Government of Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

The Greening Government Strategy established climate and environmental commitments for the Government of Canada’s internal operations. The Government of Canada’s operations will be net-zero emissions by 2050 including:

  • Government owned and leased real property
  • Mobility: fleets, business travel and commuting
  • Procurement of goods and services
  • National safety and security operationsFootnote 1

Visit the Open Government portal for more information about GHG emissions from federal facilities and fleets.

To implement net-zero in real property and fleet operationsFootnote 2, the Government of Canada will reduce absolute Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions by 40% by 2025 and at least 90% below 2005 levels by 2050. On this emissions reduction pathway, the government will aspire to reduce emissions by an additional 10% each 5 years starting in 2025.

Scope 1 GHG emissions are produced by sources that are owned or controlled by the government. For example, the greenhouse gases emitted from the combustion of fuels in vehicles or in buildings. Scope 2 GHG emissions are those generated indirectly from the consumption of purchased energy (electricity, heating, and cooling). Scope 3 GHG emissions are indirect such as the emissions produced in the supply chain of the goods and services we buy.

In all the tables, the emissions data in kilotonnes of carbon equivalent are rounded to the nearest one decimal.

Progress

Progress on all reported sources of GHG emissions for facilities, fleets, and employee work-related air travel. It should be noted that the COVID-19 pandemic was a major driver of reductions during fiscal year 2020 to 2021, as public health restrictions reduced building occupancy, the use of fleet vehicles and employee work-related air travel.

Figure 1: Federal greenhouse gas emissions from facilities and conventional fleet operations for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2017 to 2021
Figure  1: Federal greenhouse gas emissions from facilities and conventional fleet  operations for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2017 to 2021. Text version below:
Figure 1 - Text version

Annual federal GHG emissions (in kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent) from facilities and conventional fleet operations between fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021. In fiscal year 2020 to 2021 the federal government reported 1,071 kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, which represents a 40.6% reduction since fiscal year 2005 to 2006. Between fiscal years 2017 to 2018 and 2018 to 2019, the GHG inventory was expanded to cover all core departments owning real property and/or fleets with more than 50 vehicles, increasing the number of reporting organizations from 15 to 27. Therefore, when comparing data from between fiscal years 2010 to 2011 and 2016 to 2017 to post-2017 years, one must account for this change. Comparisons of the current year with the 2005 to 2006 base year are always valid, because as departments were added, their emissions in fiscal year 2005 to 2006 were also added.

Data for the bar graph

Federal greenhouse gas emissions for facilities and conventional fleet operations by source between fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021
Fiscal Year Federal Facilities
Emissions
(kt CO2 eq)
Conventional Fleet Emissions
(kt CO2 eq)
Total
Emissions
(kt CO2 eq)
Percentage
change
compared with
fiscal year
2005 to 2006
2005-06 1,631 168 1,799 -
2017-18 1,088 127 1,215 -32.5%
2018-19 1,092 129 1,221 -32.1%
2019-20 1,054 123 1,177 -34.6%
2020-21 976 95 1,071 -40.6%
Figure 2: Greenhouse gas emissions from facilities and conventional fleet operations by federal organization in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
Greenhouse gas emissions from facilities and conventional fleet operations by federal organization in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006. Text version below:
Figure 2 - Text version

The bar graph shows the total greenhouse gas emissions (in kilotonnes of carbon equivalent) reported in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, for facilities and conventional fleet operations by federal organization. The greenhouse gas emissions are separated by facilities or fleet. The percentage change compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006 is also shown for each federal organization.

