Foodbook Report

Acknowledgements

The Public Health Agency of Canada would like to acknowledge the important role of the Canadian survey respondents who provided the data that are used in this report.

This report would not have been published without the close collaboration and participation of federal, provincial and territorial public health and food safety partners and academic colleagues.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

Outbreaks associated with widely-distributed food products can have important health and economic impacts in Canada. These outbreaks also affect the health of Canadians and may impact the public's confidence in the food safety system. One of the challenges facing the Public Health Agency of Canada (the Agency) in identifying the source of multi-jurisdictional outbreaks has been the availability of food exposure data for the general Canadian population. Similarly, limited food exposure data has impacted the Agency's ability to evaluate risks associated with enteric illness.

To date, foodborne illness outbreak investigators have relied on outdated food exposure data that are not entirely representative of the current Canadian population. In recognizing these challenges, the Agency recommended that a Canadian-specific, consecutive-day food consumption study be conducted to enhance the Agency's ability to investigate and respond to foodborne illness outbreaks across all government levels.

Foodbook is a population-based telephone survey that was conducted in all Canadian provinces and territories over a one-year period with a primary focus on describing what foods Canadians eat over a seven-day period to inform outbreak investigation and response in Canada. The data generated from this study will enhance Canadian public health capacity to take timely and appropriate action in response to foodborne illness outbreaks and will reduce the impact of these events on the health of Canadians.

The Foodbook Report summarizes the food, water and animal exposure information collected during the survey. Foodbook data will be used across federal, provincial and territorial (F/P/T) public health and food safety partners to: inform timely and effective response to foodborne illness outbreaks; determine sources of enteric illness which will support risk assessments and public health interventions to prevent illness; and assist in examining relationships between eating patterns, obesity and socioeconomic status.

The Foodbook study addresses large data gaps that existed for Canadian food, water and animal exposure data for foodborne illness outbreak response investigations. These data are available to F/P/T stakeholders who work together to investigate, control, prevent and understand enteric illness in Canada.

Introduction

Outbreaks associated with widely-distributed food products can have important health and economic impacts in Canada. These outbreaks also affect the health of Canadians and may impact the public's confidence in the food safety system. The Public Health Agency of Canada (the Agency) responds to outbreaks in a timely manner to protect the health of Canadians and to uphold the public trust. A key step in the timely identification of the source of outbreaks is to compare foods eaten by ill individuals affected by the outbreak to foods eaten by the general population. One of the challenges facing the Agency in identifying the source of multi-jurisdictional outbreaks has been the availability of food exposure data for the general Canadian population. Similarly, limited food exposure data has impacted the Agency's ability to evaluate risks associated with enteric illness.

To date, foodborne illness outbreak investigators have relied on food exposure data from the United States' Population Survey Atlas of ExposuresFootnote 1  and one regional study in OntarioFootnote 2 . These data sources are not entirely representative of current Canadian food exposures and so, more recently, the National Single Day Food Consumption ReportFootnote 3  has been used.Footnotea However, these data have some limitations for outbreak response. They cannot be extended to estimate the consecutive multiple day exposure periods (e.g., 3, 5, or 7 days) needed to compare foods consumed by people experiencing foodborne illness to those consumed by the general population. In addition, the 24-hour recall period limits the ability to capture foods consumed less frequently or rarely consumed.

In order to address these challenges and limitations, the Agency recommended that a Canadian-specific, consecutive-day food consumption study be conducted. These data were collected to enhance the Agency's ability to investigate and respond to foodborne illness outbreaks across all government levels.

Foodbook is a population-based telephone survey that was conducted in all Canadian provinces and territories. It provides essential data on food, animal and water exposure which will be used by the Agency, as well as other federal, provincial and territorial (F/P/T) partners to understand, respond to, control and prevent enteric illness in Canada.

The Foodbook study was developed jointly by the Enteric Surveillance and Population Studies Division (ESPS) and the Outbreak Management Division (OMD) in the Centre for Food-borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (CFEZID) of the Public Health Agency of Canada, in consultation with F/P/T partners.  Its primary purpose was to establish a database describing Canadians' exposure to foods over a seven-day period that may serve as sources for foodborne infections.

Foodbook data will be used to:

  1. Inform timely and effective response to foodborne illness outbreaks in Canada.
  2. Determine sources of enteric illness in Canada which will support risk assessments and help to target public health interventions to prevent illness.
  3. Inform food safety education initiatives and health promotion efforts linked to obesity and the determinants of health.

The Foodbook Report summarizes the food, water and animal exposure information collected during the survey. Data are summarized nationally, by province and territory and by a number of demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, income, education level).

Methodology

1. Study Design

Foodbook data were collected in Canada's ten provinces and three territories over a one-year period between 2014 and 2015 using a population-based telephone survey. The study questionnaire was developed in collaboration with F/P/T stakeholders who identified key data gaps within the context of establishing a database of food exposures for outbreak investigations. In addition to food exposures, the study also collected data on drinking and recreational water exposures, animal-related exposures, consumer food safety knowledge and practices, acute gastrointestinal illness, obesity indicators and demographic factors.

All permissions to complete the study were obtained. The study was reviewed and approved by Health Canada and the Agency's Research Ethics Board (REB 2013-0025) as well as the Newfoundland and Labrador Health Research Ethics Authority to meet a unique provincial legal requirement (HREB 13.238).

The sampling frame used to draw telephone numbers consisted of land lines (70% listed, 10% random digit-dialing) and cell phones (20%). Including cell phones ensured better coverage of cell phone-only households and demographic groups more likely to use cell phones exclusively (e.g., younger Canadians).

The recall period for most questions was seven days which aligns with the average incubation period of common foodborne illnesses. Thus, a 'yes' response meant that the respondent had eaten a food item or had an exposure at least once during the seven-day period preceding the call. Refused and 'don't know' responses were recoded to 'missing'.

The survey was pilot tested over a two-week period between April 11 and April 27, 2014. Survey respondents provided feedback about their experience, assessed the Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) programming, identified difficult questions and assessed the effect of the call recording disclaimer.

2. Participant Selection

In order to improve completion rates for younger age groups, when households contained children less than 18 years old, 50% of surveys were conducted with the child who would have the next birthday and 50% were conducted with the adult who would have the next birthday. If there were no children in the household, the survey was conducted with the adult who would have the next birthday. This screening procedure skewed the sample distribution so there were fewer households with adults and children than among the general population. Information on household type (adult/child combination) was thus included in the weight calculations to ensure the weighted sample was representative of the Canadian population.

3. Questionnaire Administration

The surveys were conducted by an independent research company contracted by the Agency. Interviews were administered in English, French, Inuktitut and on-demand verbal translation for other languages. Those who could not speak the supported languages were excluded from the survey. Additionally, in order to ensure that exposures occurred within the province or territory of residence, those who had travelled outside their province or territory of residence during the recall period were excluded. Informed verbal consent was obtained from all study participants and a CATI tool was used to enhance quality control on question-flow and data collection.

Proxy respondents were used in accordance with provincial and territorial laws for participants under a certain age, or for those unable to respond on their own behalf. If the selected individual was under the age of consent, the interview was conducted with the child's parent or legal guardian, or with another adult knowledgeable about the child's activities at the discretion of the parent or legal guardian. Proxy response was also allowed for individuals with medical or activity limitations.

4. Targeted Population Groups

The survey was designed with a target sample size of 11,016 collected evenly over a 12-month period across four age groups (0–9, 10–19, 20–64, 65+ years). All provinces and territories were allocated a minimum sample size of 416 to ensure that estimates from the area and within each of the four key age groups would be of an acceptable quality.Footnoteb Some provinces were allocated additional samples for the purpose of reducing overall design effects and improving regional analysis within the provinces more frequently involved in multi-jurisdictional outbreaks.

5. Exposures

Major food categories included:

  • Vegetables
  • Fruit
  • Herbs and spices
  • Nuts
  • Meats
  • Fish and shellfish
  • Eggs
  • Dairy products
  • Country foodsFootnotec

Respondents were prompted to include foods eaten raw and/or cooked both inside and outside the home.  Vegetables did not include frozen or canned/jarred vegetables. Fruits did not include frozen, canned/jarred or dried fruits.

Major non-food exposure categories included:

  • Drinking water sources
  • Contact with recreational water (e.g., lakes, oceans, hot tubs, etc.)
  • Contact with household pets and pet food
  • Contact with farm animals

6. Weighting

The forward sortation area (FSA, or first three digits of the postal code) was collected for each respondent. The FSA was then converted to the most likely census metropolitan area (CMA). The CMA indicator along with age group, household type, province or territory, the number of people in the household, the number of land lines and cell phones in the household and gender were used to calculate the individual-level survey expansion weight. To create the final weighting variable, a post-stratification step used iterative proportional ranking with available control tables.

7. Analysis

The analysis was performed in Stata 13.0 (Stata Corp., Texas Station, TX) using the survey weight provided by the research company. The survey data file was checked for inconsistencies and estimates were verified against external sources of exposure data, where available.

The analysis in Stata was performed using the expansion weight as the probability weight for mean and variance estimation, via the svyset command and the svy prefix to estimation commands. Primary estimation commands included the "mean" and "proportion" commands.

Results

The full survey (including pilot test) was conducted over a 12-month period from April 11, 2014 to April 9, 2015. Approximately the same number of interviews was completed during each calendar month for a total of 10,942. All sample targets for each province and territory were met (Table 1).

A sample of 515,691 phone numbers from three sources (listed residential numbers, random digit-dialing residential numbers and cell phone numbers) were randomly selected from the total sample. Of these phone numbers, 429,167 were called, of which 119,074 numbers (27.7%) were invalid (e.g., not in service, or modem or fax numbers). Language barriers were identified among 3,894 (0.9%) of respondents and these individuals were not interviewed. The gross refusal rate was 12.7% and the gross response rate and Marketing Research and Intelligence Association (MRIA)Footnoted response rate were 2.7% and 19.9% respectively.

All consumption estimates included in this report have been weighted so they are representative of the Canadian population.

Food, water and animal exposures as well as the frequency of exposure to select high-risk foods were summarized nationally, by province and territory and by the demographic characteristics presented in Tables 1-9. The data reported in the tables are the results of the Foodbook study and no discussion of the results is presented.

Study Limitations

There are several limitations of the data that should be considered when interpreting the results.

Foodbook data are not representative of populations that were excluded from the study such as individuals who did not have land lines or listed cell phone numbers (e.g., people living in correctional facilities, hospitals, etc.) and respondents who were unable to communicate in the languages available. This may limit the external validity of the study and Foodbook data should not be used to describe exposures explicitly within these populations. Furthermore, Northern Québec, Northern Ontario and the territories (Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut) have proportionally more residents living in remote rural areas without access to a telephone or a cell phone and therefore, these Canadians are not well-represented.

Although the overall response rate (MRIA) was low, it was consistent with response rates typically found in most commercial telephone surveys in Canada, which range from 10% to 20%Footnote 4 . A low response rate may bias results, if those who did not respond had different food exposures than respondents. Several strategies were implemented at the outset to maximize response rates such as: explaining the study to respondents, arranging for call-backs at a more convenient time, and redirecting to a different telephone number to eliminate costs for the respondent. The script and respondent selection process were revised following the pilot. Despite these revisions, there was minimal impact on the response rate compared to the pilot testing period. In order to improve response rates, future surveys may consider a mixed-method sampling strategy that includes both telephone and online components as well as incentive programs.

Bias due to retrospective recall may also impact the results. Respondents were asked about retrospective exposures over a seven-day recall period. It is easier to recall recent exposures (e.g., in the previous 24 hours) than exposures that occurred more than one or two days ago. Although a shorter recall period may have reduced recall bias, a seven-day retrospective recall period was selected because it aligns with most incubation periods for foodborne illness outbreak case interviews. In order to ensure the study data are comparable to outbreak cases, it was critical that participants were asked questions in the same manner as outbreak cases would be asked. Furthermore, a seven-day recall period provides valid estimates of usual exposure within the general population and better estimates of exposure to infrequently-consumed foods that would not be captured using shorter recall periods. It should be noted that the retrospective collection of exposure data is less accurate than prospective collection of data over the same time period. This should be considered when comparing Foodbook data to those collected using recall periods shorter or longer than seven days and/or those using prospective data collection.

Conclusions

The primary purpose of the Foodbook study was to inform timely and effective response to foodborne illness outbreaks in Canada and to maximize the opportunity to address key data gaps identified by the Agency and F/P/T partners.

The Foodbook Report provides rapid access to general population exposure data that will help guide outbreak investigations where the source of the outbreak is not immediately evident. This will help build the weight of evidence required to support the timely removal of contaminated food source(s) from the marketplace. Frequency of exposure to high-risk food items will inform microbial risk assessments and ranking of food-pathogen risk. Water and animal exposure data are provided to inform microbial risk assessments, source attribution analyses and water safety policy at the national level. Finally, the Foodbook Report includes data that will inform Canada-wide cross-disciplinary efforts to elucidate relationships between eating patterns, obesity and socioeconomic status and will strengthen collaboration and leadership in health promotion and illness prevention.

The Foodbook study addresses large data gaps that existed for Canadian food, water and animal exposure data for foodborne illness outbreak response investigations. These data are available to F/P/T stakeholders who work together to investigate, control, prevent and understand enteric illness in Canada.

References

Tables

Table 1: Unweighted and weighted respondent counts, weighted proportions, and 2011 Census proportion, by province/territory
Province / Territory BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU National
Table 1 Reference 1

Statistics Canada. Age and Sex 2011 counts for both sexes for Canada provinces and territories, Age and Sex Highlight Tables. 2011 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-311-XWE2011002. Ottawa ON. Released May 29, 2012.

Return to reference1 referrer

Respondent count 1,273 1,267 839 842 1,674 1,677 616 637 445 437 402 458 375 10,942
Weighted respondents 4,428,000 3,653,000 1,033,000 1,203,000 12,835,000 7,875,000 753,000 928,000 141,000 519,000 34,000 42,000 32,000 33,477,000
Weighted % total 13.2 10.9 3.1 3.6 38.3 23.5 2.3 2.8 0.4 1.6 0.1 0.1 0.1 N.A.
% Canadian populationReference 1 13.1 10.9 3.1 3.6 38.4 23.6 2.2 2.8 0.4 1.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 N.A.
Table 2: Unweighted and weighted respondent counts, and unweighted proportions, by month
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Respondent count 951 930 926 440 1,489 631 1,018 959 838 838 980 942
Weighted respondents 2,838,000 2,525,000 2,694,000 920,000 4,505,000 2,119,000 3,182,000 3,209,000 2,829,000 2,912,000 2,778,000 2,966,000
% total respondents 8.7 8.5 8.5 4.0 13.6 5.8 9.3 8.8 7.7 7.7 9.0 8.6
Table 3: Unweighted and weighted respondent counts and proportions, and 2011 Census proportions, by age group and gender
Age and gender 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years
Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
Table 3 Reference 1

Statistics Canada. Canada (Code 01) and Canada (Code 01) (table). Census Profile. 2011 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-XWE. Ottawa. Released October 24, 2012. Accessed: August 10, 2015.

Return to reference1 referrer

Respondent count 1,283 1,212 1,254 1,113 1,202 1,923 1,089 1,856
% total respondents 11.7 11.1 11.5 10.2 11.0 17.6 10.0 17.0
Weighted respondents 1,909,000 1,816,000 2,168,000 1,988,000 10,192,000 10,472,000 2,174,000 2,759,000
Weighted % total 5.7 5.4 6.5 5.9 30.4 31.3 6.5 8.2
% Canadian populationReference 1 5.6 5.4 6.3 6.0 30.6 31.4 6.6 8.2
Table 4: Unweighted and weighted respondent counts, weighted proportions, and 2011 Census proportions, by education level
Education Level Less than high school diploma or its equivalent High school diploma or a high school equivalency Trade certificate or diploma College, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma University certificate or diploma below the Bachelors level Bachelor's degree University certificate, diploma or degree above the Bachelor's level
Note: This question was only asked of respondents who were >25 years old. 46% (4,985/10,942) of respondents were not asked about education. Among those respondents asked about education, 2% (102/5,957) did not know or refused to provide an education level.
Table 4 Reference 1

Statistics Canada. Number and proportion of the population aged 25 to 64 by highest level of educational attainment, Canada, 2011 (table). 2011 National Household Survey.

Return to reference1 referrer

Respondent count 1,019 1,397 324 1,216 393 932 574
Weighted respondents 3,592,000 6,745,000 1,772,000 8,045,000 2,867,000 6,766,000 3,691,000
Weighted % total 10.7 20.1 5.3 24.0 8.6 20.2 11.0
% Canadian populationReference 1 12.7 23.2 12.1 21.3 4.9 16.5 9.4
Table 5: Unweighted and weighted respondent counts, weighted proportions, and 2011 Census proportions, by household income
Household Income < $30,000 $30,000–$60,000 $60,000–$80,000 > $80,000
Note: 14% (1,540/10,942) of respondents refused or did not know their household income.
Table 5 Reference 1

Statistics Canada. Family income, by family type (Couple families). Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System (CANSIM), table 111-0012. Last modified: 2015-06-26. Accessed: August 10, 2015.

