated child (first 3 characters) (pre–populated field)
This field contains the first three digits of the postal code for the home where the evaluated child lives.
Page 2 – Relations
Base your responses to Questions 9 to 21 on the situation that prevailed at the time of the “signalement”.
Question 9: Adults who are significant to the evaluated child (fields A and B are pre–populated for individuals documented as “personne lien” [contact person] in PIJ)
The purpose of this Question is to obtain information concerning the significant adults (maximum of 5) with respect to the child. Adults who are documented as “personne lien” to the child in PIJ will be entered automatically, but there may be other adults who are significant to the child, and who must be entered manually. When answering this Question, begin by verifying the information extracted from the PIJ system, and completing/ correcting it if necessary. Next, please enter the other significant adults who are not mentioned in the PIJ system.
Age: Indicate the age of each significant adult.
Relationship with the evaluated child: Indicate the relationship that each significant adult has with the evaluated child (e.g., the father, mother, cousin, grandmother, uncle).
Cohabitating with the evaluated child: For each significant adult, indicate whether he or she lives with the evaluated child. A significant adult is considered to be a cohabitant if he or she lives at the same address as the child more than 50% of the time. If the child lives in a shared custody situation (50/50), the cohabiting parent is the one who lives at the same address as the child (as indicated in the child’s file in PIJ).
- Amongst the cohabitating adults, choose up to two caregivers: Click on the scrolling menu to select the primary caregiver and the secondary caregiver. Only cohabitating adults can be identified as caregivers. The caregiver is the person who is generally responsible for the care of the child. If you identify a cohabiting adult as a caregiver but later wish to change this status, you must reinitialize the contents of the field by temporarily marking the adult as a non–cohabitant and then subsequently marking him or her as a cohabitant again.
- If a number of significant adults play the role of primary caregiver, select the significant adult with whom the caseworker has the most contact.
- If the child is not living in his or her natural environment at the time of the “signalement” (living away from his or her natural environment more than 50% of the time), the cohabiting adults and caregivers correspond to the foster parents or the educator–guardian who cares for the child on a daily basis.
Question 10: Children (19 years or less) associated with the evaluated child (fields B, C, D, F, and G are pre–populated)
This refers to all children (biological, step, adopted, and foster children) who are associated with the child (maximum of 5). In the context of this study, children aged 19 and under are considered in order to ensure that the information is standardized for all provinces. The age and gender of the children who are documented as “personne lien” to the evaluated child in PIJ are input automatically. When answering this Question, please begin by verifying and completing the information extracted from the PIJ system (add the first initial of the first names and indicate whether each child is a cohabitant) and making all necessary corrections. If applicable, please enter any other children who are associated with the evaluated child but who have not been marked as such in PIJ, whether they are cohabitants or not.
Child’s first name: In order to preserve the anonymity of families, we request that you indicate only the initials of the children’s first names, instead of their full names. The “first name” field for the evaluated child cannot be left empty.
Age of child: Indicate the age of each associated child. If necessary, correct the pre–populated value, and complete it as required. Indicate 00 for children who are less than one year old.
Sex of child: This is a pre–populated field that you must verify, correct, or complete, as appropriate.
Relationship with evaluated child: Indicate the relationship of each child identified to the evaluated child (e.g., brother, sister, half–brother).
Cohabitating with the evaluated child: For each associated child, indicate whether or not he or she lives with the evaluated child.
If signalled, RTS decision: In a case where the associated child has been the subject of a “signalement” under the same circumstances as the evaluated child, this field indicates the decision taken by the RTS department. This field is prepopulated for children who are documented as “personne lien” in the PIJ system.
Primary article: This field indicates the main clause that the decision taken by the RTS department, as indicated in Column F, is based upon. These fields are pre–populated for children who are documented as “personne lien” in the PIJ system.
Page 3 – Cohabitating Caregivers
In order to facilitate your input process, the primary caregiver (A) and the secondary caregiver (B) identified in Question 9 are automatically indicated at the top of Page 3. If you have entered a single caregiver in response to Question 9, verify that Column B is completely empty. On the other hand, if you identified two caregivers in Question 9, verify that both Column A and B are completed. If you are dealing with an exceptional case that does not correspond to the categories that are available to you, please write a note in Question 45 on the Comments page.
Question 11: Primary income
Indicate the primary source of income for each cohabitating caregiver. Select the option that best describes the situation.
Full time: The individual is employed in a full–time position (more than 30 hours/week).
Part time: The individual is employed in a part–time position (less than 30 hours/week).
Multiple jobs: The individual has more than one temporary or parttime positions.
Seasonal: The individual is employed in a full–time or part–time position during certain periods of the year.
Employment insurance: The individual is temporarily unemployed, and is receiving employment insurance benefits.