Data for the bar graph

Federal greenhouse gas emissions for facilities and conventional fleet operations by source between fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021
Federal organization Emissions from
facilities for
fiscal year
2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
Emissions from
fleets for fiscal
year
2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
Total Emissions
for fiscal year
2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
Percentage change
compared with
fiscal year
2005 to 2006
National Defence 477.1 17.4 495 -38%
Public Services and Procurement Canada 117.7 0.6 118 -58%
Correctional Service Canada 111.4 1.7 113 -20%
Royal Canadian Mounted Police 59.7 1.5 61 -46%
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 50.0 2.6 53 -47%
Transport Canada 5.0 43.2 48 -23%
Parks Canada 16.8 11.5 28 -29%
National Research Council Canada 36.3 0.7 37 -50%
Fisheries and Oceans Canada 21.0 5.4 26 -41%
Canadian Food Inspection Agency 16.9 2.4 19.3 -42%
Natural Resources Canada 19.4 0.4 19.8 -43%
Environment and Climate Change Canada 10.7 2.0 12.7 -42%
Canada Border Services Agency 7.5 3.5 11.0 -14%
Health Canada 8.0 0.2 8.2 -63%
Public Health Agency of Canada 6.6 0.0 6.6 -8%
Public Safety Canada 5.5 0.0 5.5 -21%
Library and Archives Canada 2.7 0.0 2.7 -8%
Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada 0.4 0.02 0.42 -2%
Indigenous Services Canada 0.0 1.3 1.3 -43%
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada 0.6 0.2 0.8 -74%
Canadian Space Agency 1.2 0.01 1.21 -47%
Employment and Social Development Canada 0.0 0.03 0.03 -98%
Canada Revenue Agency 0.0 0.1 0.1 -75%
Shared Services CanadaFootnote 3 0.7 0.3 1.0 N/A
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada 0.0 0.02 0.02 -78%
National Battlefields CommissionFootnote 4 0.2 0.0 0.2 N/A
Canadian Forces Morale and Welfare Services 0.5 0.0 0.5 -80%
Total 976 95 1,071 -40.6%
Figure 3: Federal greenhouse gas emissions progress from federal facilities, conventional fleet, national safety and security fleet and employee work-related air travel between fiscal years 2018 to 2019 and 2020 to 2021
Federal greenhouse gas emissions progress from federal facilities, conventional fleet, national safety and security fleet and employee  work-related air travel between fiscal years 2018 to 2019 and 2020 to 2021. Text version below:
Figure 3 - Text version

The bar graphs show the GHG emissions (in kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent) reported between fiscal years 2018 to 2019 and 2020 to 2021, for federal facilities, conventional fleet, national safety and security fleet operations and employee work-related air travel.

Data for the bar graph

Federal greenhouse gas emissions progress from federal facilities, conventional fleet, national safety and security fleet and employee work-related air travel between fiscal years 2018 to 2019 and 2020 to 2021
Fiscal Year Federal Real
Property Emissions
(kt CO2 eq)
Conventional
Fleet Emissions
(kt CO2 eq)
National Safety
and Security Fleet Emissions
(kt CO2 eq)
Air Travel
Emissions
(kt CO2 eq)
2018-19 1,092 129 986 252
2019-20 1,054 123 951 220
2020-21 976 95 844 23

Key results

  • 27 federal organizations reported GHG emissions between fiscal years 2018 to 2019 and 2020 to 2021
  • The federal facilities and conventional fleet emissions for fiscal year 2020 to 2021 totalled 1,071 kilotonnes (kt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq), which represents a decrease of 731 kt CO2 eq or 40.6% (excluding National Safety and Security emissions), compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
  • Over the last 3 fiscal years, emissions have trended downward for federal facilities, conventional fleet, national safety and security fleet operations and employee work-related air travel
  • The COVID-19 pandemic was a major driver of year-over-over reductions between fiscal years 2019 to 2020 and 2020 to 2021, as public health mandates reduced building occupancy, in addition to the use of fleet vehicles and employee work-related air travel
  • GHG emissions from federal facilities in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 totalled 976 kt CO2 eq, which is a reduction of 656 kt CO2 eq or 40.2% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, the federal conventional fleet generated 95 kt CO2 eq, which was 44% lower than fleet emissions in fiscal year 2005 to 2006
Facilities
Scope: 1,2

Greenhouse gas emissions from federal facilities

The federal government has one of the largest and most diverse portfolios of facilities in the country, including:

  • the buildings on Parliament Hill
  • aircraft hangars on military bases
  • laboratories
  • correctional institutions
  • office buildings and warehouses
Figure 4: Greenhouse gas emissions by federal organization for facilities in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
Greenhouse gas emissions by  federal organization for facilities in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the  percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006. Text version below:
Figure 4 - Text version

The bar graph shows the total GHG emissions (in kilotonnes of carbon equivalent) reported in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, for facilities by federal organization. Above each bar is the organization’s emissions in 2020 to 2021, as well as the percentage change compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006 for each federal organization.