Return to reference1 referrer

Respondent count 1,619 2,275 1,498 4,010
Weighted respondents 5,340,000 8,294,000 5,442,000 14,401,000
Weighted % total 16.0 24.8 16.3 43.0
% Canadian populationReference 1 9.8 22.8 14.5 52.8

Table 6: Weighted proportions of food, animal and water exposures in the past seven days, by province/territory and nationally

Vegetables
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Tomatoes
Any tomatoes 75.9 72.1 66.4 70.3 73.0 75.8 63.0 67.7 65.3 57.5 66.0 51.6 41.2 72.9
Tomatoes on a sandwich, burger or taco at restaurant or fast food establishment 22.0 24.6 19.6 15.3 22.4 15.7 16.8 22.0 17.6 16.4 13.6 8.6 9.3 20.4
Roma/plum tomatoes 30.6 30.3 25.8 24.1 24.9 23.8 13.5 27.5 18.2 18.3 28.8 21.1 18.9 25.7
Hothouse tomatoes 42.8 35.8 27.1 29.4 33.7 49.7 35.3 34.8 35.8 20.8 26.1 17.9 13.5 38.3
Beefsteak tomatoes 12.2 14.1 11.9 16.8 15.0 6.7 10.2 11.6 6.8 9.4 9.9 8.6 5.9 12.2
Cherry or grape tomatoes 37.7 31.1 24.4 29.2 30.3 37.8 27.7 32.3 24.1 24.6 39.1 23.9 21.9 32.8
Lettuce or leafy greens
Any lettuce or leafy greens 86.3 84.5 80.7 83.3 84.2 78.4 80.5 75.3 77.8 73.2 83.2 73.9 54.1 82.4
Lettuce or leafy greens on a sandwich, burger or taco at restaurant or fast food establishment 28.7 30.4 33.2 25.0 25.9 15.0 20.3 28.8 20.8 25.4 19.5 17.4 8.9 24.3
Iceberg lettuce 38.3 41.6 44.2 45.7 43.8 37.0 38.8 42.0 46.4 41.4 28.8 38.6 27.0 41.1
Romaine lettuce 53.9 57.0 45.2 54.5 50.9 40.7 40.8 44.1 35.5 40.9 57.4 42.2 28.1 48.8
Spinach 37.9 32.6 28.9 31.9 29.3 19.3 32.0 27.2 28.6 24.3 33.0 25.4 15.3 28.4
Mesclun greens 23.0 12.8 10.9 6.5 13.3 17.3 11.8 12.0 16.3 7.9 10.5 15.0 7.7 15.0
Pre-packaged lettuce or leafy greens 49.3 46.1 46.9 49.8 44.0 49.0 43.8 38.3 43.2 34.5 50.9 45.5 39.4 46.1
Cabbage
Cabbage (includes coleslaw) 32.0 25.8 32.0 28.2 28.1 32.2 36.3 30.8 26.7 46.8 20.3 20.4 13.0 30.0
Sprouts
Any sprouts 11.9 12.9 11.7 6.5 12.1 17.2 11.1 6.4 14.0 10.1 5.8 12.8 3.7 12.9
Alfalfa sprouts 3.5 1.9 3.3 1.3 1.9 3.3 0.8 0.4 0.6 2.8 2.2 2.7 0.6 2.4
Bean sprouts 8.4 8.3 8.0 4.2 7.7 12.1 8.0 5.4 12.1 4.6 2.7 6.8 2.3 8.7
Cucumbers
Cucumbers 67.6 60.7 59.0 58.2 65.3 62.9 58.7 55.8 50.9 25.7 67.6 42.2 27.1 62.9
Bell peppers
Bell peppers 64.8 59.7 53.6 65.9 63.5 69.2 44.4 57.4 59.7 57.9 67.5 46.4 42.7 63.6
Hot peppers
Hot peppers 24.1 16.7 13.3 18.5 23.0 13.7 14.4 22.3 17.9 11.9 22.6 12.5 12.6 19.4
Celery
Celery 43.5 50.3 53.7 48.6 45.2 55.0 37.3 37.3 37.5 32.0 59.1 48.5 41.0 47.6
Carrots
Any carrots 82.7 79.3 79.7 82.5 80.0 82.3 86.0 89.2 89.3 84.2 83.8 75.1 72.3 81.4
Carrots (not mini) 72.4 67.6 69.2 68.7 65.4 70.5 74.3 80.3 81.5 80.8 76.2 66.9 61.2 68.9
Mini carrots 34.9 36.3 34.4 38.3 38.1 34.5 32.6 30.3 31.3 25.1 33.7 28.7 34.0 35.9
Peas
Peas (shelled or in pods) 35.2 38.2 37.6 34.7 27.7 20.2 31.7 28.2 32.4 31.6 36.0 39.8 23.5 28.8
Green or yellow beans
Green or yellow beans 29.9 28.1 26.9 23.7 44.1 37.3 37.9 32.7 28.6 17.1 14.5 23.4 18.8 36.6
Broccoli
Broccoli 58.0 51.2 48.1 50.0 57.6 56.0 50.5 49.8 52.7 51.6 64.7 53.2 47.2 55.5
Cauliflower
Cauliflower 36.8 32.0 36.9 33.3 33.3 33.2 20.1 18.7 31.0 37.2 38.2 27.2 25.2 33.0
Leeks
Leeks 8.4 5.7 6.1 3.7 7.6 16.6 5.3 2.5 7.9 3.6 9.6 4.8 5.3 9.2
Garlic
Fresh garlic (not powdered) 63.0 42.6 40.6 47.0 51.6 45.3 31.8 41.9 32.5 25.6 64.0 40.9 23.2 48.9
Mushrooms
Mushrooms 47.0 48.4 45.3 47.9 50.2 53.3 47.5 51.6 46.9 48.5 54.6 43.6 37.3 50.0
Zucchini
Zucchini 26.6 19.6 12.1 15.9 22.8 21.0 6.9 14.6 7.1 7.5 20.9 18.0 6.9 21.1
Onions
Any onions 86.9 83.6 80.9 83.8 81.4 82.6 80.3 80.5 80.7 80.8 86.5 77.6 71.8 82.7
White/yellow onions 77.2 76.2 70.6 72.2 70.6 74.9 76.8 75.7 73.3 76.8 75.0 69.3 65.8 73.5
Red onions 35.3 32.0 29.6 29.8 35.0 28.7 22.2 26.9 31.0 29.3 42.9 29.3 10.3 32.2
Green onions 39.5 37.6 32.8 33.9 36.3 29.2 16.8 27.3 20.2 19.8 34.1 27.5 14.3 34.0
Vegetable juice
Vegetable juice 15.0 11.9 13.7 14.9 14.5 31.0 17.0 14.3 11.6 11.2 12.4 9.9 15.0 18.2
Herbs & Spices
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Fresh herbs
Any fresh herbs 59.1 45.2 30.5 29.9 48.5 50.2 29.7 37.3 35.9 22.7 44.9 27.1 21.2 47.5
Fresh Thai basil 8.7 8.3 4.6 4.7 10.8 10.3 5.0 4.0 3.4 4.4 7.8 4.7 2.3 9.2
Fresh basil 18.0 14.1 8.4 8.5 19.3 22.2 12.7 10.6 12.0 6.1 15.9 9.9 5.9 17.8
Fresh cilantro/coriander 27.3 18.1 8.4 8.1 18.8 15.4 9.0 10.9 5.9 4.1 17.5 11.1 6.2 17.6
Fresh tarragon 2.2 1.4 1.3 1.7 3.6 4.4 1.1 4.8 1.2 2.3 1.8 2.2 1.5 3.2
Fresh parsley 29.6 20.2 16.0 14.9 28.8 29.2 12.5 17.4 21.4 10.9 16.6 12.9 9.9 26.1
Other fresh herbs 32.0 23.7 18.9 17.4 25.3 21.5 18.3 15.3 16.4 13.8 24.7 13.7 10.6 24.0
Spices
Any spices 91.5 92.8 93.2 90.2 88.9 92.4 86.9 91.0 91.6 86.3 94.4 90.2 73.2 90.7
Pepper (whole/ground, white, black, blended) 85.3 85.6 89.8 86.6 82.4 87.8 80.0 87.1 85.4 78.1 87.6 85.4 64.6 84.8
Curry powder 27.0 20.4 12.5 11.8 16.2 15.5 11.9 18.9 14.5 12.9 16.4 17.3 14.2 17.6
Paprika 28.3 20.0 22.7 21.8 23.4 19.4 14.7 19.7 17.4 13.7 17.2 19.1 14.3 22.2
Turmeric 23.3 11.4 10.6 8.7 16.5 14.2 9.2 14.4 7.4 8.4 9.9 12.1 8.2 15.4
Other spices 55.7 46.4 45.4 42.8 48.8 48.7 40.4 50.7 38.0 38.8 42.7 46.6 37.7 48.8
Store-Bought Prepared Salads & Dips
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Store-bought prepared salad
Any store-bought prepared salad 14.3 14.4 17.2 15.0 15.7 11.6 13.7 15.8 15.5 20.5 14.0 16.2 15.6 14.5
Green salad 8.6 10.2 9.7 11.2 10.2 5.6 9.4 13.2 9.6 10.8 9.5 10.2 9.2 9.0
Coleslaw 4.0 2.9 3.8 3.5 3.8 3.6 3.5 6.8 3.4 7.2 2.9 3.5 3.2 3.8
Potato salad 2.8 1.9 5.8 2.7 3.2 1.1 2.3 1.8 3.4 5.9 1.9 3.1 3.9 2.6
Pasta salad 0.8 1.1 2.0 1.0 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.7 0.7 8.0 0.5 1.2 3.5 1.8
Fruit salad/pre-cut fruit/fruit platter 2.9 2.6 3.0 2.9 3.6 2.3 3.4 3.0 6.2 5.5 1.0 5.4 4.6 3.1
Salsa
Salsa 25.6 24.0 19.8 30.7 21.9 16.0 23.0 26.8 22.2 22.9 28.8 24.7 24.1 21.7
Hummus
Hummus 12.9 11.7 7.1 6.8 16.2 12.7 8.8 13.6 9.2 6.8 7.3 9.8 8.6 13.4
Fruits
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Apples
Apples 74.1 73.2 67.5 72.3 74.4 69.1 72.5 61.1 76.5 73.1 73.0 61.1 70.2 72.3
Pears
Pears 25.4 24.0 19.0 23.9 23.6 25.2 19.7 17.4 25.1 26.6 18.7 15.6 24.3 23.9
Peaches
Peaches 15.4 16.4 13.5 10.7 17.3 15.9 13.1 14.1 14.4 17.4 7.5 10.1 8.0 16.0
Nectarines
Nectarines 13.2 13.1 11.1 8.0 10.7 17.2 9.4 7.5 6.9 9.4 7.2 4.6 7.4 12.6
Apricots
Apricots 5.4 7.8 5.0 3.2 3.2 5.6 1.7 2.3 1.8 8.0 3.7 3.3 3.3 4.6
Plums
Plums 18.2 11.2 11.0 9.0 11.3 13.6 11.0 9.0 9.5 19.2 9.5 6.3 5.5 12.7
Citrus fruit
Citrus fruit 73.5 71.3 67.5 67.2 63.2 61.1 57.1 54.5 59.3 68.5 70.0 69.2 64.2 65.0
Cherries
Cherries 19.8 15.3 13.3 12.9 15.2 12.6 13.0 9.0 10.6 9.9 14.9 9.9 11.2 14.7
Grapes
Grapes 56.7 46.6 47.9 48.1 51.0 55.9 55.9 47.1 50.2 56.3 54.6 49.3 54.8 52.3
Bananas
Bananas 76.9 78.4 76.2 83.1 76.9 74.8 80.0 70.1 82.9 81.3 76.4 71.1 76.3 76.7
Mangoes
Mangoes 19.4 14.3 9.0 10.9 15.7 18.2 8.0 12.0 7.6 5.4 12.0 9.3 8.5 15.7
Papaya
Papaya 2.6 4.1 1.6 2.2 2.9 4.5 0.6 0.5 0.1 0.3 1.0 1.9 0.8 3.1
Kiwi
Kiwi 13.5 10.6 10.0 10.6 10.6 15.9 9.5 12.4 15.2 14.1 7.0 10.5 13.4 12.3
Pomegranate
Pomegranate 7.2 6.6 4.4 4.6 9.7 7.4 7.4 6.5 3.9 3.4 9.2 4.6 3.2 7.8
Pineapple
Pineapple 27.2 35.0 28.2 28.0 29.6 30.5 28.2 26.6 29.5 38.4 31.8 18.7 13.5 30.0
Avocado
Avocado (includes guacamole) 42.1 26.3 13.9 21.2 25.0 23.2 13.3 24.6 9.6 11.0 32.7 18.7 22.5 26.0
Olives
Olives 31.0 23.7 13.4 16.3 27.0 33.8 17.4 18.3 14.1 13.9 31.0 14.1 7.7 27.2
Melon
Any melon 40.2 42.1 41.2 39.7 41.4 37.3 37.7 32.9 30.9 30.0 37.4 34.8 31.5 39.7
Cantaloupe 21.5 25.6 19.9 22.8 24.7 24.1 18.3 19.7 12.5 15.3 25.9 20.2 15.8 23.5
Honeydew 12.7 12.4 16.0 9.9 15.5 12.7 14.4 13.9 9.5 14.1 13.5 17.5 14.3 13.8
Watermelon 22.8 27.8 27.2 26.9 24.2 21.7 25.0 19.2 21.7 17.5 18.1 17.1 16.8 23.7
Berries
Any berries 68.7 68.0 61.1 63.3 63.0 66.3 62.8 61.8 61.9 74.9 69.1 53.9 49.6 65.2
Strawberries 50.4 51.7 49.7 49.8 47.4 51.6 45.7 46.5 46.9 61.5 50.1 39.4 33.2 49.6
Raspberries 31.5 29.6 21.2 22.1 24.9 31.7 18.9 22.4 22.5 25.0 36.0 24.5 12.0 27.5
Blueberries 38.6 28.4 23.6 25.9 32.9 26.4 34.6 33.5 34.5 40.6 37.6 30.5 34.9 31.3
Blackberries 17.9 13.4 7.6 9.8 10.2 6.3 4.7 11.4 10.3 15.7 14.5 7.9 11.5 10.5
Unpasteurized fruit juice
Unpasteurized fruit juice 4.3 3.4 4.5 3.3 8.8 12.6 7.4 2.4 5.5 2.5 7.0 7.1 5.5 7.8
Fruit smoothies
Fruit smoothies 31.4 25.5 18.5 19.7 18.6 13.9 17.3 14.2 22.5 13.7 29.3 20.3 10.6 19.8
Nuts & Nut Products
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Peanut butter
Peanut butter 56.5 55.1 58.8 67.3 49.5 57.6 70.9 68.0 68.5 56.6 47.7 54.3 42.4 55.0
Other nut paste, butter or spread
Other nut paste, butter or spread 16.1 18.3 12.8 15.5 16.5 24.5 14.7 17.6 11.9 10.8 22.9 16.8 21.6 18.3
Nuts
Any nuts 72.0 69.7 64.6 71.0 65.8 58.9 59.0 66.6 65.2 62.0 71.6 61.9 46.8 65.4
Peanuts (not including peanut butter) 35.0 33.4 36.3 32.9 35.1 29.9 31.1 35.5 39.4 36.5 34.8 24.2 25.6 33.6
Almonds 52.5 46.9 34.8 46.5 39.6 34.8 39.4 40.1 39.5 32.7 51.8 37.7 26.5 41.0
Walnuts 20.3 16.3 10.3 15.5 22.2 15.0 9.8 17.6 11.7 16.4 16.9 14.6 9.0 18.5
Hazelnuts (Filberts) 11.0 9.6 8.2 7.3 12.0 7.8 8.6 7.7 4.6 10.2 8.0 10.1 5.1 10.1
Cashews 33.6 28.8 26.0 21.7 25.6 25.9 23.2 28.8 19.3 16.0 28.8 21.1 14.9 26.8
Pecans 17.9 16.6 11.9 14.9 13.8 7.6 13.1 8.4 8.0 10.8 18.1 17.8 7.8 12.9
Seeds & Seed Products
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Sunflower seeds 22.9 25.3 16.4 20.8 18.2 13.6 14.7 13.4 21.8 13.6 27.3 17.2 13.3 18.3
Sesame seeds 23.2 20.0 9.8 10.0 18.6 14.0 9.9 12.0 11.3 9.6 19.0 12.5 11.6 17.1
Tahini, halva or other products made from sesame seeds 7.7 6.3 2.2 3.4 7.8 6.4 6.2 4.0 2.3 5.0 11.2 7.7 5.4 6.8
Beef
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Note: s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Any beef (not including deli-meat) 75.8 85.1 86.3 80.5 75.4 80.4 79.4 75.6 81.6 85.7 65.1 72.4 66.0 78.4
Raw beef 0.1 0.4 0.2 1.2 0.5 1.9 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.2 0.2 0.8
Steak 34.4 33.0 32.0 26.5 25.9 36.5 36.8 28.9 35.6 38.1 21.9 37.9 21.7 31.1
Stewing beef 9.8 11.9 10.3 13.6 15.6 14.9 15.0 10.2 9.4 13.9 9.8 10.8 17.2 13.8
Other whole-cut beef products 16.4 23.8 25.8 24.7 19.4 19.2 22.4 16.6 23.0 30.6 16.0 25.3 19.1 20.0
Ground beef (including hamburger)
Any ground beef 59.2 70.2 72.1 69.4 60.7 64.5 65.7 65.1 69.2 65.7 48.2 57.1 54.1 63.4
Ground beef consumed raw or undercooked 0.0s 0.3 0.8 0.1 0.5 1.7 0.0 0.3 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.9 0.7
Hamburgers
Any hamburgers 42.2 46.3 53.7 42.8 35.1 35.0 51.4 47.7 53.2 49.1 36.5 33.0 30.6 39.1
Home-made 17.1 20.1 27.4 26.2 18.5 26.4 37.3 31.3 38.1 26.4 17.6 15.7 14.3 21.9
Store-bought frozen beef 10.0 13.0 17.4 7.2 9.4 2.0 6.6 6.5 10.7 22.5 9.9 14.7 12.1 8.4
From a restaurant or fast food establishment 21.0 22.2 24.1 17.8 14.3 11.4 18.2 21.0 16.0 16.2 11.8 7.7 7.4 16.1
Other ground beef
Other ground beef 36.7 47.7 47.9 50.2 41.8 51.6 39.4 34.1 39.3 43.2 29.9 43.3 42.7 44.3
Pork
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Any pork 52.6 53.1 62.7 61.7 53.9 56.5 58.3 56.4 63.1 60.0 59.5 51.9 44.1 55.1
Ham (not including deli-meat) 9.0 18.4 18.1 17.3 12.9 19.4 15.9 13.2 17.7 15.3 15.7 9.9 12.3 15.0
Bacon 27.6 27.9 37.5 29.6 26.8 24.4 26.4 30.0 34.2 37.5 39.4 37.8 22.0 27.2
Ground pork 6.7 8.1 9.6 8.6 9.0 9.1 6.4 2.7 2.7 3.9 6.8 5.1 2.1 8.3
Pork pieces or parts 30.5 31.2 35.1 40.1 31.2 38.0 39.3 36.5 41.8 42.8 32.7 31.8 30.5 33.7
Poultry
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Any poultry 88.1 85.0 83.2 88.4 88.5 87.9 88.5 81.7 86.2 89.7 82.6 76.4 75.3 87.6
Chicken
Any chicken (not including deli-meat) 85.9 83.6 80.4 85.4 86.2 86.9 86.9 79.4 85.6 86.2 80.3 73.5 71.8 85.6
Store-bought breaded chicken 16.0 15.8 18.7 19.8 14.9 16.8 20.7 20.9 27.5 28.4 20.0 18.7 30.4 16.5
Ground chicken 3.8 5.4 4.6 2.7 7.0 4.4 2.2 2.9 7.3 4.2 6.1 2.4 6.2 5.3
Chicken pieces or parts 70.7 71.4 62.2 70.1 67.0 75.0 75.3 63.8 71.6 71.4 70.9 62.7 60.0 70.0
Chicken from a restaurant or
fast food establishment
18.8 20.1 19.8 22.8 23.8 18.9 21.4 11.9 17.6 26.0 20.4 12.9 7.0 21.0