Social assistance: The individual is currently receiving social assistance benefits.
Other benefits: The individual’s main source of income consists of other types of benefits (e.g., family benefits, long–term disability benefits, child support payments, pension income).
None: If the individual’s main source of income is generated through drug trafficking, prostitution, or other illegal activities, please indicate this in the Comments section.
Unknown: Check this box if you do not know the source of income of the caregiver.
Question 12: Ethno–racial group
Examining the ethno–racial background can provide valuable information concerning differential access to child welfare services. This section uses the list of ethno–racial categories that was used by Statistics Canada in the 1996 Census.
Check the ethno–racial category that you believe best describes the origin of each caregiver. Check “OTHER” if none of the options corresponds to the individual’s origin, and provide details in the field marked “IF OTHER, PLEASE SPECIFY”.
Question 12a to 12d: Aboriginal
If the ethno–racial group indicated in response to Question 12 is not “ABORIGINAL”, do not fill in fields 12a to 12d. These fields will automatically be marked as not applicable. If this is not the case, please answer the four Questions:
Aboriginal status: If the caregiver is Aboriginal, indicate his or her Aboriginal status. Select from among the following choices: First Nations status, First Nations non–status, Metis, Inuit, or other.
Lives on a reserve: If the caregiver is Aboriginal, indicate whether he or she lives on a reserve or off reserve.
Caregiver attended residential school: If the caregiver is Aboriginal, indicate whether he or she attended a residential school during childhood or adolescence.
Caregiver’s parent attended residential school: If the caregiver is Aboriginal, indicate whether one of his or her parents attended residential school during childhood or adolescence.
Question 13: Primary language (pre–populated field)
Refers to the caregiver’s primary language. If the individual is bilingual, refers to the primary language spoken in the household.
Question 14: Attitude towards worker during the evaluation/ orientation
This question refers to your perception of your relationship with this individual during your evaluation. Indicate how you would characterize the attitude of each caregiver during the evaluation conducted by child welfare services. Specify whether this individual has been generally cooperative or uncooperative. If you did not communicate with this individual, select “PERSON NOT CONTACTED”.
Page 4 – Cohabitating Caregivers
Question 15: Caregiver risk factors
These questions relate to each of the caregivers. Where applicable, use the last six months as a reference point. For each risk factor listed, you must indicate “CONFIRMED”, “SUSPECTED”, “NO”, or “UNKNOWN” in connection with the risk factor in question. These options are defined as follows:
Confirmed: The problem has been diagnosed by a professional, observed by you or another worker, or disclosed by the caregiver.
Suspected: You have not personally observed the risk factor, but you have seen sufficient signs to raise doubts in your mind. Your suspicions are sufficient for you to mention the problem in a written evaluation or a transfer summary to a colleague.
No: To the best of your knowledge, this risk factor is not present in the caregiver’s life.
Unknown: You are unsure or have not attempted to determine the presence of this risk factor.
Alcohol abuse: Abusive alcohol consumption.
Drug/solvent abuse: Abuse of prescription drugs, illegal drugs, or solvents.
Cognitive impairment: Reduced cognitive ability.
Mental health issues: Caregiver has a mental health problem.
Physical health issues: Chronic illness, frequent hospitalization, or physical disabilities.
Few social supports: Social isolation or social network is not capable of providing the support that the caregiver needs.
Victim of domestic violence: Violent acts (assault, rape, verbal abuse, threats, etc.) suffered.
Perpetrator of domestic violence: Violent acts (assault, rape, verbal abuse, threats, etc.) committed.
History of foster care/group home/rehabilitation centre: Was placed during childhood or adolescence.
Other: Any other problem that may affect the individual’s ability to function as a caregiver. If you check “CONFIRMED” or “SUSPECTED”, you must provide an explanation. If you check “NO” or “UNKNOWN”, leave this field empty.
Question 16: Custody dispute concerning the evaluated child
Indicate whether custody of or access to the child is the subject of a dispute between the parents at the time of the “signalement”.
Page 5 – Household/referral(s)
Question 17: Housing
Indicate the housing category that best describes the living situation of the household.
Own home: A house, condominium, or townhouse that is owned by the caregiver(s).
Rental: A rented house, townhouse, or apartment.
Public housing: A unit in a public rental–housing complex (rent subsidized, government–owned housing, low–cost housing), or a house, townhouse, or apartment located on a military base. This category does not include housing located in a First Nations community.
Band housing: Aboriginal housing that is built, managed, and owned by the band. This category includes housing located in a First Nations community.
Shelter/hotel: Homeless or family shelter, SRO hotel (single room occupancy), or motel accommodations.
Unknown: Type of housing unknown.
