Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei - Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

NAME: Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei

SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Melioidosis, Whitmore disease ; (formerly Pseudomonas)

CHARACTERISTICS: Gram negative rod, motile, aerobic, young cultures exhibit bipolar staining (safety pin appearance), wrinkled colonies on agar media

SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

PATHOGENICITY: Melioidosis - an endemic glanders-like disease; clinical symptoms vary from inapparent infection to chronic infection to rapidly fatal septicemia; may simulate typhoid fever or more commonly tuberculosis, with symptoms such as empyema, chronic abscesses and osteomyelitis

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Worldwide distribution, however, found primarily in tropical or subtropical regions, especially in Southeast Asia and northern Australia; individuals who have had intimate contact with soil and surface water

HOST RANGE: Humans and various animals (see reservoir)

INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Acquired by ingestion, inhalation or contact of abraded, wounded or burned skin with contaminated water or soil

INCUBATION PERIOD: 2 days (several months or years may elapse between presumed exposure and clinical disease)

COMMUNICABILITY: Person to person transmission is extremely rare; human carriers are not known

SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

RESERVOIR: Environmental organism found in certain waters and soils; animals include sheep, goats, horses, swine, monkey and rodents

ZOONOSIS: Yes - direct or indirect contact of mucous membranes with lesion discharge of infected animals

VECTORS: None

SECTION IV - VIABILITY

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: TMP-SMX is most effective; susceptible to ceftazidime, imipenem, doxycycline, ciprofloxacinsulphas, chloramphenicol, tetracycline

DRUG RESISTANCE: Resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, carbenicillum, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins; resistance to TMP-SMX has been reported

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to many disinfectants - 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: Susceptible to moist heat (121°C for at least 15 min) and dry heat (160-170°C for at least 1 hour)

SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Survives for years in soil and water

SECTION V - MEDICAL

SURVEILLANCE: Monitor for symptoms; confirm by rise in antibody titre and isolation of organism

FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Antibiotic therapy; multiple drugs for septicemic cases; pulmonary resection may be considered for chronic cases

IMMUNIZATION: None

PROPHYLAXIS: None

SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 20 cases of infection, with 7 deaths, reported up to 1976; one case associated with massive aerosol and skin contact exposure; an additional infection resulted from an aerosol created during open-flask sonication of a culture presumed to be P. cepacia; 3 laboratory workers were reported to have subclinical infections in 1992.

SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Sputa, blood, wound exudates, tissues

PRIMARY HAZARDS: Direct contact with cultures and infectious materials from humans, animals or the environment; ingestion; autoinoculation; exposure to infectious aerosols and droplets

SPECIAL HAZARDS: May be present in soil and water samples from endemic areas

SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 3 practices and containment for activities utilizing infectious body fluids and tissues; also for activities with a high potential for aerosol or droplet production or the production of large quantities of infectious materials; Agriculture Canada may impose additional requirements or restrictions on the use of this agent

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when direct contact with infectious materials is unavoidable; gloves and gown (tight wrists with tie in back) for work in biosafety cabinet

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Gloves should be worn when handling, and during necropsy of infected animals

SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wear protective clothing; gently cover spill with paper towels and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite, starting at perimeter and working towards the centre; allow sufficient contact time (30 min) and clean area

DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam sterilization, incineration, chemical disinfection

STORAGE: In sealed containers that are appropriately labelled

SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

Date prepared: November 1999

Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PHAC

Although the information, opinions and recommendations contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we accept no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date.

Copyright ©
Health Canada, 2001

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