Turkey
Any turkey (not including deli-meat) 14.6 11.1 14.1 8.6 12.6 7.5 11.6 16.8 9.8 28.4 21.2 10.4 13.5 11.8
Turkey bacon 0.4 1.0 0.7 1.0 0.4 0.2 0.9 0.5 0.6 5.1 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.5
Ground turkey 5.8 1.6 1.9 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.3 1.9 2.3 5.5 2.3 2.2 1.2 2.5
Turkey pieces or parts 7.7 8.4 10.2 6.1 9.4 5.0 9.9 13.8 7.8 21.0 17.5 7.4 11.6 8.3
Other poultry
Other poultry (not including deli-meat) 1.4 0.7 1.5 2.7 1.7 5.0 0.5 1.1 1.9 0.6 0.5 5.3 2.9 2.3
Deli-Meat
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Any deli-meat/cold cuts 50.2 45.2 45.4 52.1 49.2 52.7 45.7 41.0 42.6 48.3 52.2 38.6 27.1 49.3
Chicken 7.7 8.9 10.1 11.4 10.5 8.2 7.2 6.7 8.5 9.9 4.4 2.0 2.8 9.2
Turkey 15.7 12.4 9.6 10.6 14.0 9.8 9.7 6.9 7.3 11.3 12.3 9.3 4.6 12.4
Ham 29.1 25.0 24.6 27.9 24.2 36.8 32.0 19.2 25.5 29.8 20.8 23.4 17.6 28.2
Beef 7.4 7.9 6.4 11.6 7.5 6.3 9.9 5.5 3.3 5.4 14.0 5.3 4.5 7.3
Bologna 2.4 5.9 10.2 12.0 9.7 9.5 12.0 11.1 7.8 18.9 2.3 5.7 9.4 8.5
Salami 9.4 8.4 8.3 15.0 12.2 11.5 14.5 10.6 11.4 13.7 16.3 9.3 6.6 11.3
Pepperoni 7.2 7.5 6.8 13.9 8.9 12.4 10.1 13.8 16.8 13.4 12.9 13.8 11.8 9.7
Kielbasa 2.2 2.4 3.0 5.8 3.8 2.0 0.3 2.5 0.3 0.8 2.5 0.6 1.1 2.9
Other Meat / Animal Products
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Hot dogs 27.6 25.6 29.7 25.9 26.8 25.2 37.7 31.2 23.1 31.0 20.2 31.3 47.4 26.9
Sausage 32.6 28.6 33.9 31.1 27.6 38.4 26.8 20.7 20.3 19.2 28.7 25.8 22.4 30.8
Dried meat products 9.8 11.9 12.1 9.0 7.5 3.1 6.4 8.6 4.9 4.2 22.2 28.6 34.9 7.4
Pâté/meat spread 5.6 2.3 2.2 1.7 3.1 12.0 2.4 4.1 1.5 3.2 1.8 3.0 4.9 5.3
Lamb 11.4 4.7 2.7 2.1 4.5 5.1 1.6 2.8 1.6 2.9 1.9 2.7 3.7 5.3
Veal 1.9 2.0 2.2 1.0 4.2 10.9 3.2 0.2 0.0 0.3 1.0 1.1 3.9 4.8
Goat 2.6 1.3 1.2 0.8 3.6 1.8 0.2 0.7 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.9 2.4
Organ meats or offal 5.8 2.8 2.4 2.0 4.8 3.9 1.2 4.3 2.2 3.3 2.2 8.6 2.3 4.2
Shawarma or donair 1.1 6.1 0.5 1.2 4.1 2.6 5.0 4.9 4.9 1.8 0.1 4.9 4.5 3.4
Fish & Seafood
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Fish
Any fish 56.8 44.9 43.0 50.1 55.1 62.5 54.8 62.6 46.9 58.7 51.7 49.5 53.0 55.6
Smoked fish 10.9 4.8 3.2 4.0 5.4 11.0 2.4 13.4 0.8 7.2 9.9 6.8 9.7 7.4
Raw fish 10.4 4.7 3.6 3.7 6.8 7.8 0.4 4.6 0.5 2.5 3.3 5.5 21.9 6.8
Shellfish
Any shellfish 17.8 19.6 13.4 17.3 16.5 15.3 20.4 19.4 20.0 15.3 20.4 15.8 8.7 16.8
Mussels 1.5 3.0 1.9 2.1 1.8 1.9 4.2 2.2 8.9 3.2 1.3 3.0 1.9 2.0
Clams 3.1 1.3 0.7 0.3 2.6 0.9 6.6 3.6 7.6 0.1 0.8 0.4 2.1 2.1
Scallops 3.1 1.8 1.7 2.2 2.4 6.2 7.1 5.9 7.7 5.0 3.4 5.3 0.9 3.5
Shrimp/prawns 15.7 14.8 10.8 15.0 15.1 13.5 9.6 7.8 6.3 7.0 17.6 13.9 5.3 14.1
Crab 4.1 2.3 1.4 3.3 2.5 3.5 1.1 2.1 1.8 2.3 3.5 0.8 0.5 2.9
Lobster 2.0 2.3 0.5 0.8 2.8 1.4 6.2 8.9 9.9 3.2 0.5 3.0 2.2 2.4
Oysters
Any oysters 1.7 2.4 2.8 0.4 0.7 0.4 1.3 1.2 3.5 0.0 1.8 4.8 1.8 1.0
Raw oysters 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.4
Eggs
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Any eggs 81.1 81.4 83.5 81.4 79.6 81.1 80.2 81.4 82.5 83.8 87.1 86.8 74.3 80.7
Raw or undercooked eggs 13.8 15.9 16.4 16.0 13.4 17.2 17.1 15.0 25.0 13.4 15.7 23.1 13.9 15.0
Dairy / Dairy Substitutes
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Dairy
Any dairy products (not including cheese) 87.1 84.3 80.8 85.6 83.0 86.3 85.3 83.7 91.1 87.1 84.9 80.3 77.8 84.6
Pasteurized dairy milk 78.1 73.5 71.8 77.3 72.0 76.8 77.0 77.2 74.5 81.0 71.5 69.8 65.7 74.7
Unpasteurized dairy milk (not including cheese) 0.9 2.4 1.9 1.4 3.5 3.2 1.0 5.7 6.4 0.5 1.2 0.8 3.8 2.8
Powdered milk product 3.1 4.6 3.6 2.7 2.6 1.4 1.3 0.8 1.4 4.7 6.7 3.2 13.3 2.6
Whipped/whipping cream 21.7 15.9 13.3 17.8 13.1 14.4 11.9 12.7 10.4 17.6 23.7 11.4 20.4 15.0
Sour cream 31.1 29.9 30.3 34.5 21.8 15.9 20.1 27.5 21.4 24.8 40.3 21.6 13.8 23.4
Ice cream/gelato 47.2 39.4 43.6 43.8 40.6 40.1 52.8 45.0 49.1 49.8 42.8 42.3 41.8 42.0
Yogurt 62.3 56.3 48.1 48.9 55.7 62.8 64.0 59.8 56.4 61.6 56.7 53.2 60.0 58.2
Dairy Substitutes
Any dairy substitutes or non-dairy milk 18.9 15.3 11.8 11.5 16.5 16.1 12.8 11.1 13.6 10.7 24.2 18.5 7.7 15.9
Cheese
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Any cheese 87.9 87.4 89.2 91.6 86.8 93.5 86.2 88.2 90.4 85.9 92.6 78.7 75.1 88.8
Cheddar 75.5 76.8 72.3 75.9 69.1 74.0 68.6 76.3 78.3 73.3 83.0 67.2 58.2 72.6
Mozzarella 43.4 45.0 43.8 52.2 45.1 54.0 48.6 56.0 48.9 51.9 47.1 44.5 45.5 47.6
Parmesan 47.0 40.0 33.8 42.0 41.9 35.0 37.3 39.7 38.7 32.2 39.8 39.3 34.3 40.1
Gouda 6.3 11.3 5.6 4.0 5.9 7.7 7.5 10.6 4.5 2.1 4.5 8.3 3.7 7.0
Feta 23.8 19.2 16.9 14.2 19.9 16.5 19.1 17.1 14.0 9.9 20.2 16.6 18.5 19.0
Other cheeses sold as
blocks/wheels
28.9 24.0 20.8 20.9 22.8 32.6 21.4 13.1 21.0 17.8 23.8 18.1 13.7 25.5
Brie, camembert or other soft
cheese
17.1 6.8 6.0 3.8 11.7 22.2 7.8 4.6 7.2 6.4 18.0 6.4 8.1 13.5
Blue-veined cheese 8.6 3.6 2.5 2.5 5.6 6.1 2.5 7.2 0.7 2.3 4.4 4.2 2.1 5.6
Cottage, ricotta or other fresh
cheese
12.4 13.8 18.1 14.6 13.7 13.4 6.4 6.8 5.3 4.9 14.6 7.9 7.0 13.1
Goat/sheep milk cheese 6.0 5.6 4.0 3.1 11.4 9.4 5.8 5.5 5.1 2.5 11.3 6.7 6.5 8.6
Processed cheese 27.4 34.1 44.4 41.7 33.6 42.5 46.8 39.6 30.2 44.6 18.7 29.9 38.1 36.1
Any cheese made with
unpasteurized milk
2.7 0.8 2.5 3.5 1.4 10.1 1.7 1.2 1.6 0.2 1.8 3.1 3.4 3.6
Frozen Foods
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Frozen vegetables
Frozen vegetables 41.9 49.8 55.4 46.8 40.5 23.9 40.3 47.3 51.8 40.4 50.1 55.1 53.6 38.7
Frozen fruit
Any frozen fruit 35.7 30.5 25.4 27.8 21.1 18.1 26.4 24.8 30.6 28.6 47.3 41.0 40.5 24.2
Frozen berries 33.5 27.3 22.3 25.8 17.4 16.2 22.5 23.4 23.9 26.8 44.5 39.4 33.5 21.3
Frozen fruit (not including berries) 13.3 14.3 9.7 8.7 8.6 6.7 8.3 5.9 9.7 6.3 15.4 18.3 22.1 9.4
Frozen pizza
Frozen pizza 17.9 17.5 25.9 20.2 21.8 18.6 22.4 18.8 30.6 21.8 19.4 25.9 33.9 20.1
Frozen pot pies
Frozen pot pies 3.2 2.4 2.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 6.1 4.6 5.7 1.6 4.0 3.4 7.6 3.6
Frozen meals in a bag or box
Frozen meals in a bag or box 9.6 9.0 9.3 8.8 9.3 11.1 14.4 8.1 8.9 13.9 6.3 8.9 15.0 9.9
Frozen snack foods/appetizers
Frozen snack foods/appetizers 5.2 6.4 3.9 6.0 7.8 3.8 5.0 7.0 11.8 7.0 12.8 4.1 6.6 6.1
Dried, Processed & Other
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Dried fruit 42.6 34.7 28.5 31.1 35.7 25.0 27.5 31.9 34.3 31.5 46.6 35.5 43.6 33.2
Granola bars, power bars, or other protein bars 41.0 43.3 32.9 36.1 36.3 34.4 40.8 37.4 46.4 50.9 34.7 44.9 39.7 37.5
Chips or pretzels 59.4 54.5 58.1 56.6 53.6 48.9 64.1 49.1 60.9 58.7 57.9 59.8 69.1 53.9
Chocolate or chocolate-containing candy 68.8 66.3 60.8 66.6 64.0 59.5 64.5 65.5 62.1 64.6 67.1 71.4 68.3 63.9
Cold breakfast cereal 52.6 54.6 52.0 61.1 54.3 53.7 50.7 60.7 64.2 54.6 51.1 52.5 61.9 54.3
Hot breakfast cereal 33.6 37.9 33.1 30.4 28.5 18.9 30.3 33.4 28.4 34.4 40.5 44.1 37.1 28.5
Tofu 14.3 5.9 2.9 5.6 8.2 9.2 5.7 6.0 1.5 2.6 5.5 6.2 3.9 8.5
Dietary or nutritional supplement 34.4 35.9 27.2 32.6 31.7 16.6 20.5 22.0 22.3 27.1 46.8 28.7 16.1 28.2
Ethnic Foods & Fast Foods
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Asian style foods 31.8 31.6 26.4 27.4 29.4 22.1 17.1 23.1 17.7 18.6 24.8 25.8 13.3 27.4
Indian style foods 23.9 14.7 9.2 7.9 16.2 5.5 8.0 12.5 7.7 3.7 8.9 10.6 6.3 13.5
Mexican style foods 24.7 20.6 16.8 26.5 15.0 11.9 13.6 17.0 12.8 16.6 22.6 17.0 19.6 16.7
Meal from a fast food restaurant 56.6 45.5 50.1 54.4 53.5 57.1 52.0 48.4 53.8 49.8 65.7 63.5 82.5 53.6
Baby Foods
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Baby food consumption questions were asked only of proxy respondents answering on behalf of those who were <2 years old.
Baby formula
Any baby formula 25.5 24.9 28.1 24.6 22.2 20.9 23.6 27.2 32.7 19.0 7.0 27.5 52.1 23.1
Liquid 10.1 9.2 12.4 12.0 9.9 13.6 9.4 7.7 18.4 4.6 1.9 6.3 14.3 10.9
Powder 22.0 20.9 18.0 16.7 19.2 14.4 15.7 22.3 24.1 19.0 7.0 25.8 52.1 18.5
Store-bought pureed baby food
Store-bought pureed baby food 25.3 22.4 27.9 28.3 18.8 18.9 15.7 18.4 25.4 13.3 29.8 24.6 18.7 20.5
Infant/toddler cereal
Infant/toddler cereal 22.0 15.8 31.6 24.0 16.9 34.1 22.2 21.3 33.3 17.6 20.5 31.1 30.6 22.9
Water
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Primary drinking water source
Municipal water 77.9 74.6 66.5 63.4 69.5 66.9 33.5 45.2 34.1 63.7 63.4 71.8 76.0 68.5
Private well 7.1 6.3 7.2 14.3 8.9 10.2 46.3 40.2 55.6 13.4 18.5 0.1 2.3 10.8
Store-bought bottled water 12.1 17.6 24.4 19.5 19.8 21.6 18.4 12.4 9.9 17.0 9.6 17.7 7.3 18.8
Raw water consumption
Raw water consumption 3.2 1.2 1.4 2.4 2.7 1.6 6.2 4.4 1.1 11.6 4.3 10.6 29.6 2.6
Swim or go into any water
Swim or go into any water 18.6 12.8 9.9 10.8 13.3 11.3 12.9 10.7 11.4 9.1 21.4 12.5 1.1 13.1
Pool 13.0 10.1 5.5 8.3 9.3 9.4 9.0 7.3 7.5 6.6 15.1 9.9 0.6 9.7
Hot tub 5.7 6.5 3.7 4.2 3.3 1.3 2.0 1.0 1.8 1.1 12.2 6.3 0.0 3.4
Recreational waterpark 1.3 1.5 1.9 1.2 1.7 1.9 1.1 0.7 0.8 1.3 1.6 1.8 0.0 1.6
Swim or go into any natural water
Swim or go into any natural water 9.6 2.5 2.7 2.5 3.4 2.9 3.6 5.4 4.4 3.1 5.8 3.2 0.8 4.0
Ocean 6.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.8 3.5 3.8 0.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 1.2
Lake 3.3 1.7 2.7 2.2 3.0 2.4 2.1 2.0 0.3 2.1 3.2 1.9 0.7 2.6
River 1.0 0.8 0.0 0.4 0.9 0.7 1.7 0.7 0.6 1.5 0.9 1.4 0.1 0.8
Natural hot spring 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.3
Swim or go into swimming facility in the last 4 weeks
Swim or go into a swimming facility in the last 4 weeks 25.5 23.0 18.5 17.3 20.3 13.4 15.3 19.1 15.1 18.6 28.9 22.2 3.9 19.3
Animal Contact
Exposure BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL YT NT NU Canada
Note: s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Any contact with animals, animal waste, habitat or food 66.8 64.9 67.2 65.2 62.8 57.5 76.2 77.3 74.9 69.1 70.2 60.2 40.5 63.4
Cat 34.1 30.6 31.8 27.8 31.0 31.1 37.9 46.2 38.9 34.9 25.4 17.6 8.9 31.9
Dog 50.7 48.3 51.2 49.3 42.2 34.0 51.9 52.3 55.2 50.0 60.0 51.2 32.9 43.3
Bird 3.3 4.5 3.0 2.2 1.8 2.5 2.1 2.3 7.9 1.6 2.7 0.5 2.0 2.6
Reptile 1.1 1.2 2.5 1.5 2.1 1.2 4.2 1.3 0.9 1.0 5.2 0.3 0.3 1.6
Amphibian 2.9 0.7 0.7 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.6 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.0 0.3 1.2
Rodent or pocket pet 2.7 4.3 4.6 2.4 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.6 5.0 2.6 3.5 4.3 1.1 3.4
Fish or aquarium 3.7 4.2 3.7 7.1 5.8 2.9 5.2 4.1 5.7 3.9 5.7 4.8 1.9 4.5
Cow 2.0 6.3 5.4 5.6 2.8 1.5 0.8 1.3 9.1 0.9 0.1 0.1 0.0 2.8
Goat, sheep or lamb 2.9 3.7 2.7 1.1 2.1 1.0 1.9 1.8 1.8 0.7 1.0 0.0s 0.0 2.1
Horse 4.2 7.3 5.4 5.1 2.6 2.0 2.3 3.5 7.3 4.5 5.2 0.9 0.0 3.4
Pig 1.1 1.3 2.1 1.7 1.6 0.4 0.2 0.0s 5.3 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 1.2
Poultry/baby poultry 3.8 3.0 3.7 4.2 2.6 2.4 1.9 1.9 6.7 2.7 3.6 0.3 0.6 2.8
Handled any dry pet food 47.4 43.1 42.3 44.8 43.8 36.5 57.8 51.4 51.2 45.8 52.2 38.4 23.8 43.0
Handled any canned/wet pet
food
14.0 12.9 9.7 12.2 13.7 6.9 12.7 22.3 11.9 18.2 8.3 10.9 9.4 12.1
Handled any raw pet food (store-
bought or home-made)
4.8 4.4 3.4 3.0 3.7 3.1 2.8 3.1 6.7 6.2 6.0 3.0 3.8 3.8
Handled any treats derived from
animal parts
11.0 10.9 9.4 8.1 8.5 4.9 7.6 11.8 12.1 4.0 11.9 13.2 7.1 8.3
Handled any processed animal
treats
25.7 22.2 21.9 24.0 25.4 18.2 33.7 29.6 24.6 21.1 29.3 22.7 9.0 23.5
Handled any rodents/insects for
reptiles
0.8 0.8 2.0 2.2 1.3 1.6 4.0 0.8 0.4 0.8 5.0 1.4 0.1 1.3
Handled any farm
animal/livestock feed
4.6 7.1 5.1 5.6 3.2 2.8 0.9 3.9 8.9 1.5 5.7 0.4 1.7 3.8
Visited any petting zoo 0.5 0.7 1.0 0.5 1.9 0.5 2.5 0.4 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1
Visited any farm or barn 8.0 10.0 10.4 9.1 7.4 3.1 5.7 9.0 15.0 5.1 6.2 1.5 0.0 6.9
Visited any agricultural fair 2.0 2.5 0.8 0.3 1.1 0.8 1.6 1.6 1.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.0 1.3
Visited any pet store 6.0 5.3 5.4 2.8 4.7 3.6 2.8 3.1 2.0 2.7 3.9 2.8 0.1 4.5