Other: All other forms of housing, including no fixed address (NFA). Check this box, and specify the type of housing in the corresponding in the field marked “IF OTHER, PLEASE SPECIFY”
Question 18: Home overcrowded
Indicate whether the number of people who occupy the household appears to be excessive considering the number of rooms or available space. An overcrowded home allows for little privacy, and is conducive to promiscuity.
Question 19: Approximate number of moves in the past 12 months
Indicate the number of household moves within the past twelve months.
Question 20: Housing safety
For each of the elements mentioned, indicate whether you believe that the presence of this element constitutes a risk to the physical safety or health of the child. Check “UNKNOWN” only if you have not visited the home in question.
Accessible weapons: Firearms or other weapons (knives or others) that the child may be able to access.
Accessible drugs/drug paraphernalia: Toxic products (legal or illegal drugs) or drug paraphernalia that the child may be able to access.
Production/trafficking of drugs in the home: There is evidence that this home has been used as a drug lab, narcotics lab, grow operation, or crack house. A “YES” answer indicates that there is evidence that drugs are being grown (e.g., marijuana), processed (e.g., methamphetamine), or sold in the home. Evidence that drugs are being sold might include observations of large quantities of legal or illegal drugs or drug paraphernalia, such as needles or crack pipes, in the home, or exchanges of drugs for money. The following signs may constitute evidence that drugs are being processed or trafficked: evidence that the house is “hypersealed”, with windows and doors darkened or covered in black plastic and with little or no air or sunlight, and the odour of chemical products or solvents.
Chemicals/solvents used in drug production: The presence of chemical products or solvents that may represent a risk and that the child may be able to access.
Other home injury hazards: Indicate whether there are other elements in the home that may represent an injury hazard for the child, such as broken glass, nails, exposed electrical wires, etc.
Other home health hazards: Indicate whether there are other elements in the home that could represent a health risk for the child, such as inadequate heating, mildew, etc.
Question 21: Household regularly runs out of money for basic necessities
To the best of your knowledge, indicate whether the household regularly runs out of money for the child’s basic necessities (e.g., food, clothing).
Question 22: Referral(s) for the evaluated child or caregivers to services or programs which are internal or external to the youth centre (by the Director of Youth Protection (DYP) or by an authorized individual)
Indicate whether the child or one of the caregivers has been referred to any programs or services. We would like to be informed of all referrals to internal or external services during the course of the evaluation and orientation. This may be a specialized internal service or program that is offered by the child welfare agency, or an external service or program that is offered by another agency. Indicate all referrals to services or programs, regardless of whether the child or caregiver actually took part. Check all of the following that apply.
No referral: There was no referral to an internal or external service or program.
Parent support group: Any group program that is designed to provide assistance or education to caregivers (e.g., Parents Anonymous, parenting instruction course, parent support association, support for young parents).
In–home family/parent counselling: Home–based support services designed to assist families, to reduce the risk of out–of–home placement, or to reunify children in care with their family (e.g., intensive family services).
Other family/parent support: Includes other family or couples therapy programs (e.g., family services agency).
Drug/alcohol counselling: Substance abuse treatment program (no matter what the substance) for the child(ren) or the caregiver(s).
Welfare/social assistance: Referral to social assistance services to address household financial concerns.
Food bank: Referral to a food bank or low–cost food services (soup kitchen).
Shelter services: Shelter/housing services for women and children who are the victims of domestic violence, or for the homeless.
Domestic violence services: Domestic violence services for victims, perpetrators, or child witnesses.
Psychiatric/psychological services: Evaluation, therapy, or specialized assistance program of a psychological or psychiatric nature for children or caregivers (trauma, high–risk behaviour, intervention).
Special education placement: Any special education program (schools and classes) that satisfies a child’s educational, emotional, or behavioural needs.
Recreational services: Community recreation program (e.g., sports organizations, community recreation, Boys and Girls Clubs).
Victim support program: Victim support program (e.g., sexual abuse disclosure group).
Medical/dental services: Any specialized service to address the child’s basic medical or dental health needs.
Child/day care: Any childcare or daycare service, including staff–run, in–home, and school daycare services.
Cultural services: Services to help children or families strengthen their cultural heritage or become integrated in their communities.
- Other: Check and identify any other child– or family–focused referral. If the case is being oriented toward “Intervention Terminale”, [last intervention] it should be indicated here.
Page 6 – Evaluated Child
Question 23: First name (pre–populated field)
Refers to the first name of the evaluated child.
Question 24: Sex (pre–populated field)
Refers to the sex of the evaluated child.
Question 25: Age (pre–populated field)
Refers to the age of the evaluated child.
Question 26a: Aboriginal child (pre–populated field)
Refers to the Aboriginal or non– Aboriginal status of the evaluated child.