Data for the bar graph

Greenhouse gas emissions by federal organization for facilities in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
Federal organization Emissions from facilities for fiscal year
2020 to 2021 (kt CO2 eq)
Percentage change
compared with fiscal year
2005 to 2006
National Defence 477.1 -36%
Public Services and Procurement Canada 117.7 -58%
Correctional Service Canada 111.4 -20%
Royal Canadian Mounted Police 59.7 -42%
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 50.0 -46%
National Research Council Canada 36.3 -50%
Fisheries and Oceans Canada 21.0 -40%
Natural Resources Canada 19.4 -41%
Canadian Food Inspection Agency 16.9 -37%
Parks Canada 16.8 -41%
Environment and Climate Change Canada 10.7 -37%
Health Canada 8.0 -41%
Canada Border Services Agency 7.5 -37%
Public Health Agency of Canada 6.6 -10%
Public Safety Canada 5.5 -62%
Transport Canada 5.0 -7%
Library and Archives Canada 2.7 -9%
Canadian Space Agency 1.2 -50%
Shared Services CanadaFootnote 3 0.7 N/A
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada 0.6 -54%
Canadian Forces Morale and Welfare Services 0.5 -81%
Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada 0.4 -76%
National Battlefields CommissionFootnote 4 0.2 N/A
Total 976 -40.2%
Figure 5: Greenhouse gas emissions from federal facilities in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 by region
Greenhouse gas emissions  from federal facilities in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 by region. Text version below:
Figure 5 - Text version

The figure is a map of Canada that shows the regional distribution of GHG emissions from federal facilities in fiscal year 2020 to 2021.

Data for the figure

Greenhouse gas emissions from federal facilities in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 by region
Region Emissions from
stationary combustion
(kt CO2 eq)
Emissions
from
electricity
(kt CO2 eq)
Emissions
from
district
energy
(kt CO2 eq)
Total from
all
sources
(kt CO2 eq)
Percentage
share
of total GHG
emissions
Ontario 196.8 26.0 53.2 276.0 28%
Nova Scotia 49.9 120.4 0.9 171.2 18%
Alberta 86.0 37.1 0.0 123.2 13%
Quebec 96.8 0.7 5.7 103.2 11%
Saskatchewan 27.5 55.2 5.3 88.0 9%
New Brunswick 25.8 25.5 0.5 51.8 5%
British Columbia 44.5 4.3 1.6 50.4 5%
Newfoundland and Labrador 42.5 4.0 0.0 46.5 5%
Manitoba 33.3 0.1 1.6 35.0 4%
Nunavut 11.5 5.3 0.0 16.8 2%
Prince Edward Island 3.1 4.5 1.2 8.8 1%
Yukon 3.2 0.9 0.0 4.1 0.4%
Northwest Territories 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.03%
Total 621 285 70 976 100%
Figure 6: Greenhouse gas emissions from federal facilities by energy source for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021
Greenhouse gas emissions  from federal facilities by energy source for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020  to 2021. Text version below:
Figure 6 - Text version

The bar graph shows the GHG emissions generated by federal facilities in kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in total and by source for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021.

Data for the bar graph

Greenhouse gas emissions from federal facilities by energy source for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021
Source of Energy Emissions for fiscal year
2005 to 2006
(kt CO2 eq)
Emissions in for fiscal year
2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
Percentage change
compared with fiscal year
2005 to 2006
Stationary fuel combustion
Natural gas 576.1 518.4 -10%
Light fuel oil 57.1 42.3 -26%
Heavy fuel oil 70.9 2.8 -96%
Jet fuel 26.8 20.2 -25%
Diesel 22.3 27.2 22%
Propane 10.8 9.9 -8%
Purchased electricity
Market-based 741.0 284.5 -62%
Location-based 741.0 378.0 -49%
District energy
Heating 103.1 69.1 -33%
Cooling 23.8 1.0 -96%
Facilities total (market) 1,632 976 -40%
Facilities total (location) 1,632 1,068 -34%