Table 7: Weighted proportions of food, animal and water exposures in the past seven days, by month

Vegetables
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Tomatoes
Any tomatoes 63.0 72.1 68.7 70.9 69.3 76.9 83.7 83.6 78.0 71.4 70.4 66.4 72.9
Tomatoes on a sandwich, burger or taco at restaurant or fast food establishment 17.6 23.0 14.6 21.8 12.9 25.2 29.0 21.7 29.8 14.1 24.3 16.3 20.4
Roma/plum tomatoes 23.4 24.9 25.4 20.4 21.9 25.6 25.4 22.9 37.2 29.9 28.7 22.2 25.7
Hothouse tomatoes 32.3 36.3 39.7 38.8 40.5 50.1 52.3 34.9 34.1 29.1 35.9 36.5 38.3
Beefsteak tomatoes 11.3 9.6 7.4 7.1 9.7 11.2 15.6 28.1 17.4 11.3 7.4 7.9 12.2
Cherry or grape tomatoes 32.0 22.5 30.1 30.0 27.3 29.9 43.6 47.8 39.5 34.9 27.4 26.6 32.8
Lettuce or leafy greens
Any lettuce or leafy greens 76.2 83.1 83.0 84.9 82.5 87.7 90.1 84.1 84.4 79.1 81.2 75.3 82.4
Lettuce or leafy greens on a sandwich, burger or taco at restaurant or fast food establishment 23.5 24.2 16.7 24.5 22.4 30.3 29.9 23.3 36.6 15.7 23.5 22.7 24.3
Iceberg lettuce 41.2 45.0 44.5 48.1 42.0 40.2 42.5 47.6 39.4 27.0 40.8 39.1 41.1
Romaine lettuce 43.7 47.4 45.4 53.6 51.5 48.1 58.2 49.3 52.8 50.6 43.1 43.0 48.8
Spinach 29.8 29.3 24.4 29.1 33.9 30.1 37.2 27.1 24.7 25.7 23.5 22.9 28.4
Mesclun greens 16.7 17.5 17.3 9.6 18.8 23.1 16.5 7.0 15.2 11.1 11.4 13.4 15.0
Pre-packaged lettuce or leafy greens 47.3 49.1 46.7 50.3 51.2 39.2 51.7 37.9 45.6 48.1 43.6 40.8 46.1
Cabbage
Cabbage (includes coleslaw) 22.8 27.0 35.6 33.0 30.5 26.3 31.0 25.0 34.1 24.5 36.0 35.2 30.0
Sprouts
Any sprouts 13.2 12.6 17.2 16.8 14.5 9.7 14.4 14.0 10.9 10.7 11.8 10.3 12.9
Alfalfa sprouts 2.5 1.4 2.7 6.7 3.0 2.1 2.1 1.1 3.0 2.7 1.2 3.3 2.4
Bean sprouts 10.9 9.8 11.9 12.1 8.9 6.7 6.3 11.5 7.8 7.4 7.9 5.3 8.7
Cucumbers
Cucumbers 51.8 65.6 63.0 56.9 61.6 65.2 76.0 74.7 67.7 52.2 56.2 59.4 62.9
Bell peppers
Bell peppers 63.5 74.1 67.9 65.6 58.8 61.6 69.9 54.7 64.3 62.1 61.0 65.5 63.6
Hot peppers
Hot peppers 22.4 18.3 17.4 22.1 13.4 16.6 12.9 19.8 21.7 29.9 21.3 21.7 19.4
Celery
Celery 51.9 48.8 42.0 50.4 48.1 47.0 50.9 46.8 40.6 43.1 49.9 52.4 47.6
Carrots
Any carrots 80.5 84.8 81.7 81.7 84.5 71.4 82.9 76.4 76.2 80.9 87.1 85.2 81.4
Carrots (not mini) 69.1 70.0 69.9 65.3 71.5 57.7 64.6 66.7 69.7 65.1 78.9 72.8 68.9
Mini carrots 36.6 38.8 35.2 39.4 40.0 34.7 37.0 32.9 33.0 34.1 34.6 34.8 35.9
Peas
Peas (shelled or in pods) 28.8 26.7 32.3 25.5 25.1 26.0 27.7 40.8 24.7 27.4 30.8 28.1 28.8
Green or yellow beans
Green or yellow beans 33.6 34.7 34.3 38.1 29.6 27.6 40.8 50.9 39.6 33.4 42.2 34.9 36.6
Broccoli
Broccoli 56.8 54.9 58.5 59.5 56.3 55.5 53.6 42.4 55.3 60.1 63.2 54.3 55.5
Cauliflower
Cauliflower 31.9 46.8 36.7 28.4 30.2 32.7 26.0 38.1 36.3 31.9 32.1 25.9 33.0
Leeks
Leeks 8.1 8.6 7.2 9.7 5.8 4.8 6.4 11.7 11.6 10.2 13.9 13.5 9.2
Garlic
Fresh garlic (not powdered) 53.1 53.3 44.9 53.2 43.1 49.0 52.3 41.6 51.6 53.9 48.6 49.2 48.9
Mushrooms
Mushrooms 44.7 44.6 53.5 52.0 47.8 50.3 51.7 52.7 56.4 41.0 52.5 55.0 50.0
Zucchini
Zucchini 16.8 26.1 18.9 13.9 20.7 16.4 23.8 28.6 21.9 20.6 20.2 18.4 21.1
Onions
Any onions 82.6 81.3 84.3 83.0 81.0 82.7 80.2 85.6 85.0 83.8 80.9 82.8 82.7
White/yellow onions 76.6 74.9 74.8 71.4 70.7 74.5 74.2 68.4 76.8 76.5 71.5 73.5 73.5
Red onions 29.1 27.6 33.3 38.0 27.2 39.6 33.9 46.4 32.9 26.1 32.6 26.9 32.2
Green onions 30.5 29.8 31.6 34.7 31.1 42.4 43.2 33.9 42.0 36.3 29.9 25.1 34.0
Vegetable juice
Vegetable juice 13.7 18.5 17.9 26.2 21.4 17.7 12.6 15.0 13.4 17.4 23.2 25.1 18.2
Herbs & Spices
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Fresh herbs
Any fresh herbs 40.0 42.7 47.3 47.9 40.7 49.1 59.2 61.8 48.4 42.2 49.1 43.0 47.5
Fresh Thai basil 7.9 8.6 7.2 10.3 9.8 10.1 13.4 12.3 10.2 6.4 6.0 8.7 9.2
Fresh basil 10.6 12.1 16.1 19.0 10.5 20.5 29.0 23.1 26.1 16.0 15.9 18.7 17.8
Fresh cilantro/coriander 14.5 17.2 21.1 14.7 16.2 21.0 17.9 15.4 15.0 21.5 23.4 13.0 17.6
Fresh tarragon 1.2 4.1 1.8 4.1 4.1 8.8 3.8 2.7 2.2 2.2 1.5 2.5 3.2
Fresh parsley 23.9 18.0 23.5 23.0 21.7 27.6 35.1 36.9 23.6 20.2 30.5 27.5 26.1
Other fresh herbs 16.6 16.5 19.7 24.3 17.7 33.5 36.3 38.5 31.2 15.5 25.1 16.5 24.0
Spices
Any spices 91.5 92.9 88.4 89.6 90.4 88.1 92.7 91.9 88.1 89.2 93.5 90.3 90.7
Pepper (whole/ground, white, black,
blended)
85.2 86.8 84.1 84.7 85.7 84.2 86.1 84.5 84.0 83.8 86.5 81.9 84.8
Curry powder 17.2 13.9 18.9 19.9 16.5 16.2 18.2 15.5 15.7 20.5 21.8 18.4 17.6
Paprika 22.9 22.1 19.2 28.7 20.1 25.0 30.9 22.9 24.5 15.9 19.1 19.8 22.2
Turmeric 17.9 23.1 15.2 10.9 11.1 17.2 16.3 15.2 15.1 13.3 19.2 11.7 15.4
Other spices 55.9 55.8 46.6 50.7 47.0 47.9 51.9 46.5 51.7 48.2 44.1 41.5 48.8
Store-Bought Prepared Salads & Dips
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Store-bought prepared salad
Any store-bought prepared salad 9.3 12.1 12.2 16.6 15.8 22.3 19.5 12.8 14.3 10.7 11.2 18.7 14.5
Green salad 6.6 9.8 7.8 12.4 7.6 12.4 13.5 5.4 10.5 6.1 7.2 12.6 9.0
Coleslaw 1.2 2.9 2.2 4.1 4.5 4.9 5.6 4.2 2.6 3.0 3.9 6.3 3.8
Potato salad 0.3 0.9 1.5 1.5 2.8 5.0 5.1 4.0 1.4 0.8 1.0 5.5 2.6
Pasta salad 0.9 0.9 2.2 1.2 2.4 6.2 1.7 2.1 0.9 0.8 1.1 1.9 1.8
Fruit salad/pre-cut fruit/fruit platter 0.7 1.0 3.1 2.6 3.5 8.0 8.4 2.8 1.0 1.2 2.8 1.7 3.1
Salsa
Salsa 21.5 24.8 22.4 30.3 22.9 22.3 23.3 23.3 22.0 17.2 17.5 18.4 21.7
Hummus
Hummus 15.1 13.5 16.6 9.5 9.5 13.8 15.1 9.1 12.1 15.3 19.9 11.5 13.4
Fruits
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Apples
Apples 74.5 74.7 76.7 73.7 73.4 69.1 62.5 58.8 65.5 80.5 82.3 77.8 72.3
Pears
Pears 23.9 21.0 20.8 28.4 26.2 22.6 17.2 24.3 20.4 24.9 31.6 27.3 23.9
Peaches
Peaches 5.5 6.1 7.0 3.4 8.3 14.0 25.3 42.6 40.0 10.1 12.0 8.2 16.0
Nectarines
Nectarines 6.9 12.5 11.1 6.6 7.7 13.6 26.3 18.5 16.2 6.5 8.9 12.7 12.6
Apricots
Apricots 2.0 3.3 1.8 4.7 4.0 10.2 6.3 9.2 7.3 0.9 2.2 4.3 4.6
Plums
Plums 6.9 5.8 11.9 4.0 4.7 12.0 19.5 29.8 21.3 12.4 10.0 8.6 12.7
Citrus fruit
Citrus fruit 70.1 75.6 71.6 71.3 65.2 59.5 62.2 53.4 56.6 55.3 69.0 75.5 65.0
Cherries
Cherries 5.9 7.5 4.0 2.9 3.6 14.4 56.1 41.9 11.6 4.7 8.5 5.3 14.7
Grapes
Grapes 48.8 53.2 53.5 49.5 48.6 54.4 54.6 55.3 48.3 53.8 56.7 51.8 52.3
Bananas
Bananas 71.1 76.6 78.3 84.5 77.2 75.4 75.0 76.7 72.7 81.1 76.3 80.4 76.7
Mangoes
Mangoes 10.8 17.2 12.1 15.4 18.7 25.7 25.5 16.3 11.0 10.3 11.7 13.6 15.7
Papaya
Papaya 2.8 1.5 2.8 6.4 3.5 2.7 4.2 3.1 1.0 1.2 3.7 6.1 3.1
Kiwi
Kiwi 16.2 12.8 15.8 18.2 13.5 11.6 13.4 9.5 5.4 6.1 14.9 14.2 12.3
Pomegranate
Pomegranate 9.4 7.6 4.3 1.6 4.4 5.9 5.2 5.6 3.7 5.8 17.6 20.1 7.8
Pineapple
Pineapple 23.4 26.4 32.5 36.8 37.8 39.2 36.9 26.6 19.5 24.7 28.7 28.7 30.0
Avocado
Avocado (includes guacamole) 21.7 30.2 31.5 22.5 27.3 29.1 34.0 17.7 18.2 25.4 25.6 26.7 26.0
Olives
Olives 23.0 29.8 30.0 32.4 23.8 37.4 26.9 23.2 30.8 23.2 22.7 31.8 27.2
Melon
Any melon 22.0 32.2 32.6 41.8 40.3 56.3 62.1 59.3 45.8 30.7 30.5 23.0 39.7
Cantaloupe 14.3 24.5 25.4 25.4 25.8 21.2 30.7 31.6 22.9 21.9 20.0 17.1 23.5
Honeydew 8.7 12.2 11.8 18.3 15.5 24.3 19.0 17.9 13.1 8.4 12.1 8.4 13.8
Watermelon 9.8 9.9 10.9 22.7 24.9 42.0 46.7 45.5 32.5 10.5 12.6 13.0 23.7
Berries
Any berries 55.2 56.7 64.0 65.4 68.3 72.0 82.2 77.5 68.6 55.2 58.3 54.7 65.2
Strawberries 42.3 44.6 55.0 60.9 60.5 66.3 74.2 54.2 48.2 33.0 36.9 22.2 49.6
Raspberries 22.2 22.7 22.4 17.6 24.6 28.5 38.0 27.0 30.2 24.6 31.1 33.8 27.5
Blueberries 21.6 32.3 31.9 18.7 22.0 26.9 50.4 52.2 36.1 26.7 26.3 22.1 31.3
Blackberries 12.3 11.8 10.8 6.0 11.2 7.0 14.1 10.3 10.4 5.5 13.2 9.5 10.5
Unpasteurized fruit juice
Unpasteurized fruit juice 8.6 11.2 5.0 8.9 4.6 7.3 5.3 8.9 8.8 13.5 6.5 7.8 7.8
Fruit smoothies
Fruit smoothies 17.1 24.2 16.7 22.5 18.6 17.3 29.1 18.4 22.4 18.0 17.7 16.8 19.8
Nuts and Nut Products
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Peanut butter
Peanut butter 62.3 46.5 56.8 57.0 57.7 52.2 61.7 48.4 53.7 47.0 62.5 53.4 55.0
Other nut paste, butter or spread
Other nut paste, butter or spread 15.9 17.6 18.4 25.1 20.0 15.5 20.5 14.2 21.0 11.0 19.7 23.4 18.3
Nuts
Any nuts 61.7 64.6 64.3 65.2 60.4 63.3 73.4 59.9 63.4 71.1 67.6 71.1 65.4
Peanuts (not including peanut butter) 36.6 31.5 29.8 28.0 29.3 35.4 39.8 33.4 28.1 32.6 35.7 40.6 33.6
Almonds 36.2 38.2 40.9 38.9 41.0 34.1 44.0 39.3 46.2 46.5 39.1 43.5 41.0
Walnuts 14.9 24.7 13.1 14.8 15.9 18.1 18.5 22.6 16.0 20.5 17.5 23.6 18.5
Hazelnuts (Filberts) 7.5 7.7 7.8 10.6 8.0 6.8 10.5 16.8 12.1 11.0 7.1 14.1 10.1
Cashews 27.0 27.1 31.8 22.3 22.7 22.5 28.3 29.5 29.3 25.2 28.6 25.8 26.8
Pecans 10.7 13.6 10.3 14.9 9.7 11.7 23.9 15.8 15.4 9.5 11.3 10.2 12.9
Seeds and Seed Products
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Sunflower seeds 13.8 22.5 16.6 16.6 20.2 15.2 21.5 17.5 19.5 14.3 17.5 21.3 18.3
Sesame seeds 17.0 19.6 16.0 14.4 16.5 24.1 17.2 15.8 18.9 19.6 15.2 12.4 17.1
Tahini, halva or other products made from sesame seeds 4.0 8.3 8.1 4.3 5.0 9.9 13.4 3.4 10.8 5.1 5.6 3.7 6.8
Beef
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Note: s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Any beef (not including deli-meat) 79.9 77.5 78.5 77.1 81.4 74.2 85.5 75.6 80.9 75.1 74.0 77.6 78.4
Raw beef 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.9 1.6 1.2 1.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 1.2 0.3 0.8
Steak 30.4 25.2 25.2 28.3 37.4 29.1 42.0 35.9 36.4 28.6 22.6 23.1 31.1
Stewing beef 14.7 23.2 18.1 15.6 12.2 3.9 8.6 9.9 12.5 10.3 18.0 20.3 13.8
Other whole-cut beef products 24.2 23.2 24.6 20.1 20.0 10.3 16.7 20.9 21.2 16.8 20.1 20.6 20.0
Ground beef (including hamburger)
Any ground beef 67.1 64.4 63.1 59.3 64.5 64.3 69.2 61.6 65.9 57.8 58.1 62.3 63.4
Ground beef consumed raw or undercooked 0.8 0.4 0.7 0.4 1.0 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.0s 0.2 1.5 1.4 0.7
Hamburgers
Any hamburgers 36.4 28.4 34.7 38.2 46.6 46.7 51.2 45.9 42.7 35.4 30.1 26.9 39.1
Home-made 15.0 18.7 22.3 14.7 28.0 32.3 28.7 26.7 24.3 17.6 13.4 13.6 21.9
Store-bought frozen beef patties 2.1 3.5 5.3 10.9 12.8 14.6 14.1 12.0 8.4 6.9 4.7 4.3 8.4
From a restaurant or fast food establishment 23.2 9.7 12.7 19.4 17.0 16.7 21.2 14.2 15.8 15.9 15.1 12.8 16.1
Other ground beef
Other ground beef 54.1 51.5 49.9 42.1 45.9 39.4 38.3 35.6 43.7 38.3 40.9 51.1 44.3
Pork
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Any pork 54.7 55.0 53.8 57.4 52.7 56.1 53.2 60.0 61.2 50.4 50.6 58.4 55.1
Ham (not including deli-meat) 17.2 9.7 13.8 21.6 14.9 10.7 9.3 20.1 12.6 18.8 12.3 21.2 15.0
Bacon 27.6 28.5 21.9 25.5 26.1 28.3 28.1 28.0 33.3 21.6 26.6 30.5 27.2
Ground pork 9.2 7.5 8.5 8.0 6.3 6.3 4.5 11.4 9.2 10.4 4.8 13.3 8.3
Pork pieces or parts 34.8 36.1 35.3 36.5 32.5 30.5 31.3 37.1 34.8 35.6 29.5 32.2 33.7
Poultry
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Any poultry 87.9 87.7 86.0 86.1 87.8 78.6 89.6 86.9 91.1 91.9 86.0 87.4 87.6
Chicken
Any chicken (not including deli-meat) 85.3 87.1 84.9 83.1 87.3 77.0 89.0 85.9 88.9 83.8 84.7 85.5 85.6
Store-bought breaded chicken 18.0 16.6 20.5 17.2 20.6 12.0 14.0 16.2 16.6 15.0 13.2 15.5 16.5
Ground chicken 2.8 5.8 4.5 3.0 4.9 6.8 5.2 3.5 5.7 7.9 8.0 4.7 5.3
Chicken pieces or parts 75.1 65.6 70.4 67.9 73.1 61.2 73.1 67.7 70.3 68.8 69.9 71.3 70.0