Question 26b: Aboriginal status
If the response to Question 26a indicates that the child is Aboriginal, indicate his or her status. Select from among the following choices: First Nations status, First Nations nonstatus, Métis, Inuit, or not applicable.
Question 27: Child functioning
This section focuses on the child’s level of functioning. Where applicable, use the last six months as a reference point. For each risk factor listed, you must indicate “CONFIRMED”, “SUSPECTED”, “NO”, or “UNKNOWN” in connection with the problem in question. These options are defined as follows:
Confirmed: The problem has been diagnosed by a professional, observed by you or another worker, or disclosed by the child.
Suspected: You have not personally observed the risk factor, but you have seen sufficient signs to raise doubts in your mind. Your suspicions are sufficient for you to mention the problem in a written evaluation or a transfer summary to a colleague.
No: To the best of your knowledge, this problem is not present in the child’s life.
Unknown: You are unsure or have not attempted to determine if there was such a child functioning issue.
- Depression/anxiety/withdrawal: Feelings of depression or anxiety that persist for most of every day for two weeks or longer, and that interfere with the child’s ability to manage at home and at school.
- Suicidal thoughts: The child has expressed suicidal thoughts.
- Self–harming behaviour: Behaviour that can endanger the child’s life, including suicide attempts, physical mutilation, and cutting.
- ADD/ADHD: Attention deficit disorder or attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.
- Other psychiatric issues: The child has been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder other than attention deficit and hyperactive disorder or depression. Examples include oppositional–defiant conditions, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Do not check “CONFIRMED” unless the psychiatric disorder has been diagnosed by a psychiatrist (e.g., behavioural problems, anxiety problems).
- Attachment issues: The child exhibits a problematic physical or emotional attachment to his or her mother or other caregiver. The child finds it difficult to express his or her needs, or appears uncomfortable or insecure in the presence of the caregiver.
- Aggression: The child exhibits destructive or aggressive behaviour toward people or property in his or her environment.
- Running (multiple incidents): The child has run away from home or another residence on multiple occasions for at least one overnight period without the permission of responsible adults.
- Inappropriate sexual behaviour: The child displays sexual behaviour that is not appropriate for his or her age.
- Youth criminal justice act involvement: Charges, incarceration or alternative measures with the Youth Justice system.
- Intellectual disability: The child does not achieve the developmental milestones established for children of his or her age due to a biological disorder or physical problem (e.g., autism or Down Syndrome).
- Failure to meet developmental milestones: The child is delayed in his or her intellectual development, which is typically diagnosed when a child does not reach his or her developmental milestones at expected times in areas such as speech or language, gross/fine motor skills, and social or personal skills. Unlike an intellectual disability, this delay is caused by environmental factors (e.g., under–stimulation), and not by a biological or physical condition.
- Academic difficulties: Learning disabilities that are usually identified in school. Children with learning disabilities have normal or abovenormal intelligence, but deficits in one or more areas of mental functioning (e.g., language usage, numbers, elocution, reading, work comprehension).
- FAE/FAS: The child has been diagnosed with a birth defect relating to his or her biological mother’s abuse of alcohol.
- Positive toxicology at birth: The child tested positive for toxicology at birth, indicating the presence of drugs or alcohol in his or her blood.
- Physical disability: Physical disability is the existence of a long–lasting condition that substantially limits one or more basic physical activities such as walking, climbing stairs, reaching, lifting or carrying. This includes sensory disability conditions such as blindness, deafness, or a severe vision or hearing impairment that noticeably affects activities of daily living.
- Alcohol abuse: Consumption of alcohol that causes problems (considering age, frequency, and severity) in terms of the child’s functioning.
- Drug/solvent abuse: Consumption of prescription drugs, illegal drugs, and solvents.
- Other: Any other conditions that affects the child’s functioning. If you check “CONFIRMED” or “SUSPECTED”, you must provide an explanation. If you check “NO” or “UNKNOWN”, leave this field empty.
Question 28: Type of evaluation
Indicate whether the evaluation relates to one or more INCIDENTS of maltreatment/behavioural problem, or whether it relates only to a presumption of serious RISK of maltreatment/ behavioural problem. For example, if the child was signalled because he or she is living with someone who has been accused of sexual assault, or because his or her brother has been assaulted, or because his or her mother is a drug addict, but no incident of maltreatment has been alleged, it is considered to be a risk evaluation only.
Question 29: If risk evaluation only, is there a significant risk of future maltreatment/behavioural problem?
If the evaluation relates to one or more INCIDENTS, “NOT APPLICABLE” will automatically appear. If the evaluation relates exclusively to a RISK of maltreatment/behavioural problem, indicate whether there is a serious risk of future maltreatment/behavioural problem, and go directly to Question 39 (Page 8).
