DAOD 8000-3, Explosive Ordnance Disposal Radiation Safety


1. Introduction

Date of Issue: 2013-12-20

Date of Last Modification: 2019-01-28

Application: This DAOD is a directive that applies to employees of the Department of National Defence (DND employees) and an order that applies to officers and non-commissioned members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF members).

Approval Authority: Chief of the Army Staff (C Army)

Enquiries: Officer in Charge (OIC) Canadian Armed Forces Explosive Ordnance Disposal (CAFEOD)

2. Definitions

explosive (explosif)

Means any thing that is made, manufactured or used to produce an explosion or a detonation or pyrotechnic effect, and includes any thing prescribed to be an explosive by the regulations, but does not include gases, organic peroxides or any thing prescribed not to be an explosive by the regulations. (Section 2 of the Explosives Act)

explosive ordnance (explosifs et munitions)

All munitions containing explosives, nuclear fission or fusion materials and biological and chemical agents. This includes bombs and warheads; guided and ballistic missiles; artillery, mortar, rocket and small arms ammunition; all mines, torpedoes and depth charges, demolition charges; pyrotechnics; clusters and dispensers; cartridge and propellant actuated devices; clandestine and improvised explosive devices; and all similar or related items or components explosive in nature. (Defence Terminology Bank record number 4220)

explosive ordnance disposal (neutralisation des explosifs et munitions)

The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery and final disposal of unexploded explosive ordnance.

Note – Explosive ordnance disposal may also include explosive ordnance that has become hazardous by damage or deterioration. (Defence Terminology Bank record number 43388)

improvised explosive device (dispositif explosif de circonstance)

A device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, incapacitate, harass or distract.

Note – It may incorporate military stores, but is normally devised from non-military components. (Defence Terminology Bank record number 4502)

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3. Abbreviations

Abbreviation Complete Word or Phrase
CANSOFCOM
Canadian Special Operations Forces Command

CO

commanding officer

D N Safe

Director Nuclear Safety

EOD

explosive ordnance disposal

IEDD

improvised explosive device disposal

NSODs

Nuclear Safety Orders and Directives

SOP

standing operating procedures

XRS-3 X-ray Source-3

4. Operating Principles

Interpretation

4.1 In this DAOD, EOD includes IEDD, and any reference to an "EOD operator" includes an "IEDD operator".

Context

4.2 EOD X‑ray devices used in the CAF are industrial-type X-ray generators that produce hazardous radiation when energized.

Scope

4.3 This DAOD governs the radiation safety requirements associated with the use of EOD X-ray devices for training and operations. DAOD 4002‑1, Nuclear and Ionizing Radiation Safety, provides additional instructions and outlines the legal implications for failure to comply with the NSODs or direction given in relation to nuclear activities.

4.4 There is a reasonable probability that EOD operators and IEDD assistants may receive a radiation dose greater than the prescribed level for a member of the public. EOD operators and IEDD assistants are therefore issued dosimeters and considered to be "radiation workers" under the NSODs.

Concept of Operations and Doctrine for EOD

4.5 The concept of operations and doctrine for EOD are set out in B‑GJ‑005‑316/FP‑001, Canadian Forces Joint Publication 3-16: Explosive Ordnance Disposal, which must be read in conjunction with the following:

  1. DAOD 8000‑0, Explosive Ordnance Disposal;
  2. DAOD 8000‑1, Conduct of Explosive Ordnance Disposal
  3. DAOD 8000‑2, Reporting and Investigation of Explosive Ordnance Disposal Incidents and Accidents; and
  4. CANFORGEN 056/08, CDS Organizational Order – Stand-up of CF EOD.

4.6 B‑GJ‑005‑316/FP‑101, Canadian Forces Joint Publication 3-16.1: Improvised Explosive Device Disposal, provides additional information on the role of X-rays in the conduct of EOD.

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5. Procedures

Training and Qualifications

5.1 EOD operators and IEDD assistants involved with the operation of an EOD X‑ray device must be properly trained and qualified to a standard established by the OIC CAFEOD. Only properly trained and qualified EOD operators and IEDD assistants are authorized to use EOD X-ray devices. Local training using EOD X-ray devices, consistent with guidelines established by CANSOFCOM, the Canadian Forces School of Military Engineering and D N Safe, is authorized and must be entered in the CF Personal EOD log.

Retention of Records

5.2 The CO of an EOD operator or IEDD assistant who uses an EOD X‑ray device must ensure that their training and qualification records are retained for a period of three years after they cease using the device. All other records, as listed in paragraph 5.5, must be retained for a period of three years after the date the record is created.