Chicken from a restaurant or fast food establishment 18.0 25.1 23.0 16.8 21.4 20.5 29.8 19.7 21.1 15.4 17.7 20.0 21.0
Turkey
Any turkey (not including deli-meat) 16.0 6.1 9.1 13.2 9.7 8.8 8.9 15.1 7.3 26.7 8.0 12.3 11.8
Turkey bacon 0.1 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.5 1.1 0.3 0.7 0.5 1.0 0.3 0.4 0.5
Ground turkey 3.5 1.2 3.2 1.5 2.5 4.5 4.3 2.5 2.0 1.1 2.0 1.9 2.5
Turkey pieces or parts 11.8 3.9 4.8 9.3 5.6 3.5 4.0 11.6 5.0 24.1 5.9 9.6 8.3
Other poultry
Other poultry (not including deli-meat) 1.7 2.6 3.1 3.9 2.7 0.7 2.7 1.3 2.7 2.5 1.3 2.9 2.3
Deli-Meat
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Any deli-meat/cold cuts 51.1 45.8 50.0 43.1 46.6 49.9 61.7 54.5 52.8 42.9 43.3 45.7 49.3
Chicken 9.4 6.7 5.3 8.9 9.5 8.5 12.9 9.3 13.2 6.3 11.8 7.6 9.2
Turkey 13.2 8.6 13.3 12.4 11.2 8.0 22.2 12.6 14.0 13.0 9.5 9.3 12.4
Ham 31.7 27.1 27.7 26.5 27.9 22.4 29.1 33.7 34.4 23.8 24.2 26.3 28.2
Beef 6.7 6.7 8.8 4.0 7.5 8.1 13.2 8.3 7.4 5.0 2.6 6.3 7.3
Bologna 7.8 6.9 6.4 8.3 8.7 13.8 12.9 10.2 7.8 5.7 8.0 6.2 8.5
Salami 12.2 7.7 13.8 9.0 8.8 10.7 10.8 17.0 10.5 8.3 10.6 14.6 11.3
Pepperoni 8.5 10.8 11.9 10.3 10.1 6.8 12.6 10.8 9.0 6.9 6.4 12.0 9.7
Kielbasa 1.9 1.6 3.3 1.4 4.7 2.6 4.8 2.6 2.2 2.5 1.8 2.7 2.9
Other Meat / Animal Products
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Hot dogs 18.8 16.8 19.9 24.3 32.8 33.4 43.0 38.6 27.3 19.9 15.6 24.2 26.9
Sausage 25.0 32.8 31.3 30.7 30.3 36.4 35.2 38.2 28.8 21.1 26.6 34.2 30.8
Dried meat products 10.3 5.7 8.0 10.1 6.1 3.9 6.7 9.7 8.5 8.7 5.0 7.7 7.4
Pâté/meat spread 5.9 8.8 2.2 4.0 6.4 5.3 7.5 4.6 4.5 5.6 2.9 5.0 5.3
Lamb 4.5 3.4 5.0 2.9 6.1 7.3 8.4 4.6 5.0 3.7 3.4 6.9 5.3
Veal 4.7 5.0 6.4 6.4 4.7 1.4 4.3 4.7 5.9 2.7 4.6 7.6 4.8
Goat 0.3 7.6 1.3 0.7 2.1 0.3 0.6 4.7 0.0 4.8 2.1 2.8 2.4
Organ meats or offal 2.2 1.6 3.2 3.2 5.8 3.7 5.7 8.6 1.3 6.3 3.2 2.8 4.2
Shawarma or donair 1.9 8.2 3.2 1.3 1.4 1.8 2.7 2.5 6.6 1.8 5.1 4.1 3.4
Fish & Seafood
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Fish
Any fish 55.3 63.5 58.8 57.3 51.7 61.1 57.5 55.3 45.9 56.3 53.2 57.0 55.6
Smoked fish 7.8 11.6 7.1 7.2 7.1 5.7 7.6 4.7 5.4 8.5 6.2 10.4 7.4
Raw fish 7.9 7.0 7.0 5.2 5.2 4.7 11.2 2.3 7.2 5.0 5.5 12.4 6.8
Shellfish
Any shellfish 17.0 24.3 19.1 13.4 13.7 16.5 17.9 18.0 17.3 16.0 12.7 15.9 16.8
Mussels 3.0 3.7 1.5 1.6 2.8 0.9 2.6 1.3 1.0 0.9 2.7 1.7 2.0
Clams 0.2 2.8 0.9 0.7 1.6 0.9 1.8 8.7 1.0 3.4 0.5 1.0 2.1
Scallops 2.8 6.3 3.4 3.0 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.5 1.2 7.4 2.3 6.1 3.5
Shrimp/prawns 15.6 19.7 18.1 11.8 9.4 14.1 13.9 15.6 13.3 14.4 11.2 14.0 14.1
Crab 2.0 4.4 2.6 1.7 3.2 1.2 6.7 2.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 4.9 2.9
Lobster 1.0 1.6 2.3 0.6 2.1 4.0 2.8 8.7 0.5 2.2 0.6 1.3 2.4
Oysters
Any oysters 0.8 2.0 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.5 1.5 0.7 1.4 1.0 0.7 1.3 1.0
Raw oysters 0.3 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4
Eggs
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Any eggs 83.1 83.2 85.8 81.9 80.4 82.9 79.2 72.5 80.9 80.1 81.3 80.2 80.7
Raw or undercooked eggs 12.6 15.8 13.9 16.5 15.3 23.7 15.6 10.8 13.6 16.7 14.5 14.4 15.0
Dairy / Dairy Substitutes
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Dairy
Any dairy products (not including cheese) 85.6 87.5 86.0 80.8 82.8 85.8 90.2 85.0 86.2 78.5 82.6 83.3 84.6
Pasteurized dairy milk 76.1 81.5 76.4 69.7 71.7 73.5 82.1 71.4 69.8 69.1 76.7 76.8 74.7
Unpasteurized dairy milk (not including cheese) 5.6 3.1 1.6 2.4 3.1 3.3 2.9 5.5 0.4 2.8 0.9 1.3 2.8
Powdered milk product 1.5 1.3 2.3 2.0 2.9 2.0 1.9 1.4 4.4 5.2 3.8 1.6 2.6
Whipped/whipping cream 12.8 17.5 18.6 13.6 15.7 16.5 20.4 13.3 12.3 13.5 12.1 13.4 15.0
Sour cream 24.8 23.1 26.9 23.6 25.8 17.7 29.1 18.8 21.8 21.6 19.0 26.4 23.4
Ice cream/gelato 38.6 35.8 40.1 40.8 45.6 47.5 59.6 56.7 39.5 31.1 31.0 32.3 42.0
Yogurt 55.2 67.3 66.3 52.1 57.1 60.0 62.8 60.1 52.4 49.3 62.7 51.7 58.2
Dairy substitutes
Any dairy substitutes or non-dairy milk 16.5 15.1 17.2 18.0 17.9 18.7 14.2 11.2 16.4 17.1 16.2 14.4 15.9
Cheese
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Any cheese 85.2 82.0 92.0 87.4 89.9 87.3 91.8 88.5 92.6 86.4 89.5 90.6 88.8
Cheddar 70.6 67.4 75.5 73.5 73.6 70.8 80.8 70.7 73.6 63.7 74.5 74.5 72.6
Mozzarella 55.6 39.5 53.6 48.2 47.5 37.3 49.5 36.5 48.7 52.6 46.0 54.7 47.6
Parmesan 43.6 36.9 46.9 44.7 38.4 42.9 42.9 42.5 39.7 32.3 37.5 37.9 40.1
Gouda 8.3 8.0 5.6 8.0 7.2 6.0 7.6 5.1 8.9 7.2 7.5 5.4 7.0
Feta 11.8 15.9 19.7 20.9 17.4 23.9 24.7 26.2 24.2 14.6 13.8 16.1 19.0
Other cheeses sold as blocks/wheels 22.9 24.6 31.5 28.5 27.6 26.2 26.7 17.3 27.1 26.8 22.5 26.3 25.5
Brie, camembert or other soft cheese 13.7 17.5 16.1 11.4 11.5 17.2 17.0 8.6 9.6 12.4 12.4 15.8 13.5
Blue-veined cheese 5.0 7.7 8.1 3.6 3.4 6.7 11.1 3.1 3.8 5.7 3.8 5.0 5.6
Cottage, ricotta or other fresh cheese 14.4 10.4 15.1 13.6 12.9 14.0 22.8 11.0 9.5 6.8 12.8 13.6 13.1
Goat/sheep milk cheese 11.7 10.8 7.6 6.1 6.4 13.4 11.1 5.7 8.8 7.9 8.1 6.7 8.6
Processed cheese 38.0 28.3 42.1 40.0 35.4 36.0 43.4 33.3 39.6 33.3 33.6 32.8 36.1
Any cheese made with unpasteurized milk 1.7 3.6 3.9 2.3 5.1 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.9 2.2 2.9 9.7 3.6
Frozen Foods
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Frozen vegetables
Frozen vegetables 45.8 40.6 45.5 44.1 43.5 29.6 29.1 37.4 29.4 43.4 36.7 39.6 38.7
Frozen fruit
Any frozen fruit 26.3 28.9 25.3 27.0 29.0 17.5 21.2 20.1 18.3 25.0 25.4 24.7 24.2
Frozen berries 24.3 23.8 23.3 22.6 25.3 16.2 17.1 17.1 16.5 21.2 23.2 23.7 21.3
Frozen fruit (not including berries) 8.5 10.3 7.0 10.2 11.9 6.0 11.0 7.9 7.6 11.7 8.8 9.6 9.4
Frozen pizza
Frozen pizza 23.1 21.3 24.5 21.9 21.6 20.3 17.0 14.8 13.4 16.9 23.8 24.4 20.1
Frozen pot pies
Frozen pot pies 4.6 2.3 2.9 3.3 3.9 8.8 1.8 2.5 2.6 2.2 4.4 5.2 3.6
Frozen meals in a bag or box
Frozen meals in a bag or box 9.1 7.6 11.4 11.3 9.7 6.7 13.2 8.3 11.1 7.1 11.8 11.3 9.9
Frozen snack foods/appetizers
Frozen snack foods/appetizers 5.0 5.4 5.3 5.8 4.5 12.3 4.5 6.3 6.2 6.2 4.8 8.9 6.1
Dried, Processed & Other
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Dried fruit 34.9 38.3 34.6 34.8 35.8 35.3 33.8 30.3 29.7 28.0 30.0 34.5 33.2
Granola bars, power bars, or other protein bars 33.5 33.8 43.5 42.4 31.9 35.5 37.1 37.3 39.0 37.5 39.4 45.0 37.5
Chips or pretzels 58.7 50.1 52.7 46.7 52.6 55.5 57.1 52.9 56.6 54.7 53.3 51.2 53.9
Chocolate or chocolate-containing candy 70.4 69.8 68.4 72.3 59.8 57.7 58.8 61.2 60.6 66.2 64.7 65.1 63.9
Cold breakfast cereal 49.2 55.6 51.7 53.9 52.8 51.3 60.3 61.0 53.2 45.7 55.8 59.1 54.3
Hot breakfast cereal 29.8 24.2 32.1 25.8 24.9 27.0 25.0 20.1 34.6 27.9 35.5 35.3 28.5
Tofu 3.9 10.2 12.4 8.5 7.8 5.5 10.0 5.9 8.6 18.8 6.2 4.1 8.5
Dietary or nutritional supplement 31.8 34.4 28.3 29.3 28.6 33.2 24.5 26.4 27.5 35.0 20.4 22.1 28.2
Ethnic Foods & Fast Foods
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Asian style foods 31.8 33.1 26.1 28.1 21.4 22.4 29.8 24.3 28.0 28.8 27.3 30.5 27.4
Indian style foods 15.1 17.0 10.2 9.4 8.9 14.9 21.0 13.4 9.3 17.1 14.1 11.0 13.5
Mexican style foods 16.2 16.9 15.1 17.6 20.2 18.3 17.2 16.4 19.5 15.8 13.8 12.2 16.7
Meal from a fast food restaurant 50.8 56.8 55.5 45.7 59.5 56.6 48.4 54.8 51.9 55.7 49.4 51.1 53.6
Water
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Note: s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Primary drinking water source
Municipal water 70.9 73.9 65.2 69.0 68.0 75.0 69.2 65.2 68.1 66.3 69.8 65.1 68.5
Private well 11.0 8.3 13.5 9.4 11.6 8.2 7.7 11.9 10.9 13.1 10.5 11.2 10.8
Store-bought bottled water 17.3 16.2 18.7 19.0 18.9 12.5 20.7 21.1 19.4 17.7 18.6 22.5 18.8
Raw water consumption
Any raw water consumption 1.9 3.6 1.4 2.8 3.2 6.2 3.1 2.2 2.3 1.3 1.7 2.2 2.6
Swim or go into any water
Swim or go into any water 5.4 7.2 9.0 8.9 10.4 18.9 33.0 28.4 9.1 8.3 8.1 6.1 13.1
Pool 4.5 6.3 8.8 7.9 8.6 11.9 22.1 19.2 4.8 6.9 6.9 5.1 9.7
Hot tub 2.4 3.9 3.6 4.2 2.8 6.3 5.8 3.8 1.4 4.0 2.3 2.0 3.4
Recreational waterpark 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 1.2 6.7 4.7 1.0 0.2 2.0 0.4 1.6
Swim or go into any natural water
Swim or go into any natural water 0.1 0.2 0.0s 0.7 0.4 6.2 17.9 14.4 4.5 0.4 0.3 0.1 4.0
Ocean 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.7 8.6 1.9 1.3 0.0s 0.0 0.0 1.2
Lake 0.0 0.0 0.0s 0.3 0.1 4.5 9.6 11.3 3.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 2.6
River 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.4 4.3 2.1 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.8
Natural hot spring 0.0 0.0s 0.0s 0.0 0.1 0.3 2.3 0.0s 0.0s 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3
Swim or go into a swimming facility in the last 4 weeks
Swim or go into a swimming facility in the last 4 weeks 13.8 11.9 17.0 19.0 15.1 18.1 30.5 32.1 27.3 14.8 18.2 12.4 19.3
Animal Contact
Exposure Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Overall
Any contact with animals, animal waste, habitat or food 65.3 54.9 62.9 65.1 67.9 71.9 67.8 59.8 70.2 54.9 61.8 58.3 63.4
Cat 30.5 32.0 32.0 34.7 32.8 41.0 35.4 29.2 32.9 23.8 35.9 27.1 31.9
Dog 46.4 30.2 42.6 45.2 49.9 52.4 49.1 38.4 46.9 40.2 40.2 36.5 43.3
Bird 2.2 1.5 1.9 3.0 3.6 2.0 4.0 2.0 3.9 3.2 1.3 1.6 2.6
Reptile 0.4 1.0 1.3 1.3 2.9 2.0 2.4 1.0 0.3 2.7 2.1 1.4 1.6
Amphibian 0.1 0.0 1.8 0.8 2.1 1.1 4.5 1.1 1.4 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.2
Rodent or pocket pet 4.2 1.5 4.2 5.5 3.1 1.7 2.8 4.9 4.0 3.3 4.6 2.4 3.4
Fish or aquarium 3.9 1.9 3.5 2.4 5.9 4.9 6.8 4.9 2.2 5.9 1.9 7.3 4.5
Cow 5.2 0.7 1.9 3.8 5.3 2.9 1.3 2.7 4.4 2.2 1.2 1.6 2.8
Goat, sheep or lamb 0.8 1.0 1.0 2.1 2.1 2.9 1.7 4.4 3.1 3.7 0.8 0.8 2.1
Horse 2.6 1.7 2.1 3.9 3.3 3.8 3.9 5.4 5.3 3.7 3.5 1.7 3.4
Pig 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.6 2.2 2.1 0.4 3.6 1.0 0.9 0.2 0.2 1.2
Poultry/baby poultry 4.0 1.2 1.7 2.1 3.4 2.6 2.8 5.2 3.4 2.3 0.6 3.1 2.8
Handled any dry pet food 47.0 34.8 41.8 42.7 50.4 54.2 45.9 38.4 49.8 36.1 39.3 34.2 43.0
Handled any canned/wet pet food 13.0 8.5 11.7 9.8 13.5 11.8 10.6 11.5 12.0 12.7 19.1 9.2 12.1
Handled any raw pet food (store-bought or home-made) 1.8 2.8 3.8 1.2 3.4 9.3 2.2 3.0 5.3 3.6 2.8 5.6 3.8
Handled any treats derived from
animal parts
8.1 4.8 7.3 6.7 9.3 7.1 8.6 9.2 10.2 8.8 7.9 9.1 8.3
Handled any processed animal treats 23.1 21.6 23.6 25.9 27.6 31.2 21.8 20.1 22.0 20.9 27.2 18.5 23.5
Handled any rodents/insects for reptiles 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.7 1.7 3.9 1.3 0.8 3.1 0.2 1.9 1.2 1.3
Handled any farm animal/livestock
feed
6.7 1.8 3.7 3.2 4.1 2.9 3.1 4.3 6.1 4.3 2.4 2.4 3.8
Visited any petting zoo 0.1 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.3 1.1 1.6 4.4 1.7 1.7 0.2 0.5 1.1
Visited any farm or barn 7.3 3.1 5.9 8.2 9.0 4.7 4.6 8.8 12.4 8.6 4.5 4.0 6.9
Visited any agricultural fair 0.0 0.2 1.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 2.6 2.5 4.9 1.2 1.5 0.1 1.3
Visited any pet store 2.8 2.8 5.3 6.6 4.4 7.8 7.2 2.7 4.5 3.8 3.7 4.3 4.5