Key results

  • 23 federal organizations reported GHG emissions generated by federal facilities in fiscal year 2020 to 2021
  • The emissions for fiscal year 2020 to 2021 totalled 976 kilotonnes (kt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) for facilities, which represents a decrease of 656 kt CO2 eq or 40% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, the top 5 emitting organizations (National Defence, Public Services and Procurement Canada, Correctional Service Canada, Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) generated 84% of the Government of Canada's facilities emissions
  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, operations in the top 6 regions (Ontario, Nova Scotia, Alberta, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and New Brunswick) generated 83% of the Government of Canada's facilities emissions
  • A significant amount of emissions generated by purchased electricity comes from electricity use in regions that have high-carbon electricity grids, including Nova Scotia (42%), Saskatchewan (19%), Alberta (13%) and New Brunswick (9%)
  • Breakdown of emissions from natural gas used in federal facilities:
    • 37% in Ontario
    • 16% in Alberta
    • 18% in Quebec
    • 8% in British Columbia
  • 51% of emissions from light fuel oil came from operations in Nova Scotia, and an additional 40% of emissions from light fuel oil were generated in the other Atlantic provinces and Quebec
  • 86% of GHG emissions from district energy came from plants located in the National Capital Region
  • Stationary fuel combustion, primarily used to generate heat at facilities, was the source of a significant amount (64%) of GHG emissions in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, but has decreased by 19% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
  • Purchased electricity generated a significant amount (29%) of GHG emissions in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, but emissions from electricity use have decreased by 62% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006.
  • The 656 kt CO2 eq reduction in emissions from federal facilities compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006 can be attributed to:
    • a reduction in the GHG intensity of electricity purchased across Canada, which accounted for a reduction of 283 kt CO2 eq
    • contracting mechanisms, such as renewable energy certificates, which accounted for an additional reduction of 94 kt CO2 eq
    • The reduction in GHG emissions from district heating (34 kt CO2 eq) and cooling (23 kt CO2 eq) was significant, but it had a small impact on emission levels since district heating and cooling represents a smaller share of overall energy use
    • The remaining 223 kt reduction in emissions can be attributed to the rationalization of the government’s portfolio of buildings, energy efficiency measures and fuel switching resulting in reductions related to:
      • stationary fuel combustion (143 kt CO2 eq)
      • purchased electricity (80 kt CO2 eq)
      • lower occupancy of facilities due to the COVID-19 pandemic also contributed to reductions over the last year, although these reductions were offset by public health requirements to increase indoor air ventilation
More information

Stationary fuel combustion generates heating, cooling, and electricity at federal facilities. Sources of stationary fuel combustion within facilities often include:

  • boilers and furnaces to produce heat
  • absorption chillers or gas-driven compression units used for cooling
  • generators, turbines or co-generation equipment that produce electricity
  • other equipment used in facilities, such as lab equipment and kitchen appliances

These GHG emissions are considered to be “direct” because they are generated at the facility.

Purchased electricity refers to the purchase of conventional, grid-tied electricity. GHG emissions from purchased electricity are considered to be “indirect” because the electricity is generated off-site.

Federal organizations use 2 accounting methods to calculate GHG emissions from purchased electricity:

  1. The location-based method considers the average GHG intensity of the electricity grids that provide electricity, regardless of any contractual arrangements that an organization has for clean electricity. To quantify indirect emissions using the location-based method, reporting organizations use emission factors that are based on the geographic location of each facility and that correspond to the grid-average emission factor of power-generating facilities that supply power to the grid.
  2. The market-based method reflects GHG emissions from sources of electricity that reporting organizations have chosen. For example, an organization may establish a contractual arrangement to procure clean electricity from specific sources through the use of clean power purchase agreements or renewable energy certificates. For all remaining electricity use at a facility that is not covered by a contractual arrangement, the appropriate grid-average emission factor based on the location of the facility will apply. Progress toward the federal GHG reduction target will be measured using the market-based methodology.

District energy represents the energy used for heating or cooling that is generated off-site. GHG emissions from district energy are also considered to be indirect because the emissions occur at the facility where heating or cooling is generated.

Visit the Open Government portal for more information on GHG emissions generated by federal facilities.

Fleets
Scope: 1,2

Greenhouse gas emissions generated by federal conventional fleets

Operating a fleet results in the combustion of fossil fuels and the emission of GHGs. The Government of Canada has a large and diverse conventional fleet that includes:

  • on-road vehicles and equipment, such as:
    • cars
    • vans
    • trucks
    • other vehicles
  • off-road vehicles and equipment, such as:
    • marine vessels (boats and ships)
    • aircraft
    • other mobile equipment (for example all-terrain vehicles, lawn mowers and generators)

Federal conventional fleets consist of vehicles and equipment primarily used to transport people and cargo in the conduct of government business, and excludes fleet used for National Safety and Security operations.