Page 7 – Results Of Evaluation/Orientation
Question 30: Insert form of maltreatment/behavioural problem in boxes
Select up to three codes of maltreatment or behavioural problems from the list that appears on the right–hand side of the page, and record them in the boxes in response to Question 30 (1st, 2nd, 3rd). Select the codes according to the actions and not to intentions behind the actions. In the first box, record the code that corresponds to the problem that best characterizes the situation that the evaluation relates to. If the evaluation relates to several problems, enter the corresponding codes in decreasing order according to the severity of the risk to the child’s safety and development. Rely on your professional judgment to determine the nature and order of importance of the maltreatment/behavioural problem codes that best characterize the child’s situation. You need not necessarily refer to the legal categories (clauses). The provincial and territorial laws respecting child welfare differ greatly, and therefore, we will use a classification based on clinical definitions and not legal definitions. The classification that is used groups maltreatment into six categories: physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, exposure to domestic violence, and behavioural problems. These categories are comparable to those used in the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect during previous CIS cycles.
If the maltreatment/behavioural problem falls into a single category, it is possible to record up to three codes from this category in the boxes in response to Question 30. If there are several types of maltreatment/ behavioural problem, and the three fields are not adequate for indicating all of the problems, enter the code for the act that is most harmful to the child within each category. For example, if the sexual abuse involves touching and penetration, select penetration.
The main forms of maltreatment/ behavioural problem must be indicated in the boxes provided, regardless of whether they are substantiated or only suspected, and regardless of the outcome of the evaluation.
This category includes all acts of physical aggression, including abuse of power and some types of punishment. If several types of physical violence are involved, select the most harmful one.
- Shake, push, grab, or throw: Includes pushing or dragging a child, as well as shaking an infant.
- Hit with hand: Includes slapping and spanking, but not punching.
- Punch, kick, or bite: Also includes hitting with any other part of the body (e.g., with the shoulder or head).
- Hit with object: Includes hitting with a stick, belt, or other object, and throwing an object at a child, but does not include stabbing with a knife.
- Choking, poisoning, stabbing: Form of physical abuse, including choking, strangling, stabbing, burning, poisoning, and the abusive use of restraints.
- Other physical abuse: All other forms of physical abuse.
The child has been sexually molested or sexually exploited. This includes sexual abuse within the family and by an individual outside the family, as well as sexual abuse by older children and youth perpetrators. If several types of sexual abuse are present, choose the one that you judge to be the most intrusive.
- Penetration: Penile, digital, or object penetration of the vagina or anus.
- Attempted penetration: Attempted penile, digital, or object penetration of the vagina or anus.
- Oral sex: Oral contact with genitals, either by the perpetrator or by the child.
- Fondling: Touching or fondling the genitals for sexual purposes.
- Sex talk or images: Verbal or written proposition, encouragement, or suggestion of a sexual nature (including face to face, by phone, written or Internet contact, and exposing the child to pornographic material).
- Voyeurism: Includes activities where the alleged voyeur (man or woman) observes the child for the perpetrator’s personal sexual gratification. Use the “EXPLOITATION” code if the voyeurism includes pornographic activities.
- Exhibitionism: Includes activities where the perpetrator is alleged to have exhibited himself or herself to the child for his or her own sexual gratification.
- Exploitation: Includes situations where an adult sexually exploits a child for the purposes of financial gain or other profit, including pornography and prostitution.
- Other sexual abuse: All other forms of sexual abuse.
It is important to note that the term “NEGLECT” is not used in a uniform manner in all provincial and territorial laws, but that comparable concepts are used, including “FAILURE TO PROVIDE FOR BASIC NEEDS, TO SUPERVISE, AND TO ADEQUATELY PROTECT” the child; “DOES NOT PROVIDE TREATMENT FOR”, “REFUSES OR IS NOT CAPABLE OF CONSENTING TO THE TREATMENT, OR IS NOT AVAILABLE TO DO SO.”
Failure to supervise: physical harm. The child has suffered physical harm or is at risk of suffering physical harm because of the caregiver’s failure to supervise or protect the child adequately. Failure to supervise includes situations where a child is harmed or endangered as a result of a caregiver’s actions (e.g., leaving a child unsupervised for several hours, impaired driving with a child, or engaging in dangerous criminal activities with a child).
Failure to supervise: sexual abuse. The child has been or is at risk of being sexually assaulted or exploited because the caregiver did not adequately protect the child.
Permitting criminal behaviour: The child has committed a criminal offence (e.g., theft, vandalism, or assault) because of the caregiver’s failure or inability to supervise the child adequately.
Physical neglect: The child has suffered or is at risk of suffering physical harm because of the caregiver’s failure to care and provide for the child’s needs adequately. This includes inadequate nutrition/clothing and unhygienic, dangerous living conditions. There must be evidence or suspicion that the child’s caregiver is responsible for the situation.