Table 8: Weighted proportions of food, animal and water exposures in the past seven days, by age group and gender

Vegetables
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Tomatoes
Any tomatoes 48.0 59.9 53.9 56.4 57.1 56.7 77.7 78.1 77.9 78.3 78.5 78.4 71.9 74.0 72.9
Any tomatoes on a sandwich, burger or taco at
restaurant or fast food establishment
5.0 6.3 5.6 16.8 13.7 15.4 30.8 20.2 25.4 14.9 12.1 13.3 24.1 16.8 20.4
Roma/plum tomatoes 18.2 22.4 20.2 22.2 20.8 21.5 31.0 26.1 28.4 19.0 23.6 21.6 26.7 24.8 25.7
Hothouse tomatoes 21.6 25.5 23.6 26.0 23.0 24.6 41.8 40.8 41.3 46.4 49.4 48.2 37.9 38.6 38.3
Beefsteak tomatoes 4.0 7.4 5.6 10.8 8.8 9.8 12.3 13.7 13.0 15.1 16.2 15.8 11.5 12.9 12.2
Cherry or grape tomatoes 24.3 33.5 28.9 19.4 29.6 24.2 33.5 38.6 36.1 27.8 29.7 28.9 29.9 35.6 32.8
Lettuce or leafy greens
Any lettuce or leafy greens 60.7 66.1 63.5 76.1 82.0 78.9 84.2 88.3 86.3 82.3 81.8 82.0 80.4 84.4 82.4
Any lettuce or leafy greens on a sandwich, burger or taco at restaurant or fast food establishment 10.3 11.5 10.9 28.3 19.9 24.5 33.4 24.7 29.0 13.8 13.1 13.4 27.7 21.0 24.3
Iceberg lettuce 26.0 29.4 27.8 44.4 44.2 44.3 45.9 38.6 42.2 45.8 40.6 42.8 43.5 38.7 41.1
Romaine lettuce 34.8 38.4 36.8 46.9 53.1 49.8 51.0 52.9 51.9 39.5 45.4 43.0 47.3 50.3 48.8
Spinach 23.7 25.0 24.5 22.1 27.4 24.6 24.5 34.8 29.7 28.4 28.9 28.7 24.6 32.0 28.4
Mesclun greens 9.7 10.1 9.8 10.6 17.4 13.9 15.7 18.0 16.9 7.8 14.8 11.8 13.3 16.7 15.0
Pre-packaged lettuce or leafy greens 32.5 36.7 34.6 44.2 47.3 45.7 44.3 54.5 49.5 40.3 39.3 39.7 42.5 49.5 46.1
Cabbage
Cabbage (includes coleslaw) 18.9 20.2 19.6 20.2 22.7 21.4 28.7 33.2 30.9 34.7 44.4 40.2 27.3 32.5 30.0
Sprouts
Any sprouts 10.7 11.7 11.1 13.0 14.7 13.9 13.3 12.6 13.0 14.6 12.0 13.1 13.2 12.7 12.9
Alfalfa sprouts 1.8 1.4 1.6 1.2 2.8 1.9 2.5 3.2 2.9 1.0 2.1 1.6 2.1 2.8 2.4
Bean sprouts 7.7 9.2 8.4 10.2 10.9 10.6 9.2 7.9 8.5 8.4 7.7 8.0 9.0 8.3 8.7
Cucumbers
Cucumbers 68.2 76.0 72.0 62.4 71.6 66.8 57.1 66.2 61.7 57.8 59.7 58.9 59.1 66.7 62.9
Bell peppers
Bell peppers 51.1 53.9 52.5 59.2 58.4 58.8 63.0 72.2 67.6 53.0 62.7 58.4 59.9 67.3 63.6
Hot peppers
Hot peppers 3.2 4.2 3.8 18.5 12.6 15.8 30.7 18.6 24.6 14.7 8.2 11.1 24.1 14.8 19.4
Celery
Celery 36.5 42.5 39.5 37.6 39.5 38.4 40.4 52.8 46.7 61.0 67.4 64.5 42.4 52.6 47.6
Carrots
Any carrots 84.7 87.1 86.0 77.5 81.2 79.3 75.9 83.3 79.6 85.1 89.2 87.4 78.2 84.4 81.4
Carrots (not mini) 63.3 67.3 65.4 61.2 62.2 61.7 67.4 70.5 69.0 76.1 78.1 77.2 67.3 70.5 68.9
Mini carrots 45.3 48.8 46.9 38.9 45.9 42.2 31.6 36.8 34.2 26.9 32.9 30.3 33.4 38.4 35.9
Peas
Peas (shelled or in pods) 31.1 32.4 32.0 24.4 29.3 26.7 25.7 27.7 26.7 43.4 33.1 37.6 28.4 29.2 28.8
Beans
Green or yellow beans 33.8 37.1 35.5 31.4 33.3 32.2 33.5 38.2 35.9 47.2 41.7 44.1 35.1 38.1 36.6
Broccoli
Broccoli 55.2 61.9 58.7 54.4 56.9 55.4 53.0 57.2 55.1 49.7 59.5 55.2 53.0 58.0 55.5
Cauliflower
Cauliflower 28.1 27.9 28.1 30.0 33.1 31.4 32.9 30.8 31.8 48.6 38.2 42.7 34.1 32.0 33.0
Leeks
Leeks 6.9 6.0 6.6 5.6 4.2 4.9 9.4 8.5 8.9 20.2 12.2 15.7 10.1 8.3 9.2
Garlic
Fresh garlic (not powdered) 42.4 47.6 45.2 46.7 48.2 47.3 48.2 56.1 52.2 32.3 44.2 38.9 45.2 52.4 48.9
Mushrooms
Mushrooms 30.5 38.3 34.6 39.9 37.5 38.6 52.8 55.7 54.3 53.0 51.6 52.2 48.7 51.2 50.0
Zucchini
Zucchini 21.8 21.7 22.0 16.1 17.1 16.5 18.6 23.0 20.8 29.8 21.6 25.2 20.1 22.0 21.1
Onions
Any onions 66.7 63.7 65.3 76.0 68.5 72.2 85.5 86.4 86.0 87.8 90.5 89.3 82.6 82.8 82.7
White/yellow onions 61.1 57.3 59.4 67.7 58.7 63.2 76.3 78.0 77.2 69.9 81.7 76.5 72.7 74.4 73.5
Red onions 19.3 20.0 19.7 29.4 26.8 28.0 32.9 36.6 34.8 35.7 32.2 33.7 31.4 33.1 32.2
Green onions 18.5 21.1 19.8 23.7 22.3 23.0 32.6 43.9 38.4 28.3 38.9 34.2 29.4 38.4 34.0
Vegetable juice
Vegetable juice 14.8 14.3 14.7 11.8 10.9 11.4 19.1 17.4 18.2 24.0 27.2 25.8 18.4 17.9 18.2
Herbs & spices
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Fresh herbs
Any fresh herbs 40.9 42.4 41.8 42.8 51.8 47.0 46.1 51.3 48.7 46.0 47.0 46.5 45.1 49.8 47.5
Fresh Thai basil 4.4 7.1 5.9 6.9 7.6 7.2 10.4 11.0 10.7 6.1 7.8 7.1 8.8 9.7 9.2
Fresh basil 16.6 14.5 15.6 13.8 17.9 15.7 17.4 21.3 19.3 12.0 16.4 14.6 16.2 19.4 17.8
Fresh cilantro/coriander 15.2 18.7 17.2 16.9 20.8 18.7 17.5 21.1 19.4 7.9 9.7 8.9 16.0 19.0 17.6
Fresh tarragon 1.5 1.9 1.7 2.5 1.9 2.2 2.3 5.2 3.7 1.7 2.8 2.4 2.2 4.1 3.2
Fresh parsley 22.5 20.8 21.7 22.5 24.3 23.3 22.6 29.1 25.9 33.6 31.9 32.6 24.0 28.2 26.1
Other fresh herbs 20.3 19.2 19.9 21.7 23.9 22.7 20.8 30.1 25.5 17.1 23.8 21.0 20.5 27.3 24.0
Spices
Any spices 83.1 80.5 81.9 87.4 85.3 86.2 92.1 93.4 92.8 90.7 91.7 91.3 90.4 91.0 90.7
Pepper (whole/ground, white, black, blended) 71.6 69.3 70.5 80.3 75.7 78.0 88.0 89.2 88.6 84.0 84.9 84.5 84.7 85.0 84.8
Curry powder 15.8 18.1 17.0 20.2 18.6 19.4 17.1 19.5 18.3 11.4 15.0 13.4 16.6 18.5 17.6
Paprika 18.9 22.5 20.8 20.3 19.6 19.9 19.3 26.2 22.9 18.3 24.3 21.8 19.3 24.8 22.2
Turmeric 13.3 20.6 16.9 14.1 15.2 14.6 15.2 16.5 15.9 10.6 14.6 13.0 14.3 16.5 15.4
Other spices 46.9 49.5 48.2 47.3 49.1 48.0 49.3 52.2 50.8 36.1 44.1 40.8 47.2 50.3 48.8
Store-bought prepared salads & dips
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Store-bought prepared salad
Any store-bought prepared salad 8.7 9.7 9.2 12.1 11.8 12.0 16.1 15.7 15.9 16.5 12.4 14.2 14.8 14.1 14.5
Green salad 5.8 6.0 5.9 6.9 7.9 7.3 10.8 9.0 9.9 10.5 7.6 8.9 9.7 8.4 9.0
Coleslaw 0.9 2.1 1.5 2.3 1.4 1.9 6.0 2.4 4.2 6.5 4.9 5.6 5.0 2.7 3.8
Potato salad 0.7 1.5 1.1 2.0 1.7 1.9 3.5 2.6 3.0 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.8 2.3 2.6
Pasta salad 1.8 2.4 2.1 1.5 2.2 1.9 1.2 2.3 1.7 1.2 2.6 2.0 1.3 2.3 1.8
Fruit salad/pre-cut fruit/fruit platter 1.7 3.4 2.6 2.1 2.8 2.4 2.2 4.1 3.2 3.2 3.9 3.6 2.3 3.9 3.1
Salsa
Salsa 20.1 16.4 18.2 30.8 25.3 28.3 23.5 24.2 23.9 9.4 9.4 9.4 22.3 21.1 21.7
Hummus
Hummus 13.7 14.6 14.1 13.3 17.6 15.3 10.0 17.9 14.0 6.9 10.4 8.8 10.4 16.3 13.4
Fruits
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Apples
Apples 86.7 87.5 87.2 75.1 77.0 75.8 67.5 73.8 70.7 58.4 72.1 66.0 69.3 75.2 72.3
Pears
Pears 31.4 31.5 31.6 24.3 20.5 22.4 20.5 24.3 22.5 23.3 28.5 26.2 22.5 25.2 23.9
Peaches
Peaches 17.4 19.9 18.5 12.9 13.4 13.1 13.7 17.2 15.5 17.1 20.9 19.2 14.4 17.6 16.0
Nectarines
Nectarines 13.6 12.7 13.1 9.4 11.8 10.5 11.9 13.5 12.7 9.2 16.6 13.3 11.4 13.7 12.6
Apricots
Apricots 3.2 5.3 4.2 3.4 4.0 3.7 3.9 5.0 4.4 6.3 6.6 6.4 4.1 5.2 4.6
Plums
Plums 12.7 13.9 13.2 10.3 13.4 11.8 10.1 12.9 11.5 23.0 13.7 17.8 12.1 13.2 12.7
Citrus fruit
Citrus fruit 65.1 70.6 67.7 66.2 64.2 65.0 59.0 70.6 64.9 60.8 65.1 63.2 60.9 68.9 65.0
Cherries
Cherries 13.3 15.8 14.4 12.6 14.6 13.5 12.0 17.1 14.6 15.3 17.8 16.7 12.7 16.8 14.7
Grapes
Grapes 66.5 67.6 67.1 52.7 57.2 54.7 43.6 55.9 49.8 49.2 51.9 50.8 47.9 56.5 52.3
Bananas
Bananas 85.4 85.2 85.4 75.5 75.2 75.2 73.5 76.2 74.9 78.6 81.0 80.0 75.7 77.7 76.7
Mangoes
Mangoes 17.9 20.2 19.1 16.1 21.2 18.5 12.7 18.3 15.5 9.2 14.4 12.1 13.2 18.2 15.7
Papaya
Papaya 2.5 3.2 3.0 3.0 5.4 4.1 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.6 4.5 3.6 2.9 3.4 3.1
Kiwi
Kiwi 13.4 16.7 14.9 15.2 17.8 16.4 7.3 15.2 11.3 8.5 13.5 11.3 9.2 15.4 12.3
Pomegranate
Pomegranate 5.8 8.1 6.9 7.8 12.0 9.8 4.7 12.1 8.4 3.3 5.0 4.3 5.0 10.5 7.8
Pineapple
Pineapple 27.3 29.3 28.1 27.6 32.8 30.0 24.7 36.0 30.4 26.9 30.9 29.3 25.6 34.1 30.0
Avocado
Avocado (includes guacamole) 22.9 22.5 22.9 17.0 22.5 19.6 23.2 34.6 28.9 15.7 25.0 20.9 21.3 30.4 26.0
Olives
Olives 16.1 17.9 16.9 19.8 20.8 20.2 28.1 31.9 30.1 25.4 30.0 28.0 25.4 29.0 27.2
Melon
Any melon 53.7 46.4 50.3 37.8 44.2 40.8 35.7 40.7 38.3 37.7 38.1 37.9 38.1 41.3 39.7
Cantaloupe 30.4 24.0 27.5 19.8 24.4 21.9 19.9 25.1 22.5 27.4 25.8 26.5 22.0 25.0 23.5
Honeydew 16.1 14.9 15.6 9.5 13.0 11.1 11.8 15.4 13.7 17.8 13.9 15.6 12.8 14.8 13.8
Watermelon 33.9 32.2 33.1 25.8 29.9 27.8 22.0 22.0 22.0 25.3 18.4 21.4 24.2 23.3 23.7
Berries
Any berries 77.4 75.2 76.2 59.9 73.7 66.3 55.8 69.0 62.5 65.8 69.8 68.0 59.9 70.3 65.2
Strawberries 63.5 60.4 62.0 49.0 60.1 54.2 37.9 54.4 46.3 50.8 51.4 51.1 43.8 55.1 49.6
Raspberries 27.1 34.0 30.3 23.2 26.8 24.9 23.3 33.0 28.2 19.9 28.2 24.5 23.2 31.6 27.5
Blueberries 33.9 37.7 35.7 22.1 26.3 24.1 25.5 34.4 30.0 40.4 39.5 39.9 27.9 34.6 31.3
Blackberries 11.8 14.2 12.9 9.7 11.1 10.3 10.0 11.1 10.6 8.7 9.4 9.1 10.0 11.1 10.5
Unpasteurized fruit juice
Unpasteurized fruit juice 8.0 6.5 7.2 9.9 6.3 8.2 9.3 7.7 8.5 6.8 3.5 4.9 9.0 6.7 7.8
Fruit smoothies
Fruit smoothies 28.0 28.3 28.1 24.4 35.9 29.8 16.3 21.7 19.0 8.7 9.2 9.0 17.6 21.9 19.8
Nuts and nut products
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Peanut butter
Peanut butter 55.5 51.8 53.8 51.9 50.5 51.2 53.6 55.3 54.5 57.7 64.3 61.4 54.1 55.9 55.0
Other nut paste, butter or spread
Other nut paste, butter or spread 31.5 29.6 30.5 32.0 35.5 33.7 12.8 16.4 14.6 10.6 13.5 12.2 17.0 19.4 18.3
Nuts
Any nuts 54.3 54.0 54.3 57.3 60.9 58.9 67.7 70.1 68.9 62.2 64.4 63.5 64.2 66.6 65.4
Peanuts (not including peanut butter) 25.4 23.9 24.6 29.9 28.6 29.3 39.9 31.7 35.7 41.0 29.2 34.4 37.2 30.2 33.6
Almonds 30.5 33.4 32.0 31.6 36.8 34.0 39.4 48.5 44.0 38.8 41.2 40.1 37.3 44.5 41.0
Walnuts 9.3 10.9 10.2 10.0 11.3 10.6 16.5 22.1 19.4 30.5 24.0 26.9 16.8 20.1 18.5
Hazelnuts (Filberts) 4.9 6.2 5.5 5.9 6.4 6.1 8.8 11.8 10.3 22.0 10.3 15.4 9.7 10.4 10.1
Cashews 19.2 22.3 20.6 21.1 22.0 21.5 28.2 27.4 27.8 34.3 29.1 31.4 27.2 26.6 26.8
Pecans 4.5 9.3 6.9 6.8 7.7 7.2 10.7 16.1 13.4 22.7 17.5 19.8 11.2 14.7 12.9
Seeds and seed products
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Sunflower seeds 11.1 15.7 13.3 18.1 16.6 17.4 15.7 23.8 19.9 13.1 18.1 15.9 15.2 21.3 18.3
Sesame seeds 15.6 13.8 14.6 18.7 12.8 15.9 17.9 19.6 18.8 11.9 14.0 13.1 17.0 17.3 17.1
Tahini, halva or other products made from sesame seeds 7.6 4.8 6.2 6.8 6.4 6.6 8.2 6.9 7.5 2.5 5.6 4.2 7.2 6.4 6.8
Beef
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Any beef (not including deli-meat) 80.1 77.3 78.8 84.3 77.3 81.0 83.1 76.4 79.7 66.9 73.7 70.7 80.8 76.2 78.4
Raw beef 0.9 0.4 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.1 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.8
Steak 27.0 27.9 27.5 31.4 28.1 29.9 36.9 28.8 32.8 27.9 26.5 27.2 33.9 28.2 31.1
Stewing beef 12.9 11.2 12.0 12.7 11.5 12.2 19.4 9.9 14.5 11.6 14.5 13.2 16.8 10.9 13.8
Other whole-cut beef products 16.1 17.5 16.8 24.2 20.2 22.2 21.3 18.8 20.0 19.4 20.8 20.2 20.9 19.2 20.0
Ground beef (including hamburger)
Any ground beef 67.6 63.9 65.9 73.2 64.1 68.9 69.0 60.0 64.4 50.4 55.0 53.0 66.9 60.0 63.4
Ground beef consumed raw or undercooked 0.3 1.2 0.8 0.6 0.1 0.3 1.2 0.3 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.7
Hamburgers
Any hamburgers 39.3 32.6 36.2 47.9 34.4 41.6 46.5 33.5 39.9 35.5 35.5 35.5 44.5 33.8 39.1
Home-made 23.7 19.2 21.6 24.6 18.1 21.4 25.3 18.8 22.0 20.8 22.6 21.8 24.5 19.4 21.9
Store-bought frozen beef patties 9.9 7.4 8.7 12.7 8.3 10.5 8.4 8.4 8.4 7.4 5.4 6.3 9.0 7.8 8.4
From a restaurant or fast food establishment 13.0 10.9 11.9 20.5 13.6 17.4 21.3 14.0 17.6 12.9 10.2 11.4 19.2 13.0 16.1
Other ground beef
Other ground beef 52.2 51.5 51.8 54.4 51.5 52.9 44.2 43.6 43.9 30.1 36.7 33.8 44.5 44.1 44.3
Pork
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Any pork 54.3 50.8 52.7 53.3 50.6 51.9 58.2 52.0 55.1 64.9 54.8 59.3 58.1 52.2 55.1
Ham (not including deli-meat) 11.9 12.9 12.5 14.1 10.7 12.4 18.3 10.0 14.0 30.2 16.9 22.8 18.6 11.5 15.0
Bacon 27.6 24.6 26.2 29.6 23.4 26.6 28.7 25.3 26.9 31.6 27.7 29.4 29.1 25.4 27.2
Ground pork 9.0 8.6 8.8 7.6 11.3 9.3 7.3 7.6 7.5 15.9 5.9 10.3 8.7 7.9 8.3
Pork pieces or parts 31.3 31.2 31.3 33.2 32.1 32.6 36.8 30.7 33.7 39.2 33.8 36.2 36.1 31.4 33.7
Poultry
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Any poultry 90.5 88.4 89.5 89.0 89.0 88.9 87.5 87.7 87.6 84.2 85.7 85.0 87.6 87.6 87.6
Chicken
Any chicken (not including deli-meat) 89.5 87.4 88.5 88.0 87.6 87.7 85.8 85.2 85.5 81.8 83.4 82.7 85.9 85.4 85.6
Store-bought breaded chicken 31.2 29.1 30.0 29.2 22.0 25.6 13.5 14.9 14.2 9.7 8.7 9.1 16.9 16.1 16.5
Ground chicken 7.1 7.6 7.5 5.5 4.8 5.1 4.4 6.7 5.6 2.9 2.7 2.8 4.6 5.9 5.3
Chicken pieces or parts 73.8 76.7 75.3 75.0 73.1 74.0 68.8 69.5 69.2 68.2 65.5 66.7 70.0 70.0 70.0
Chicken from a restaurant or fast food establishment 18.7 19.2 18.9 22.4 22.3 22.4 25.7 19.1 22.4 17.3 14.1 15.5 23.4 18.7 21.0