Figure 7: Greenhouse gas emissions by federal organization for conventional fleet in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
Greenhouse gas emissions by  federal organization for conventional fleet in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the  percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006. Text version below:
Figure 7 - Text version

The bar graph shows the total GHG emissions (in kilotonnes of carbon equivalent) reported in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, for conventional fleet by federal organization. Above each bar is the organization’s emissions in 2020 to 2021, as well as the percentage change compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006 for each federal organization.

Data for the bar graph

Greenhouse gas emissions by federal organization for conventional fleet in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
Federal organization Emissions from conventional fleet for fiscal year 2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
Percentage change
compared with fiscal year
2005 to 2006
Transport Canada 43.2 -23%
National Defence 17.4 -60%
Parks Canada 11.5 1%
Fisheries and Oceans Canada 5.4 -44%
Canada Border Services Agency 3.5 -21%
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2.6 -68%
Canadian Food Inspection Agency 2.4 -60%
Environment and Climate Change Canada 2.0 -57%
Correctional Service Canada 1.7 -41%
Royal Canadian Mounted Police 1.5 -86%
Indigenous Services Canada 1.3 -43%
National Research Council Canada 0.7 -43%
Public Services and Procurement Canada 0.6 -62%
Natural Resources Canada 0.4 -78%
Shared Services Canada 0.3 0%
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada 0.2 -98%
Health Canada 0.2 -90%
Canada Revenue Agency 0.1 -72%
Employment and Social Development Canada 0.03 -98%
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada 0.02 -75%
Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada 0.02 -79%
Canadian Space Agency 0.01 N/A
Total 95 -44%
Figure 8: Greenhouse gas emissions from federal conventional fleets by vehicle type in fiscal year 2020 to 2021
Greenhouse gas emissions from federal conventional fleets by vehicle type in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. Text version below:
Figure 8 - Text version

Sources of GHG emissions from the federal fleet by vehicle type in fiscal year 2020 to 2021. From highest to lowest: on-road (50%), marine vessels (36%), aircraft (9%), and other mobile equipment (5%).

Data for the graphic

Greenhouse gas emissions from the federal conventional fleet by vehicle type in fiscal year 2020 to 2021
Vehicle type Emissions for fiscal year
2005 to 2006
(kt CO2 eq)
Emissions for fiscal year
2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
Percentage of 2020 to 2021 total emissions
On road vehicles 109 47 50%
Marine vessels 36 34 36%
Aircraft 15 9 9%
Other mobile equipment 9 5 5%
Total 169 95 100%
Figure 9: Greenhouse gas emissions from the federal conventional fleet by fuel type for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021
Greenhouse gas emissions  from the federal conventional fleet by fuel type for fiscal years 2005 to 2006  and 2020 to 2021. Text version below:
Figure 9 - Text version

The bar graph shows the GHG emissions generated by the federal conventional fleet in kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by fuel type for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021.

Data for the bar graph

Greenhouse gas emissions from the federal conventional fleet by source for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021
Fuel type Emissions for fiscal year
2005 to 2006
(kt CO2 eq)
Emissions for fiscal year
2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
Percentage change
compared with fiscal year
2005 to 2006
Gasoline 81.4 27.9 -66%
Diesel 68.2 53.1 -22%
Aviation fuel 14.7 8.8 -40%
Low carbon fuel 4.7 5.1 10%
Propane 0.56 0.04 -92%
Natural gas 0.09 0 -100%
Total 169 95 -44%