Medical neglect (includes dental): The child requires medical treatment in order to cure, prevent, or alleviate physical harm or suffering, and the caregiver does not take the necessary steps or refuses to consent to this treatment. This includes dental services when funding is available.
Failure to provide psychological/ psychiatric treatment: The child is at serious risk of being in emotional distress that translates into a profound sense of anxiety, a severe depressive state, withdrawal, or self–harming or aggressive behaviour, or a mental state that could seriously impair his or her development. The caregiver does not provide or refuses to give his or her consent to the necessary treatment in order to remedy or alleviate the harm. This category includes failing to provide treatment for school–related problems, such as learning and behavioural problems, and treatment for infant development problems, such as non–organic failure to thrive. A caregiver who is awaiting services should not be included in this category.
Abandonment: The child’s father or mother has died or is unable to exercise custodial rights, and has not made adequate provisions for care and custody of the child, or the child is in a placement and the parent refuses to or is unable to take custody.
Educational neglect: The caregiver knowingly permits chronic truancy (more than five days per month), fails to enrol the child, or repeatedly keeps the child at home. If the child is experiencing mental, emotional, or developmental problems associated with school and treatment is offered, but the caregivers do not cooperate with the treatment, classify the case under failure to provide treatment as well.
- Terrorizing or threat of violence: A climate of fear, placing the child in unpredictable or chaotic situations, such as those involving bullying and fear, threats of violence against the child or the child’s loved ones or cherished objects.
- Verbal abuse or belittling: Includes forms of hostility or rejection, including belittling, ridiculing, etc.
- Isolation/Confinement: The child suffers from social isolation, and is purposely cut off from other children. Includes locking the child in a room or refusing to allow the child to participate in family activities.
- Inadequate nurturing or affection: The child suffers from a lack of parental presence, interaction, or affection.
- Exploiting or corrupting behaviour: The caregiver permits or encourages the child to engage in harmful, criminal, deviant, or inappropriate behaviour.
Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence
- Direct witness to physical violence: The child is present during physical or verbal violence between intimate partners. The child can see and/or hear the violence.
- Indirect exposure to physical violence: The child is not present during the violence between intimate partners, but suffers the consequences, hears about it, or experiences changes in his or her life that are attributed to this violence (e.g., frequent moves).
- Exposure to emotional violence: The child is exposed to or witnesses the consequences of emotional violence between intimate partners.
- Exposure to non–partner physical violence: The child is exposed to or witnesses the consequences of physical violence between a caregiver and another individual who is not the spouse/partner of the caregiver (e.g., between the caregiver and a neighbour, grandparent, uncle, or aunt).
- Self–harming behaviour: Suicidal tendencies, self–mutilation, and other dangerous behaviour.
- Violence toward others: Verbal or physical violence against others.
- Negative associations: Relationships between the child and other individuals either under or over the age of majority whose behaviour, lifestyle, or reputation clearly lead to the belief that their influence on the child is negative and accentuates the child’s behavioural problem.
- Problematic consumption of psychotropic drugs: The child abuses alcohol, drugs, or prescription drugs, taking into consideration his or her age and development.
- Running (single incident): Running away from the family or alternative environment on a single occasion for an overnight period or longer.
- Running (multiple incidents): Running away from the family or alternative environment on multiple occasions, each time spending at least one overnight period away.
- Relationship problems with parents/ authority: The child refuses the support and assistance of parents or other adults who are in a position of authority, other than those at school.
- Behavioural problems in school: Behavioural problems that are exhibited at school.
- Absence from school: The child deliberately refuses to attend school, is frequently absent, or has been the subject of disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to expulsion from school. This category excludes children whose parents deliberately keep them home from school.
- Vandalism: Behaviour of a criminal nature (theft, vandalism, pyromania) that involves the child vandalizing property.
- Other dangerous behaviours: All other forms of behaviour that pose a danger to the child or to others.
- Inappropriate sexual behaviour: The child has initiated inappropriate and problematic sexual behaviour with friends or family members.
Question 31.1: Alleged perpetrator(s)
This Question relates to the individual(s) among the significant adults who is(are) alleged, suspected, or recognized as the perpetrator(s) of the maltreatment of the evaluated child. For each of the maltreatment/behavioural problem codes indicated in response to Question 30, and considering the significant adults identified in Question 9 who were transcribed here, select the individual(s) who is(are) the alleged perpetrator(s). If none of the significant adults is the alleged perpetrator of the problems, do not record anything, and move on to the next Question.