Turkey
Any turkey (not including deli-meat) 9.9 11.5 10.7 7.7 10.4 9.0 12.5 10.6 11.6 21.1 11.5 15.7 12.8 10.8 11.8
Turkey bacon 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.0 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.5
Ground turkey 3.6 3.5 3.5 2.0 2.1 2.0 3.3 2.3 2.8 1.4 1.2 1.3 2.9 2.2 2.5
Turkey pieces or parts 5.7 7.0 6.3 5.0 6.4 5.7 8.1 7.8 7.9 18.4 8.9 13.1 8.9 7.7 8.3
Other poultry
Other poultry (not including deli-meat) 1.3 2.0 1.6 3.0 1.9 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 1.3 1.6 1.5 2.3 2.3 2.3
Deli-meat
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Any deli-meat/cold cuts 54.2 51.3 52.7 54.5 50.1 52.4 55.0 45.1 50.0 45.9 38.6 41.8 53.6 45.2 49.3
Chicken 9.2 9.3 9.2 10.2 7.9 9.1 12.2 8.5 10.3 5.3 4.4 4.8 10.7 7.8 9.2
Turkey 13.8 11.9 12.8 16.2 14.7 15.5 14.8 11.5 13.1 5.8 7.4 6.7 13.7 11.2 12.4
Ham 30.2 29.8 29.9 31.2 29.4 30.3 31.3 23.8 27.5 31.5 25.2 28.0 31.2 25.3 28.2
Beef 8.0 5.3 6.7 7.6 6.9 7.2 10.0 5.3 7.6 7.2 5.7 6.4 9.1 5.6 7.3
Bologna 7.4 7.1 7.2 12.1 6.2 9.2 11.3 6.8 9.0 8.7 5.8 7.0 10.6 6.6 8.5
Salami 10.8 8.4 9.7 12.6 10.2 11.6 12.8 9.7 11.2 18.8 7.1 12.2 13.3 9.2 11.3
Pepperoni 11.9 13.0 12.4 16.0 9.5 13.0 13.7 5.5 9.6 6.7 5.3 5.9 13.0 6.7 9.7
Kielbasa 6.0 4.2 5.1 4.1 2.5 3.5 2.7 2.0 2.3 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.3 2.4 2.9
Other meat / animal products
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Hot dogs 38.0 32.3 35.5 30.2 23.2 26.8 28.7 24.4 26.5 29.4 17.5 22.8 30.0 23.9 26.9
Sausage 34.9 31.6 33.2 32.4 24.6 28.6 31.6 28.8 30.2 43.5 26.6 34.0 33.7 28.2 30.8
Dried meat products 9.2 7.1 8.2 14.5 10.3 12.5 10.2 4.7 7.4 2.7 2.8 2.8 9.7 5.3 7.4
Pâté/meat spread 2.9 3.8 3.3 2.6 2.2 2.4 8.1 3.8 5.9 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.6 4.1 5.3
Lamb 2.9 5.0 3.9 3.9 6.6 5.2 6.0 5.0 5.5 4.6 6.1 5.4 5.2 5.3 5.3
Veal 3.2 3.7 3.4 5.2 6.6 5.8 5.1 4.3 4.7 5.4 5.6 5.5 4.9 4.7 4.8
Goat 0.8 2.7 1.9 4.0 1.5 2.8 4.6 1.2 2.9 0.3 0.3 0.3 3.5 1.2 2.4
Organ meats or offal 2.6 1.9 2.2 3.1 1.7 2.4 4.8 2.0 3.4 16.6 5.7 10.5 5.9 2.6 4.2
Shawarma or donair 1.8 1.3 1.7 4.3 3.3 3.8 7.1 1.1 4.1 1.7 0.5 1.1 5.5 1.3 3.4
Fish & seafood
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Fish
Any fish 48.1 49.2 48.7 46.9 43.5 45.3 54.3 58.2 56.3 66.7 65.7 66.2 54.3 56.9 55.6
Smoked fish 5.3 5.4 5.5 7.9 5.5 6.7 9.5 6.9 8.2 5.4 6.9 6.3 8.3 6.6 7.4
Raw fish 2.8 4.1 3.4 5.6 5.4 5.5 8.8 8.5 8.6 3.3 1.8 2.5 7.0 6.6 6.8
Shellfish
Any shellfish 10.9 13.3 12.1 12.6 11.9 12.2 16.4 19.0 17.7 24.2 16.9 20.1 16.3 17.3 16.8
Mussels 1.8 1.3 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.1 1.9 2.5 2.2 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.2 2.0
Clams 0.7 0.6 0.7 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.5 1.1 1.3 13.1 2.5 7.2 3.0 1.3 2.1
Scallops 1.0 2.9 1.9 2.1 1.8 2.0 4.1 4.3 4.2 2.3 4.3 3.4 3.2 3.9 3.5
Shrimp/prawns 9.6 11.8 10.7 11.1 9.5 10.3 14.1 15.7 14.9 20.3 13.3 16.4 14.0 14.2 14.1
Crab 1.2 1.8 1.5 2.8 2.8 2.8 1.1 5.4 3.3 1.7 2.8 2.3 1.4 4.3 2.9
Lobster 1.4 1.7 1.6 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.5 12.8 2.8 7.2 3.0 1.9 2.4
Oysters
Any oysters 0.3 0.4 0.3 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.5 0.7 1.1 1.5 0.9 1.2 1.3 0.7 1.0
Raw oysters 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.9 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.4
Eggs
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Any eggs 78.2 75.5 76.8 77.1 79.1 77.9 80.1 82.7 81.4 76.7 87.0 82.5 79.0 82.3 80.7
Raw or undercooked eggs 9.8 10.8 10.3 14.2 12.0 13.1 18.7 14.0 16.3 17.0 12.0 14.2 16.9 13.2 15.0
Dairy / dairy substitutes
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Dairy
Any dairy products (not including cheese) 94.9 94.0 94.5 92.1 91.4 91.8 83.6 80.5 82.0 82.4 83.4 83.0 85.7 83.6 84.6
Pasteurized dairy milk 88.8 85.5 87.2 85.5 83.3 84.5 73.4 68.4 70.9 75.0 73.0 73.9 76.9 72.6 74.7
Unpasteurized dairy milk (not including cheese) 1.3 3.4 2.3 4.5 3.9 4.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.6 0.8 1.1 2.8 2.8 2.8
Powdered milk product 3.5 1.8 2.7 1.5 2.5 2.0 2.2 2.7 2.4 3.5 3.8 3.7 2.4 2.8 2.6
Whipped/whipping cream 16.1 15.4 15.7 16.9 18.5 17.6 12.6 16.8 14.7 11.8 15.3 13.8 13.4 16.6 15.0
Sour cream 20.6 21.9 21.1 27.3 27.5 27.4 21.0 27.8 24.5 12.5 21.2 17.4 20.7 26.1 23.4
Ice cream/gelato 56.8 54.2 55.2 53.3 56.9 55.1 37.9 34.7 36.2 50.5 42.9 46.2 43.6 40.5 42.0
Yogurt 81.8 84.4 83.1 60.2 65.8 62.8 47.4 61.2 54.4 47.0 58.8 53.6 52.7 63.6 58.2
Dairy substitutes
Dairy substitutes or non-dairy milk 14.0 14.8 14.6 11.6 15.6 13.5 14.4 20.7 17.6 8.3 14.4 11.7 13.2 18.5 15.9
Cheese
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Any cheese 91.0 91.7 91.4 88.6 88.4 88.6 86.6 90.3 88.5 88.6 88.9 88.8 87.6 90.0 88.8
Cheddar 72.2 75.5 73.5 74.0 70.2 72.2 71.9 74.1 73.0 68.6 71.9 70.4 71.7 73.4 72.6
Mozzarella 54.4 58.9 56.8 59.4 55.8 57.6 47.8 48.7 48.2 26.3 33.7 30.4 47.2 48.0 47.6
Parmesan 40.2 42.5 41.2 39.2 43.3 41.1 39.1 43.2 41.2 37.0 32.2 34.3 39.0 41.3 40.1
Gouda 4.5 5.9 5.1 5.8 5.8 5.8 7.9 6.8 7.3 7.0 8.6 7.9 7.2 6.9 7.0
Feta 14.5 16.9 15.9 12.8 17.7 15.1 19.3 23.0 21.2 12.9 16.2 14.8 17.1 20.7 19.0
Other cheeses sold as blocks/wheels 19.8 21.5 20.5 23.3 24.6 23.9 25.6 28.6 27.1 20.6 25.6 23.4 24.0 27.0 25.5
Brie, camembert or other soft cheese 8.5 8.4 8.4 10.2 13.3 11.7 11.2 17.9 14.6 11.7 15.2 13.7 10.9 16.0 13.5
Blue-veined cheese 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.2 2.0 1.6 7.5 5.9 6.7 4.8 8.1 6.7 5.7 5.4 5.6
Cottage, ricotta or other fresh cheese 12.3 11.8 12.1 8.6 10.6 9.5 10.8 16.1 13.5 12.0 17.4 15.0 10.8 15.3 13.1
Goat/sheep milk cheese 3.5 6.9 5.1 4.0 7.3 5.6 7.8 12.2 10.0 3.9 10.2 7.5 6.3 10.8 8.6
Processed cheese 45.5 47.0 46.2 39.5 39.6 39.7 35.7 33.5 34.6 34.8 31.4 32.9 37.1 35.2 36.1
Any cheese made with unpasteurized milk 2.1 3.5 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.4 4.9 4.2 3.8 1.9 2.7 3.2 4.0 3.6
Frozen foods
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Frozen vegetables
Frozen vegetables 41.1 42.7 41.8 43.2 38.4 40.8 35.3 37.5 36.4 49.3 40.7 44.5 38.8 38.6 38.7
Frozen fruit
Any frozen fruit 25.5 27.3 26.3 22.5 30.4 26.2 20.1 26.3 23.2 24.7 25.5 25.2 21.5 26.7 24.2
Frozen berries 23.7 25.0 24.3 20.1 26.1 22.9 17.4 23.0 20.3 21.9 23.0 22.5 19.0 23.6 21.3
Frozen fruit (not including berries) 10.7 11.8 11.2 8.9 11.2 10.0 8.3 10.5 9.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 8.5 10.2 9.4
Frozen pizza
Frozen pizza 23.8 17.6 20.7 34.4 29.0 31.8 20.8 16.5 18.7 15.5 16.4 16.0 22.2 18.1 20.1
Frozen pot pies
Frozen pot pies 2.7 2.3 2.5 5.4 4.4 5.0 4.7 1.8 3.2 5.2 4.8 5.0 4.6 2.7 3.6
Frozen meals in a bag or box
Frozen meals in a bag or box 5.1 5.7 5.4 11.3 13.6 12.4 11.1 8.1 9.6 12.5 11.8 12.1 10.7 9.1 9.9
Frozen snack foods/appetizers
Frozen snack foods/appetizers 6.0 6.3 6.1 8.4 8.3 8.4 7.8 5.4 6.6 1.9 2.2 2.1 6.9 5.3 6.1
Dried, processed & other
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Dried fruit 36.2 37.2 36.7 21.5 27.0 24.1 24.8 39.3 32.1 43.2 43.4 43.3 28.0 38.3 33.2
Granola bars, power bars, or other protein bars 52.3 47.8 50.2 53.6 56.9 55.1 38.8 33.4 36.0 18.0 22.4 20.5 39.4 35.7 37.5
Chips or pretzels 56.5 58.9 57.6 68.3 61.9 65.3 59.2 52.4 55.8 35.4 32.4 33.7 57.0 50.8 53.9
Chocolate or chocolate-containing candy 67.3 72.3 69.5 66.5 75.1 70.5 63.6 63.1 63.4 59.1 55.0 56.8 63.8 64.1 63.9
Cold breakfast cereal 76.1 75.2 75.7 67.0 65.3 66.1 44.3 50.6 47.5 60.7 56.4 58.3 52.9 55.6 54.3
Hot breakfast cereal 38.6 34.4 36.5 23.8 30.8 27.1 23.0 28.0 25.5 32.0 39.9 36.5 25.9 30.9 28.5
Tofu 11.2 10.3 10.7 7.2 8.5 7.8 11.7 7.3 9.5 2.9 3.8 3.4 9.9 7.2 8.5
Dietary or nutritional supplement 31.2 31.6 31.3 24.1 21.3 22.7 23.0 30.3 26.7 35.8 38.1 37.1 25.7 30.6 28.2
Ethnic foods & fast foods
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Asian style foods 21.8 26.3 24.0 28.5 27.8 28.1 33.5 27.3 30.3 15.6 17.4 16.6 29.2 25.6 27.4
Indian style foods 11.6 15.1 13.4 14.2 15.7 14.9 14.6 15.7 15.1 4.7 6.0 5.4 12.9 14.0 13.5
Mexican style foods 21.0 22.7 21.7 24.0 22.6 23.5 14.2 20.7 17.5 4.4 4.0 4.2 14.9 18.4 16.7
Meal from a fast food restaurant 54.0 53.8 54.0 37.1 45.1 41.1 44.8 58.2 51.6 75.1 69.8 72.3 49.1 58.0 53.6
Water
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Note: s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Primary drinking water source
Municipal water 72.2 70.2 71.3 65.9 65.0 65.5 67.5 69.5 68.5 70.1 68.1 69.0 68.2 68.9 68.5
Private well 10.3 9.7 10.0 12.5 11.0 11.7 11.9 9.0 10.4 13.0 11.3 12.1 12.0 9.7 10.8
Store-bought bottled water 15.4 18.0 16.7 20.6 22.4 21.4 18.5 19.8 19.1 13.8 18.6 16.4 17.8 19.7 18.8
Raw water consumption
Any raw water consumption 2.2 2.8 2.5 3.4 2.5 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.7 1.6 2.0 1.8 2.7 2.5 2.6
Swim or go into any water
Swim or go into any water 29.1 35.3 32.2 20.7 20.7 20.8 8.0 12.2 10.1 4.3 5.0 4.7 11.6 14.5 13.1
Pool 24.7 30.4 27.6 16.1 16.2 16.1 5.4 7.9 6.7 2.4 3.8 3.2 8.6 10.6 9.7
Hot tub 6.4 7.0 6.8 7.0 4.6 5.8 1.8 3.9 2.9 1.3 0.9 1.1 3.0 3.8 3.4
Recreational waterpark 4.7 5.5 5.1 3.5 2.4 2.9 0.4 1.8 1.1 0.0 0.0s 0.0s 1.2 1.9 1.6
Swim or go into any natural water
Swim or go into any natural water 7.0 7.6 7.2 5.8 5.7 5.9 3.5 3.9 3.7 1.2 1.3 1.2 3.9 4.1 4.0
Ocean 1.2 1.6 1.4 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Lake 5.6 5.5 5.5 4.5 4.2 4.5 1.6 2.6 2.1 0.7 1.0 0.9 2.4 2.8 2.6
River 0.9 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.4 0.5 1.1 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.6 1.0 0.8
Natural hot spring 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.0s 0.0s 0.1 0.4 0.3
Swim or go into a swimming facility in the last 4 weeks
Swim or go into a swimming facility in the last 4 weeks 39.5 45.1 42.3 27.0 28.6 27.7 15.7 17.6 16.7 4.7 7.1 6.0 18.5 20.1 19.3
Animal contact
Exposure 0–9 years 10–19 years 20–64 years >65 years All ages
Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both Male Female Both
Note: s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Any contact with animals, animal waste, habitat or food 64.5 62.0 63.4 68.0 69.5 68.8 65.7 64.8 65.2 47.5 54.0 51.1 63.4 63.3 63.4
Cat 28.4 30.5 29.3 36.1 41.1 38.7 31.8 33.6 32.7 19.8 28.9 24.9 30.4 33.4 31.9
Dog 47.2 42.9 45.3 47.8 51.9 49.8 45.7 42.3 44.0 32.7 34.0 33.4 44.4 42.2 43.3
Bird 2.7 2.8 2.7 4.0 4.6 4.3 3.6 1.5 2.6 0.6 1.3 1.0 3.2 2.0 2.6
Reptile 1.6 2.5 2.1 3.4 3.6 3.5 1.4 1.6 1.5 0.1 0.6 0.4 1.5 1.8 1.6
Amphibian 1.6 2.0 1.8 2.1 1.5 1.8 2.0 0.5 1.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 1.7 0.7 1.2
Rodent or pocket pet 4.4 6.8 5.6 6.8 8.1 7.4 2.9 2.7 2.8 1.2 1.2 1.2 3.3 3.5 3.4
Fish or aquarium 6.2 6.5 6.3 4.8 7.2 6.0 3.8 5.6 4.7 0.9 1.4 1.2 3.8 5.2 4.5
Cow 3.2 3.4 3.3 4.1 3.1 3.6 4.0 1.8 2.9 1.0 2.2 1.6 3.5 2.2 2.8
Goat, sheep or lamb 2.1 3.9 3.0 2.8 2.1 2.4 1.5 2.6 2.1 0.3 1.4 0.9 1.6 2.5 2.1
Horse 6.2 6.6 6.4 4.5 6.6 5.5 3.0 2.4 2.7 1.8 2.8 2.3 3.4 3.4 3.4
Pig 1.3 1.7 1.5 2.3 1.6 1.9 0.9 1.1 1.0 0.0 1.4 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.2
Poultry/baby poultry 2.9 5.0 3.9 3.1 4.7 3.8 3.5 2.1 2.8 0.5 2.0 1.4 3.0 2.7 2.8
Handled any dry pet food 31.5 34.0 33.0 45.9 53.6 49.7 43.5 49.3 46.4 26.6 34.1 30.8 40.2 45.7 43.0
Handled any canned/wet pet food 3.1 3.6 3.3 8.0 11.0 9.7 10.6 16.0 13.3 11.1 19.7 15.9 9.4 14.7 12.1
Handled any raw pet food (store-bought or home-made) 1.0 2.0 1.5 2.4 6.2 4.2 4.7 3.6 4.1 2.9 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.8 3.8
Handled any treats derived from animal parts 4.0 6.7 5.3 7.0 10.8 8.8 8.6 10.5 9.6 4.6 4.8 4.7 7.4 9.2 8.3
Handled any processed animal treats 15.1 15.5 15.3 25.3 32.0 28.5 21.2 29.0 25.2 13.9 21.5 18.1 20.1 26.7 23.5
Handled any rodents/insects for reptiles 0.6 0.8 0.8 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.4 1.6 1.5 0.1 1.1 0.6 1.2 1.4 1.3
Handled any farm animal/livestock feed 3.6 4.2 3.9 4.4 6.7 5.5 5.0 3.0 4.0 2.7 1.1 1.8 4.5 3.2 3.8
Visited any petting zoo 1.7 2.0 1.9 0.8 1.7 1.2 0.2 2.2 1.2 0.0s 0.2 0.1 0.4 1.8 1.1
Visited any farm or barn 8.8 8.9 8.8 8.3 9.6 8.9 7.8 5.8 6.8 3.3 4.3 3.9 7.4 6.3 6.9
Visited any agricultural fair 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.4 0.5 0.3 0.4 1.4 1.1 1.3
Visited any pet store 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.0 5.4 4.1 3.9 6.4 5.2 2.8 2.1 2.4 3.6 5.3 4.5