Key results

  • 24 federal organizations reported GHG emissions generated by federal conventional fleets in fiscal year 2020 to 2021
  • The emissions for fiscal year 2020 to 2021 totalled 95 kilotonnes (kt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) for conventional fleets, which represents a decrease of 74 kt CO2 eq or 44% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, the top 5 emitting organizations (Transport Canada, National Defence, Parks Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Canada Border Service Agency) generated 84% of the Government of Canada's conventional fleet GHG emissions
  • The federal conventional fleet generated approximately 9% of combined federal facilities and conventional fleet GHG emissions in fiscal year 2020 to 2021
  • Around half of the fleet’s GHG emissions (50%) were generated by on-road vehicles, while the balance was generated by marine vessels (36%), aircraft (9%) and other mobile equipment (5%) owned by federal organizations
  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, GHG emissions from the federal fleet were down by 44% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006:
    • The reduction over the last year was primarily driven by public health restrictions due to the pandemic
    • In previous years, reductions were due to vehicle right-sizing and the purchase of more efficient vehicles
    • GHG emissions from gasoline were the source of most of the fleet's emission reductions, decreasing by 54 kilotonnes (kt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq), or 66% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
    • GHG emissions from diesel were reduced by 15.1 kt of CO2 eq or 22% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006. The marine fleet accounted for 62% of emissions, 31% from on-road vehicles and 7% from other mobile equipment
    • GHG emissions from aviation fuel have decreased by 40% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
    • GHG emissions from other low carbon fuel, such as biodiesel and ethanol-blended gasoline, have increased by 10% compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
    • GHG emissions from propane and natural gas were reduced significantly by 92% and 100% respectively

Visit the Open Government portal for more information on GHG emissions generated by federal fleets.

Security
Scope: 1,2

Greenhouse gas emissions from national safety and security operations

National safety and security operations include activities such as law enforcement by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, search and rescue by the Canadian Coast Guard, and the operation of military vehicles and equipment by the Department of National Defence. These emissions are included in the Government of Canada’s target of net-zero emissions by 2050Footnote 5.

Figure 10: Greenhouse gas emissions by federal organization for national safety and security fleet in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
Greenhouse gas emissions by federal organization for national safety and  security fleet in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the percentage change in emissions  compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006. Text version below:
Figure 10 - Text version

The bar graph shows GHG emissions (in kilotonnes of carbon equivalent) reported in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, for national safety and security fleet by federal organization. Above each bar is the organization’s emissions in 2020 to 2021, as well as the percentage change compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006 for each federal organization.

Data for the bar graph

Greenhouse gas emissions by federal organization for national safety and security fleet in fiscal year 2020 to 2021 and the percentage change in emissions compared with fiscal year 2005 to 2006
Federal organization Emissions for fiscal year 2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
Percentage change
compared with fiscal year
2005 to 2006
National Defence 592 -7%
Fisheries and Oceans Canada 155 3%
Royal Canadian Mounted Police 98 56%
Figure 11: Greenhouse gas emissions from the national safety and security fleet for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021 by fleet type
Greenhouse gas emissions  from the national safety and security fleet for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020  to 2021 by fleet type. Text version below:
Figure 11 - Text version

The bar graph shows the GHG emissions generated by the national safety and security fleet in kilotonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent as a total and by fleet type for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021.

Data for the bar graph

Greenhouse gas emissions from the national safety and security fleet for fiscal years 2005 to 2006 and 2020 to 2021 by fleet type
National safety and security fleet type Emissions for fiscal
year 2005 to 2006
(kt CO2 eq)
Emissions for fiscal
year 2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
Percentage change
compared with fiscal
year 2005 to 2006
Aircraft 479.7 510.5 6%
Marine 304.3 243.7 -20%
Land vehicles 65.3 90.1 38%
Total 849 844 -0.6%

Key results

  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, the federal national safety and security fleet emitted 844 kilotonnes (kt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq)
  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, the Department of National Defence national safety and security fleet emitted 592 kt CO2 eq:
    • 84% of the emissions came from aircraft
    • 15% came from marine vessels
    • 1% came from other land vehicles
  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, the Canadian Coast Guard national safety and security fleet emitted 155 kt CO2 eq:
    • 97% of the emissions came from marine vessels
    • 3% came from aircraft
  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) national safety and security fleet emitted 98 kt CO2 eq:
    • 87% of the emissions came from on-road vehicles. An overall 56% increase in GHG emissions since fiscal year 2005 to 2006 is attributed to a 36% increase in the number of RCMP on-road NSS vehicles. This includes additional emissions due to the need to convert to larger vehicles. These measures were required to ensure the RCMP can meet its operational requirements. The RCMP is currently assessing the feasibility of incorporating electric vehicles into its policing fleet to reduce the growth in GHG emissions;
    • 10% came from aircraft
    • 3% came from marine vessels
More information

By 2023, NSS fleet departments will develop and regularly update Operational Fleet Decarbonization Plans that outline how they will reduce their emissions from operations in line with the overall 2050 target.