Question 31.2: Other alleged perpetrator (including the evaluated child)
Presence of another alleged perpetrator: Check the appropriate box to indicate whether there is an alleged perpetrator who is not a significant adult with respect to the child. If there is an alleged perpetrator who is not a significant adult, answer Questions 31.2b, 31.2c and 31.2d in order to describe this individual. If the answer is no, go directly to Question 32.
Relationship to the evaluated child: If there is another alleged perpetrator who is not a significant adult with respect to the child, specify how this individual is connected to the child (e.g., brother, uncle, grandmother, teacher, doctor, stranger, classmate, neighbour, friend of the family). Include behavioural problem cases in this Question by identifying the child themselves as the alleged perpetrator. Different people may be responsible for maltreatments. Indicate the main alleged perpetrator, regardless of the level of involvement at this point in the evaluation.
Age: Indicate the age category of the other alleged perpetrator.
Sex: Indicate the sex of the other alleged perpetrator.
Question 32: Level of substantiation
Indicate the level of substantiation (founded, suspected, or unfounded) for each of the problems identified in Question 30 at this point in the evaluation/orientation. We would like to be informed of the confirmation of the events specific to each of the problems evaluated, and not the final outcome of your evaluation of all of the events.
Founded: The events are “substantiated” if the evidence indicates that the situation described in the “signalement” really happened.
Suspected: The evidence is insufficient. The “signalement” remains “suspected” if you do not have enough evidence to prove the maltreatment/behavioural problem, but you are not certain that this hypothesis can be ruled out.
Unfounded: The events are “unfounded” if the evidence indicates that the maltreatment/behavioural problem did not really happen.
If the events are founded or suspected, go directly to Question 33
- If unfounded, was the “signalement” a malicious referral? Indicate whether the events were reported by an individual who knew that the allegations were unfounded. This may be the case if there is a conflict between the individuals (e.g., a custody dispute, disagreement between relatives, dispute between neighbours). If the events are founded or suspected, this field is automatically marked as not applicable.
- If unfounded, is there a significant risk of future maltreatment/ behavioural problem? Even if the events are unfounded, indicate YES or NO if you believe or do not believe that there is a serious risk that the child could eventually be maltreated or exhibit behavioural problems. If the events are founded or suspected, this field is automatically marked as not applicable.
Question 33: Was maltreatment a form of punishment?
Indicate YES or NO, depending on whether or not the alleged maltreatment was a form of punishment. Select “NOT APPLICABLE (BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEM)” if the problem indicated in this column in response to Question 30 is a behavioural problem. The “NOT APPLICABLE” category also includes cases where an evaluation has been conducted into punishments that are overly severe, without there necessarily having been any corroboration. If the events are unfounded, this field is automatically marked as not applicable.
Question 34: Duration
Indicate the duration of the maltreatment, as it is known at this point in the evaluation/orientation. This can include an isolated incident, multiple incidents lasting less than six months, or multiple incidents lasting six months or longer. If you know that there have been multiple incidents, but are unaware of the specific duration, select “MULTIPLE INCIDENTS, UNKNOWN DURATION”. If the events are unfounded, this field is automatically marked as not applicable.
Page 8 – Results Of Evaluation/Orientation
Question 35: Physical harm
- Indicate the physical harm caused by the maltreatment/behavioural problem that was evaluated or that led to the “signalement”. If an injury is at the origin of the “signalement”, check the harm that applies, even if it is an accidental injury and the maltreatment is unfounded. Select all that apply.
No harm: There is no apparent evidence of physical harm on the child as a result of maltreatment/ behavioural problem.
Bruises/cuts/scrapes: The child suffered various physical hurts visible for at least 48 hours.
Broken bones: The child suffered broken bones.
Burns/scalds: The child suffered burns and scalds visible for at least 48 hours.
Head trauma: The child was a victim of head trauma (note: in cases of shaken–infant syndrome, the major trauma is to the head, not the neck).
Fatal: The child died, and maltreatment was suspected as the cause of death during the investigation. Include cases where maltreatment was unfounded.
- Other: Other physical health problems, such as untreated asthma, failure to thrive, or sexually transmitted diseases.
- Medical treatment required: Indicate whether medical care is or was required as a result of the injury or other harm identified in response to Question 35a. If no physical harm is indicated in response to Question 35a, select the “NOT APPLICABLE (no harm)” option.
- Health or safety seriously endangered by the suspected or founded maltreatment/behavioural problem: If at least one maltreatment/ behavioural problem is founded or suspected, indicate YES or NO with respect to whether the problem(s) posed a serious threat to the physical integrity of the child. We would like to know if the child may be in danger or if the child may be permanently harmed (e.g., 3–yearold child wandering on a busy street, child found playing with dangerous chemicals or drugs). If all of the events evaluated are unfounded, select the “NOT APPLICABLE (unfounded)” option.