Table 9: Weighted proportions of food, animal and water exposures and frequenciesTable 9 footnote *, in the past seven days, nationally

Vegetables
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note:
  • "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
  • s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Tomatoes
Any tomatoes 72.9 1.0 71.0 74.8 - - - -
Tomatoes on a sandwich, burger or taco at restaurant or fast food establishment 20.4 1.2 18.0 22.7 - - - -
Roma/plum tomatoes 25.7 1.2 23.3 28.1 - - - -
Hothouse tomatoes 38.3 1.3 35.8 40.8 - - - -
Beefsteak tomatoes 12.2 0.9 10.5 13.9 - - - -
Cherry or grape tomatoes 32.8 1.2 30.5 35.2 - - - -
Lettuce or leafy greens
Any lettuce or leafy greens 82.4 0.8 80.9 84.0 3.9 0.1 3.7 4.1
Lettuce or leafy greens on a sandwich, burger or taco at restaurant or fast food establishment 24.3 1.2 21.9 26.6 1.6 0.1 1.5 1.8
Iceberg lettuce 41.1 1.3 38.5 43.6 2.3 0.1 2.2 2.4
Romaine lettuce 48.8 1.2 46.4 51.3 2.9 0.1 2.7 3.1
Spinach 28.4 1.2 26.1 30.7 2.6 0.1 2.4 2.8
Mesclun greens 15.0 0.9 13.3 16.7 2.7 0.1 2.4 2.9
Pre-packaged lettuce or leafy greens 46.1 1.2 43.7 48.5 2.9 0.1 2.8 3.1
Cabbage
Cabbage (includes coleslaw) 30.0 1.1 27.8 32.2 1.9 0.0s 1.8 2.0
Sprouts
Any sprouts 12.9 0.8 11.4 14.4 1.8 0.1 1.7 2.0
Alfalfa sprouts 2.4 0.3 1.9 3.0 1.8 0.2 1.5 2.1
Bean sprouts 8.7 0.6 7.5 9.8 1.7 0.1 1.6 1.9
Cucumbers
Cucumbers 62.9 1.2 60.7 65.2 - - - -
Bell peppers
Bell peppers 63.6 1.2 61.3 66.0 - - - -
Hot peppers
Hot peppers 19.4 1.2 17.1 21.7 - - - -
Celery
Celery 47.6 1.3 45.1 50.1 - - - -
Carrots
Carrots 81.4 1.0 79.4 83.4 - - - -
Carrots (not mini) 68.9 1.2 66.6 71.2 - - - -
Mini carrots 35.9 1.2 33.6 38.2 - - - -
Peas
Peas (shelled or in pods) 28.8 1.2 26.5 31.2 - - - -
Green or yellow beans
Green or yellow beans 36.6 1.3 34.1 39.1 - - - -
Broccoli
Broccoli 55.5 1.3 53.1 58.0 - - - -
Cauliflower
Cauliflower 33.0 1.2 30.6 35.5 - - - -
Leeks
Leeks 9.2 0.9 7.4 11.0 - - - -
Garlic
Fresh garlic (not powdered) 48.9 1.3 46.4 51.4 - - - -
Mushrooms
Mushrooms 50.0 1.2 47.6 52.4 - - - -
Zucchini
Zucchini 21.1 1.2 18.7 23.4 - - - -
Onions
Any onions 82.7 0.8 81.0 84.3 - - - -
White/yellow onions 73.5 1.1 71.3 75.8 - - - -
Red onions 32.2 1.2 29.8 34.7 - - - -
Green onions 34.0 1.3 31.5 36.5 2.7 0.1 2.5 2.9
Vegetable juice
Vegetable juice 18.2 0.9 16.3 20.0 3.5 0.2 3.2 3.8
Herbs & spices
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Fresh herbs
Any fresh herbs 47.5 1.3 45.0 50.0 - - - -
Fresh Thai basil 9.2 0.8 7.8 10.7 2.4 0.2 2.0 2.7
Fresh basil 17.8 1.0 15.9 19.8 2.3 0.1 2.1 2.5
Fresh cilantro/coriander 17.6 1.0 15.5 19.6 2.4 0.1 2.1 2.7
Fresh tarragon 3.2 0.5 2.2 4.1 1.9 0.2 1.5 2.3
Fresh parsley 26.1 1.2 23.7 28.6 2.5 0.1 2.2 2.7
Other fresh herbs 24.0 1.1 21.8 26.1 - - - -
Spices
Any spices 90.7 0.7 89.3 92.1 - - - -
Pepper (whole/ground, white, black, blended) 84.8 0.8 83.2 86.4 6.4 0.1 6.1 6.6
Curry powder 17.6 0.9 15.8 19.4 2.1 0.1 1.9 2.3
Paprika 22.2 1.0 20.1 24.2 - - - -
Turmeric 15.4 1.0 13.5 17.3 - - - -
Other spices 48.8 1.2 46.3 51.2 - - - -
Store-bought prepared salads & dips
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Store-bought prepared salad
Any store-bought prepared salad 14.5 0.9 12.7 16.3 1.9 0.1 1.7 2.0
Green salad 9.0 0.8 7.4 10.6 1.9 0.1 1.7 2.1
Coleslaw 3.8 0.5 2.9 4.7 1.7 0.1 1.4 1.9
Potato salad 2.6 0.5 1.7 3.5 1.6 0.2 1.3 1.9
Pasta salad 1.8 0.3 1.3 2.4 1.4 0.1 1.3 1.6
Fruit salad/pre-cut fruit/fruit platter 3.1 0.5 2.1 4.1 2.2 0.2 1.8 2.6
Salsa
Salsa 21.7 1.0 19.7 23.7 1.7 0.1 1.5 1.9
Hummus
Hummus 13.4 0.9 11.7 15.1 2.3 0.1 2.0 2.5
Fruits
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Apples
Apples 72.3 1.1 70.0 74.5 - - - -
Pears
Pears 23.9 1.0 22.0 25.9 - - - -
Peaches
Peaches 16.0 1.0 14.1 17.9 - - - -
Nectarines
Nectarines 12.6 0.9 10.8 14.4 - - - -
Apricots
Apricots 4.6 0.5 3.7 5.5 - - - -
Plums
Plums 12.7 1.0 10.8 14.5 - - - -
Citrus fruit
Citrus fruit 65.0 1.2 62.6 67.3 - - - -
Cherries
Cherries 14.7 0.9 13.0 16.5 - - - -
Grapes
Grapes 52.3 1.2 49.9 54.7 - - - -
Bananas
Bananas 76.7 1.0 74.8 78.7 - - - -
Mangoes
Mangoes 15.7 0.9 13.9 17.6 - - - -
Papaya
Papaya 3.1 0.5 2.2 4.0 - - - -
Kiwi
Kiwi 12.3 0.8 10.8 13.8 - - - -
Pomegranate
Pomegranate 7.8 0.8 6.3 9.4 - - - -
Pineapple
Pineapple 30.0 1.1 27.8 32.1 - - - -
Avocado
Avocado (includes guacamole) 26.0 1.2 23.7 28.2 - - - -
Olives
Olives 27.2 1.1 24.9 29.4 - - - -
Melon
Any melon 39.7 1.3 37.2 42.3 - - - -
Cantaloupe 23.5 1.2 21.2 25.9 2.1 0.1 2.0 2.2
Honeydew 13.8 1.1 11.7 15.9 1.9 0.1 1.7 2.1
Watermelon 23.7 1.2 21.4 26.1 2.3 0.1 2.2 2.5
Berries
Any berries 65.2 1.2 62.8 67.5 - - - -
Strawberries 49.6 1.3 47.1 52.0 2.9 0.1 2.7 3.0
Raspberries 27.5 1.2 25.2 29.7 2.7 0.1 2.5 3.0
Blueberries 31.3 1.2 28.9 33.7 3.1 0.1 2.9 3.2
Blackberries 10.5 0.8 9.1 12.0 2.6 0.2 2.2 3.1
Unpasteurized fruit juice
Unpasteurized fruit juice 7.8 0.8 6.3 9.3 - - - -
Fruit smoothies
Fruit smoothies 19.8 1.0 17.9 21.7 - - - -
Nuts and nut products
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Peanut butter
Peanut butter 55.0 1.3 52.5 57.6 - - - -
Other nut paste, butter or spread
Other nut paste, butter or spread 18.3 0.9 16.6 19.9 - - - -
Nuts
Any nuts 65.4 1.2 63.1 67.6 - - - -
Peanuts (not including peanut butter) 33.6 1.3 31.0 36.1 2.8 0.1 2.5 3.0
Almonds 41.0 1.3 38.5 43.5 3.3 0.1 3.1 3.5
Walnuts 18.5 1.2 16.2 20.7 3.3 0.2 2.9 3.6
Hazelnuts (Filberts) 10.1 1.0 8.2 12.0 3.0 0.2 2.5 3.5
Cashews 26.8 1.2 24.5 29.1 2.9 0.1 2.7 3.1
Pecans 12.9 1.0 11.0 14.9 2.8 0.2 2.4 3.2
Seeds and seed products
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Sunflower seeds 18.3 0.9 16.5 20.1 - - - -
Sesame seeds 17.1 1.0 15.2 19.0 - - - -
Tahini, halva or other products made from sesame seeds 6.8 0.8 5.3 8.3 2.6 0.2 2.1 3.0
Beef
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note:
  • "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
  • s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Any beef (not including deli-meat) 78.4 1.1 76.3 80.6 2.6 0.1 2.5 2.7
Raw beef 0.8 0.2 0.4 1.1 1.5 0.1 1.2 1.8
Steak 31.1 1.1 28.8 33.3 1.3 0.0s 1.3 1.4
Stewing beef 13.8 1.0 11.8 15.8 1.4 0.1 1.3 1.5
Other whole-cut beef products 20.0 0.9 18.2 21.9 1.4 0.0s 1.3 1.5
Ground beef (including hamburger)
Any ground beef 63.4 1.2 61.0 65.9 - - - -
Ground beef consumed raw or undercooked 0.7 0.1 0.4 1.0 1.9 0.3 1.2 2.5
Hamburgers
Any hamburgers 39.1 1.2 36.7 41.5 1.5 0.0s 1.5 1.6
Home-made 21.9 1.0 19.9 23.9 1.4 0.0s 1.4 1.5
Store-bought frozen beef patties 8.4 0.6 7.2 9.5 1.4 0.1 1.3 1.5
From a restaurant or fast food establishment 16.1 0.9 14.3 17.9 1.4 0.0s 1.3 1.5
Other ground beef
Other ground beef 44.3 1.3 41.9 46.8 1.7 0.1 1.6 1.8
Pork
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note:
  • "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
  • s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Any pork 55.1 1.3 52.6 57.5 1.9 0.1 1.8 2.1
Ham (not including deli-meat) 15.0 1.0 13.0 17.0 1.9 0.1 1.6 2.1
Bacon 27.2 1.1 25.1 29.3 - - - -
Ground pork 8.3 1.0 6.3 10.2 1.6 0.1 1.3 1.8
Pork pieces or parts 33.7 1.2 31.3 36.1 1.5 0.0s 1.4 1.5
Poultry
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note:
  • "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
  • s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Any poultry 87.6 0.8 86.1 89.1 - - - -
Chicken (not including deli-meat)
Any chicken (not including deli-meat) 85.6 0.8 84.0 87.3 2.6 0.0s 2.5 2.7
Store-bought breaded chicken 16.5 0.8 15.0 18.0 - - - -
Ground chicken 5.3 0.6 4.1 6.6 1.7 0.1 1.5 2.0
Chicken pieces or parts 70.0 1.2 67.6 72.4 2.3 0.1 2.1 2.4
Chicken from a restaurant or fast food establishment 21.0 1.1 18.9 23.1 1.2 0.0s 1.2 1.3
Turkey (not including deli-meat)
Any turkey (not including deli-meat) 11.8 1.0 9.8 13.8 - - - -
Turkey bacon 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.7 2.0 0.2 1.6 2.4
Ground turkey 2.5 0.4 1.7 3.4 2.1 0.7 0.8 3.5
Turkey pieces or parts 8.3 0.9 6.4 10.1 1.8 0.2 1.4 2.1
Other poultry
Other poultry (not including deli-meat) 2.3 0.3 1.7 2.9 - - - -
Deli-meat
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Any deli-meat/cold cuts 49.3 1.3 46.8 51.8 2.5 0.1 2.4 2.7
Chicken 9.2 0.8 7.7 10.7 1.9 0.2 1.6 2.3
Turkey 12.4 1.0 10.5 14.3 1.9 0.1 1.7 2.1
Ham 28.2 1.2 25.8 30.5 2.0 0.1 1.9 2.1
Beef 7.3 0.6 6.1 8.5 1.8 0.1 1.6 2.0
Bologna 8.5 0.8 7.0 10.1 2.0 0.1 1.7 2.2
Salami 11.3 1.0 9.3 13.2 1.9 0.1 1.6 2.1
Pepperoni 9.7 0.7 8.3 11.2 1.5 0.1 1.4 1.6
Kielbasa 2.9 0.3 2.2 3.5 1.6 0.1 1.3 1.8
Other meat / animal products
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Hot dogs 26.9 1.3 24.4 29.4 - - - -
Sausage 30.8 1.2 28.5 33.2 - - - -
Dried meat products 7.4 0.6 6.3 8.6 1.7 0.1 1.5 1.9
Pâté/meat spread 5.3 0.6 4.1 6.6 - - - -
Lamb 5.3 0.6 4.2 6.4 - - - -
Veal 4.8 0.5 3.9 5.7 - - - -
Goat 2.4 0.7 1.1 3.7 - - - -
Organ meats or offal 4.2 0.9 2.5 5.9 1.3 0.1 1.1 1.5
Shawarma or donair 3.4 0.7 2.0 4.7 - - - -
Fish & seafood
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note:
  • "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
  • s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Fish
Any fish 55.6 1.2 53.2 58.0 - - - -
Smoked fish 7.4 0.7 6.1 8.8 - - - -
Raw fish 6.8 0.8 5.2 8.4 - - - -
Shellfish
Any shellfish 16.8 1.1 14.6 19.0 - - - -
Mussels 2.0 0.2 1.6 2.5 1.2 0.1 1.0 1.4
Clams 2.1 0.7 0.7 3.5 - - - -
Scallops 3.5 0.5 2.5 4.6 - - - -
Shrimp/prawns 14.1 1.1 12.0 16.3 - - - -
Crab 2.9 0.6 1.8 4.0 - - - -
Lobster 2.4 0.7 1.0 3.9 - - - -
Oysters
Any oysters 1.0 0.2 0.7 1.3 1.2 0.0s 1.1 1.2
Raw oysters 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.6 1.2 0.1 1.0 1.3
Eggs
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Any eggs 80.7 1.0 78.6 82.7 - - - -
Raw or undercooked eggs 15.0 0.8 13.3 16.7 - - - -
Dairy / dairy substitutes
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Dairy
Any dairy products (not including cheese) 84.6 0.9 82.9 86.4 - - - -
Pasteurized dairy milk 74.7 1.1 72.5 76.9 - - - -
Unpasteurized dairy milk (not including cheese) 2.8 0.5 1.9 3.7 6.1 0.5 5.2 7.1
Powdered milk product 2.6 0.3 1.9 3.3 - - - -
Whipped/whipping cream 15.0 0.9 13.3 16.8 - - - -
Sour cream 23.4 1.0 21.5 25.4 - - - -
Ice cream/gelato 42.0 1.3 39.5 44.5 - - - -
Yogurt 58.2 1.2 55.8 60.7 - - - -
Dairy substitutes
Dairy substitutes or non-dairy milk 15.9 0.9 14.1 17.7 - - - -
Cheese
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Any cheese 88.8 0.8 87.2 90.5 - - - -
Cheddar 72.6 1.1 70.4 74.7 - - - -
Mozzarella 47.6 1.3 45.2 50.1 - - - -
Parmesan 40.1 1.3 37.7 42.6 - - - -
Gouda 7.0 0.6 5.9 8.1 2.1 0.1 1.9 2.4
Feta 19.0 1.0 17.0 20.9 - - - -
Other cheeses sold as blocks/wheels 25.5 1.0 23.5 27.5 - - - -
Brie, camembert or other soft cheese 13.5 0.9 11.8 15.2 - - - -
Blue-veined cheese 5.6 0.6 4.3 6.8 - - - -
Cottage, ricotta or other fresh cheese 13.1 0.9 11.4 14.8 - - - -
Goat/sheep milk cheese 8.6 0.8 7.1 10.1 - - - -
Processed cheese 36.1 1.2 33.8 38.5 - - - -
Any cheese made with unpasteurized milk 3.6 0.5 2.6 4.7 2.6 0.2 2.1 3.1
Frozen foods
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Frozen vegetables
Frozen vegetables 38.7 1.2 36.3 41.1 - - - -
Frozen fruit
Any frozen fruit 24.2 1.0 22.3 26.1 - - - -
Frozen berries 21.3 0.9 19.6 23.1 - - - -
Frozen fruit (not including berries) 9.4 0.7 8.0 10.8 - - - -
Frozen pizza
Frozen pizza 20.1 1.0 18.2 22.0 - - - -
Frozen pot pies
Frozen pot pies 3.6 0.5 2.6 4.7 - - - -
Frozen meals in a bag or box
Frozen meals in a bag or box 9.9 0.7 8.6 11.2 - - - -
Frozen snack foods/appetizers
Frozen snack foods/appetizers 6.1 0.8 4.6 7.6 - - - -
Dried, processed & other
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Dried fruit 33.2 1.2 30.8 35.7 - - - -
Granola bars, power bars, or other protein bars 37.5 1.2 35.2 39.9 - - - -
Chips or pretzels 53.9 1.3 51.4 56.4 - - - -
Chocolate or chocolate-containing candy 63.9 1.2 61.6 66.2 - - - -
Cold breakfast cereal 54.3 1.3 51.8 56.7 - - - -
Hot breakfast cereal 28.5 1.1 26.4 30.5 - - - -
Tofu 8.5 0.9 6.8 10.2 - - - -
Dietary or nutritional supplement 28.2 1.2 25.9 30.5 - - - -
Ethnic foods & fast foods
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note:
  • "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
  • s = greater than 0, less than 0.05. If there is a '0.0' value without an 's', value is exactly 0
Asian style foods 27.4 1.2 24.9 29.8 - - - -
Indian style foods 13.5 1.0 11.4 15.5 - - - -
Mexican style foods 16.7 0.9 14.9 18.5 - - - -
Meal from a fast food restaurant 53.6 1.5 50.7 56.5 1.7 0.0s 1.6 1.8
Baby foods
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note:
  • "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
  • Baby food consumption questions were only asked of respondents who were <2 years old.'
Baby formula
Any baby formula 23.1 2.4 18.4 27.7 - - - -
Liquid 10.9 1.7 7.6 14.1 - - - -
Powder 18.5 2.2 14.1 22.8 - - - -
Store-bought pureed baby food
Store-bought pureed baby food 20.5 2.3 16.0 24.9 - - - -
Infant/toddler cereal
Infant/toddler cereal 22.9 2.2 18.5 27.3 - - - -
Water
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Primary drinking water source
Municipal water 68.5 1.1 66.4 70.6 - - - -
Private well 10.8 0.6 9.6 12.0 - - - -
Store-bought bottled water 18.8 0.9 16.9 20.6 - - - -
Raw water consumption
Any raw water consumption 2.6 0.3 2.0 3.1 - - - -
Swim or go into any water
Swim or go into any water 13.1 0.8 11.6 14.6 - - - -
Pool 9.7 0.7 8.3 11.0 - - - -
Hot tub 3.4 0.4 2.7 4.1 - - - -
Recreational waterpark 1.6 0.3 1.0 2.2 - - - -
Swim or go into any natural water
Swim or go into any natural water 4.0 0.5 3.1 5.0 - - - -
Ocean 1.2 0.4 0.4 2.0 2.5 0.4 1.7 3.3
Lake 2.6 0.3 2.0 3.2 2.6 0.3 2.1 3.1
River 0.8 0.2 0.4 1.2 1.6 0.2 1.2 2.1
Natural hot spring 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.6 1.5 0.2 1.1 1.9
Swim or go into a swimming facility in the last 4 weeks
Swim or go into a swimming facility in the last 4 weeks 19.3 1.0 17.3 21.3 3.9 0.2 3.5 4.4
Animal contact
Exposure Proportion Frequency
Prop SE Lower CI Upper CI Mean SE Lower CI Upper CI
Note: "-" indicates that the value was not measured.
Table 9 footnote *

For frequency of exposure to domestic and farm animals, respondents were asked for the average number of times a day they touched the animal within the last 24-hour period they were in contact with the animal.

Return to Table 9 footnote * referrer

Any contact with animals, animal waste, habitat or food 63.4 1.3 60.9 65.9 - - - -
Cat 31.9 1.1 29.8 34.1 12.5Table 9 footnote * 1.0 10.5 14.5
Dog 43.3 1.2 40.9 45.7 15.1Table 9 footnote * 1.2 12.7 17.4
Bird 2.6 0.3 2.0 3.2 6.0Table 9 footnote * 1.1 3.7 8.2
Reptile 1.6 0.3 1.1 2.2 3.2Table 9 footnote * 0.7 1.9 4.5
Amphibian 1.2 0.4 0.5 1.9 1.6Table 9 footnote * 0.3 1.1 2.2
Rodent or pocket pet 3.4 0.4 2.7 4.2 6.6Table 9 footnote * 2.7 1.3 12.0
Fish or aquarium 4.5 0.6 3.3 5.8 3.0Table 9 footnote *