In addition, NSS departments will adopt best practices to improve efficiency and reduce emissions and environmental impacts in the areas of:

  • fuel procurement, including low-carbon fuels
  • fleet procurement, including purchasing energy -efficient platforms
  • operational efficiency and net-zero research and innovation

The Government of Canada is taking a leadership role to put itself on a 2050 net-zero pathway by committing to buy low-carbon fuels for use in the federal domestic air and marine fleets. Budget 2021 provided $227.9 million over eight years, starting in 2023-24, to the Treasury Board Secretariat to implement a Low-Carbon Fuel Procurement Program within the Greening Government Fund.

Air Travel
Scope 3

Greenhouse gas emissions from public service employee work-related air travel

Through the Greening Government Strategy, the Government of Canada made a commitment to track greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from air travel by public service employees starting in fiscal year 2018-19. These emissions are included in the federal GHG inventory and, the federal GHG reduction target.

We are also promoting lower-carbon alternatives to work-related air travel, including the use of teleconference technology or substituting air travel with other forms of travel such as rail, where feasible.

As a way to further incent departments to adopt lower-carbon alternatives to work-related travel the Greening Government Fund was established through Treasury Board Secretariat in 2018. Federal departments and agencies that generate GHG emissions in excess of 1 kilotonne per year from air travel contribute $25 per tonne annually (which will rise to $50 per tonne in 2022, and will keep in line with the federal carbon pollution pricing system going forward) to the Greening Government Fund. The fund supports projects that allow departments to explore innovative approaches to reducing GHG emissions.

Figure 12: Greenhouse gas emissions for employee work-related air travel by federal organization in fiscal year 2020 to 2021
Greenhouse gas emissions for  employee work-related air travel by federal organization in fiscal year 2020 to  2021. Text version below:
Figure 12 - Text version

The bar graph shows the total GHG emissions (in kilotonnes of carbon equivalent) for employee work-related air travel reported in fiscal year 2020 to 2021, by the top 11 emitting federal organizations. The remainder are grouped as “other”.

Data for the bar graph

Greenhouse gas emissions for employee work-related air travel by federal organization in fiscal year 2020 to 2021
Federal organization Emissions for fiscal year 2020 to 2021
(kt CO2 eq)
National Defence 13.3
Canada Border Services Agency 4.8
Royal Canadian Mounted Police 2.8
Fisheries and Oceans Canada 0.7
Global Affairs Canada 0.4
Correctional Service Canada 0.4
Indigenous Services Canada 0.2
Transport Canada 0.2
Environment and Climate Change Canada 0.1
Public Health Agency of Canada 0.09
Parks Canada 0.09
Employment and Social Development Canada 0.04
Justice Canada 0.03
Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada 0.02
Shared Services Canada 0.02
Public Services and Procurement Canada 0.02
Veterans Affairs Canada 0.02
Canada Revenue Agency 0.02
Canadian Food Inspection Agency 0.01
National Research Council Canada 0.01
Natural Resources Canada 0.01
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada 0.01
Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat 0.004
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 0.004
Canadian Space Agency 0.003
Canadian Heritage 0.001
Total 23.3

Key results

  • In fiscal year 2020 to 2021, emissions decreased by 89% since 2019 to 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic travel restrictions.
  • The top 5 emitting organizations (National Defence, Canada Border Services Agency, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Global Affairs Canada) generated 95% of GHG emissions attributable to employee work-related air travel.
Procurement
Scope 3

Procurement

Working with CIRAIG (International Reference Centre for the Life Cycle of Products, Processes and Services) the government has estimated the embodied carbon footprint of the goods and services bought by its central procurement organizations: Public Service and Procurement Canada and Shared Services Canada. This embodied carbon consists of the greenhouse gases released during the lifecycle of a good or the delivery of a service. It represents the greenhouse gases released in the supply chain as shown in figure 13 below.

Figure 13 Lifecycle supply chain for goods and services showing all stages where greenhouse gases might be released
Figure 13 Lifecycle supply chain for goods and services showing all stages where greenhouse gases might be released
Figure 13 - Text version

The graphic shows the 6 stages of the supply chain lifecycle of a good or service. Extraction is the harvesting of raw materials. Processing is the conversion of raw materials into useful materials. Manufacturing is the assembly of the product into its final form. Distribution is the transport of the product to the end user. Use refers to the use of the product by the end user. End of life refers to the fate of the product after the end user no longer needs it.