Question 36: Physician/nurse physically examined child as part of the investigation
Indicate whether a physician or nurse conducted a physical examination of the child during the course of the evaluation or orientation.
Question 37: History of injuries
Indicate whether the evaluation or orientation revealed a history of unidentified or wrongly diagnosed injuries.
Question 38: Emotional harm
- Mental or emotional harm evident as a result of the suspected or founded maltreatment/behavioural problem (emotional problems and other mental health issues). Indicate whether the child shows signs of emotional harm (e.g., nightmares, nocturnal incontinence, or withdrawal following maltreatment/behavioural problem). If all of the events are unfounded, select the “NOT APPLICABLE (unfounded)” option.
- The child requires therapeutic treatment: Indicate whether the child shows or has shown emotional symptoms that require therapy. If no emotional harm has been identified, select the “NOT APPLICABLE (no harm)” option.
Question 39: Placement during the evaluation or orientation
Placement measures that were applied during the evaluation or orientation extracted from PIJ. These involve the removal of the child from his or her living environment, and include emergency measures, temporary measures, and measures for children entrusted to a third party. If the child was placed in a foster home, specify the type of foster family where the child has spent most of his or her time.
- Regular foster family. Any foster family that is not specific to the child.
- Specific foster family. A placement has been specifically arranged for the child within the family network.
- Unknown. Select this option if placement with a foster family is indicated but you are unsure what type of setting the child has been placed in.
- Not applicable. Select this option if the placement is in a setting other than a foster family, or if no placement measures have been applied.
Question 40: Youth Court
- Interim measures ordered or court petitioned (pre–populated field). This field is automatically completed based on the information in PIJ. It will indicate whether or not the child’s file is subject to judicial control.
- Orientation toward a service or alternative procedure with the goal of achieving an agreement between the parties regarding the protection of the child: Indicate YES or NO with respect to whether the child and his or her parents have been referred to a formal service, procedure or program intended to avoid adversarial confrontation or to foster the establishment of an agreement between the parties with respect to the child’s protection. This would be offered in addition to the regular services provided. The use of “voluntary measures” does not constitute a referral to an alternative procedure. For example, this may involve settlement conferencing or an Aboriginal circle.
Question 41: Previous “signalements” (pre–populated fields)
- The date of the most recent previous “signalement”, if applicable, and the decision taken with respect to retention or compromise, as the case may be. If there are no previous “signalements” relating to the child, an aberrant date (1901 01 01) will be entered automatically.
- Dates and decisions pertaining to previous evaluations. Up to four evaluations may be entered. If there are no previous evaluations relating to the child (other than the one in the ÉIQ), these fields should be left empty.
Question 42: Police intervention
We would like to be informed of police involvement which could possibly generate the launch of an investigation (with or without charges). If the police came to the site and intervened, but no complaints were filed and no investigation was launched, please select “none”, which signifies “no investigation”, and make a note in Question 44 on the comments page that there was police involvement, even though no investigation was launched and no charges were laid.
- Police investigation regarding the evaluated child maltreatment/ behavioural problem: Indicate whether there was a police response to the maltreatment/behavioural problem evaluated, along with the scope of this involvement:
None: There was no police involvement with respect to the events evaluated.
Investigation in progress: A police investigation is underway, but charges have not been laid yet.
Charges laid: Charges have been laid against the perpetrator.
Investigation completed with no charges: The police investigation was completed, and no charges were laid.
- Police investigation regarding adult domestic violence investigation: Indicate whether there was police involvement with respect to domestic violence, along with the scope of this involvement:
None: Domestic violence occurred, but there was no police involvement.
Investigation in progress: A police investigation is underway, but charges have not been laid yet.
Charges laid: Charges have been laid against the perpetrator.
Investigation completed with no charges: The police investigation was completed, and no charges were laid.
Unknown: Select this option if you do not know whether a police investigation was carried out as a result of domestic violence.
Not applicable: Select this option if the situation does not involve a problem relating to domestic violence.
Question 43: Caregivers use spanking as a form of discipline
Indicate YES or NO with respect to whether or not the child’s caregivers use spanking as a form of discipline. Check “UNKNOWN” if you are uncertain. Spanking refers to any physical correction that is used to discipline the child on a recurring basis including slapping, spanking, cold showers, etc. for “the child’s own good”.
Page 9 – Comments/Other Information
Questions 44, 45, and 46 If the ÉIQ Form does not include certain information that is relevant to your case, please provide your information and comments in the three sections reserved for this purpose: information pertaining to the “signalement” and the evaluation/ orientation, information pertaining to the household, and information pertaining to the child.
These fields can be left empty if you do not have any additional information to provide.
We would like to extend our sincere thanks for your help and your interest in the third cycle of the CIS in the province of Québec.
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