This analysis estimated the emissions attributed to the goods and services procured by Public Services and Procurement Canada and Shared Services Canada over the period from 2016 to 2020. The average annual emissions were 4 124 kt CO2 eq. These Scope 3 emissions were calculated using open IO-Canada, a model for environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIO), which uses spending to estimate the embodied carbon in goods and services procured. Figure 14 summarizes the government’s estimated embodied carbon emissions associated with its procurement.

Figure 14: 2016 to 2020 Average annual estimated greenhouse gas emissions attributable to centralized procurement by category
Figure 14: 2016 to 2020 Average annual estimated greenhouse gas emissions attributable to centralized procurement by category
Figure 14 - Text version

The graph shows the 2016-2020 average annual estimated GHG emissions (in kilotonnes of carbon equivalent) attributable to each category of centralized procurement.

Data for the graph

2016-20 Average annual estimated greenhouse gas emissions attributable to centralized procurement by category
Procurement Category Average Annual Estimated Emissions Attributable to Procurement (kt CO2 eq)
Other Goods and Services 1 978
Vehicles, ships, aircraft and equipment 895
Energy 658
Construction 367
Information Technology 225
Total 4 124

More Information

CIRAIG’s analysis was captured in three reports. The first report estimated the embodied carbon footprint of goods and services procured by Public Services and Procurement Canada in Quebec. Subsequently, the same exercise was completed for the rest of Canada. As a third phase CIRAIG developed an estimate of the footprint of the government’s IT operations for Shared Services Canada.

Carbon footprint of procurements by Public Services and Procurements Canada (Quebec excluded) - CIRAIG

This study evaluated the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with procurement in the 5 Public Services and Procurement Canada regions, namely Pacific (British Columbia and the Yukon Territory), Western (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), Ontario, the National Capital Region (Ottawa and Gatineau), and Atlantic (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador). It identified the procurement categories to prioritize for action based on those that generate the most greenhouse gas emissions.

Carbon footprint of purchases by Public Services and Procurement Canada – Quebec Region - CIRAIG

This study identified the procurement categories in the Public Services and Procurement Canada - Quebec region that generated the most greenhouse gas emissions.

Environmental footprint of procurement by Shared Services Canada - CIRAIG

This study builds on and extends the previous carbon footprint studies conducted in 2018 and 2019 by the CIRAIG for Public Services and Procurement Canada. The study used the same methodology to estimate the carbon footprint of Shared Services Canada’s procurement, but it was expanded to cover energy and water consumption.

Methodology

Methodology used to account for greenhouse gas emissions

The methodology selected for quantifying GHG emissions from federal operations is meant to:

  • reasonably minimize uncertainty
  • yield accurate and consistent results
  • be technically feasible and cost-effective

Federal organizations follow the Federal GHG Accounting and Reporting Guidance, which provides direction on calculating and reporting GHG emissions in accordance with the Greening Government Strategy. The methodology is based on the GHG Protocol: A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, developed by the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. The GHG Protocol is an internationally accepted standard for GHG accounting at the organizational level.

Over time, additional sources of GHG may be added and adjustments to methodologies may be made in order to improve the federal government's accounting for and reporting of GHG emissions from federal operations.

Emission factors

  • GHG emissions are determined using activity data (for example, energy data) in conjunction with an appropriate emission factor
  • Emission factors are calculated ratios that relate GHG emissions to a measure of activity at a specific emissions source
  • Emission factors are usually expressed in terms of GHG emissions per unit of fuel or energy
  • Emission factors used to calculate GHG emissions from federal operations are sourced from the national inventory report: greenhouse gas sources and sinks in Canada, published by Environment and Climate Change Canada

Global warming potentials

  • GHGs are converted into units of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq) by multiplying the emissions of each gas by its global warming potential
  • Global warming potential is a factor that describes the degree of warming that results from one unit of a given GHG relative to one unit of CO2
  • The global warming potential of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are 28 and 265 respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Fifth Assessment Report, 2014

Additional notes

  • Some year-to-year changes in GHG emissions may be due to data collection gaps, methodology or error correction refinements, while others may be the result of one-time or specific events or actions (such as natural disasters or operational disruptions)
  • Variations in seasonal weather conditions (for example, the effect of heating or cooling days on building energy use) also influence annual GHG emissions
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