Unauthorized Use

5.3 DND employees and CAF members must not use an EOD X-ray device for any medical radiography purpose or to otherwise intentionally expose a person to radiation. The officer in charge of a deployed EOD command centre may authorize, in circumstances of extreme urgency during an operation, the use of an EOD X-ray device to intentionally expose a person to radiation.

Records of EOD X-Ray Devices

5.4 The OIC CAFEOD must maintain an up to date list of all units authorized to conduct EOD training or operations using EOD X‑ray devices. A copy of this list must be provided to D N Safe upon request.

5.5 The CO of any unit that holds and uses an EOD X‑ray device must ensure the following records are kept up to date:

  1. an EOD X‑ray device inventory, noting the system make, model, serial number and maximum energy;
  2. the B‑PD‑055‑000/RQ‑001, CF Personal Explosive Ordnance Disposal Log, which sets out qualifications and training required for the operation of any EOD X‑ray device;
  3. a transfer and disposal record for any EOD X-ray device;
  4. a maintenance record for any EOD X-ray device;
  5. a dosimetry record for any EOD operator or IEDD assistant required to use an EOD X-ray device;
  6. a compliance verification record; and
  7. documentation associated with an incident or accident involving actual or potential exposure in excess of the dose limit of a DND employee or a CAF member to radiation from the operation of an EOD X‑ray device

EOD X-Ray Devices

5.6 All EOD X‑ray devices must be approved by D N Safe and operated in a manner to achieve the lowest possible radiation exposure to EOD operators and IEDD assistants. An EOD X‑ray device must be secured when not in use to prevent unauthorized access or use. The maintenance of an EOD X‑ray device must only be conducted by qualified persons authorized by the OIC CAFEOD. Disposal of any EOD X-ray device must be approved by D N Safe.

Note – The EOD X-ray device currently used in CAFEOD training and operations is the XRS‑3 device. The SOP for the XRS-3 device is set out in Chapter 4 of the IEDD Tools Handbook.

5.7 An EOD X-ray device must be labelled with a radiation or X‑ray warning symbol and the wording “RAYONNEMENT – DANGER – RADIATION”. Each device must be clearly marked to include a contact person name or title and a 24-hour contact telephone number. Warning signs must also be posted at all access points to the operating location of a device when it is in use, as follows:

  1. an X-ray warning symbol;
  2. a trefoil radiation warning with signage that clearly indicates a hazard due to X‑rays; and
  3. emergency contact information.

Dose Monitoring and Control

5.8 Dosimetry is required for all domestic EOD training and operations. When an EOD operator or IEDD assistant is deployed outside of Canada for more than 90 days, dosimetry is not required for operational use of EOD X‑ray devices. However, operational dosimetry may be required depending on the threat assessment of mission risks other than EOD X‑ray devices.

5.9 Only dosimeters approved by D N Safe are authorized for use by EOD operators and IEDD assistants. The dosimeters must be worn on the torso facing forward when in use. All used dosimeters must be returned to the dosimetry service provider as soon as practicable after the receipt of replacement dosimeters, but not later than 30 days after the receipt of the replacement dosimeters.

5.10 The CO of any unit that uses an EOD X‑ray device must ensure that EOD operators and IEDD assistants:

  1. acknowledge the dosimetry requirements associated with operating the EOD X‑ray device by signing a Dosimetry Acknowledgment Form provided by their unit; and
  2. provide, on request by D N Safe or the dosimetry service provider, all personal information requested to allow for recording in the National Dose Registry.

Dose Limits

5.11 The annual dose limit for operators of EOD X-ray devices and training staff is one millisievert (1 mSv) or one thousand microsieverts (1000 µSv). However, the OIC CAFEOD must investigate the cause of any dose received that exceeds 0.3 milisieverts (0.3 mSv) or 300 microsieverts (300 µSv) in any one wearing period of a dosimeter. One wearing period is considered to be 90 days unless otherwise specified.

Overexposure

5.12 Any incident or accident that involves actual or potential exposure to a dose in excess of the 0.3 milisieverts (0.3 mSv) or 300 microsieverts (300 µSv) dose limit during domestic EOD training, exercises or operations must be reported to D N Safe as soon as practicable. The operator of an EOD X-ray device who is exposed to a radiation dose above the 0.3 milisieverts (0.3 mSv) or 300 microsieverts (300 µSv) limit must be informed immediately upon receipt of the dose report that indicates the overexposure.

Air Travel with a Dosimeter

5.13 X‑ray scanners used for screening checked baggage at airports, but not for passenger screening, can produce enough energy to record as a dose on a dosimeter. Accordingly, in order to confirm that any radiation exposure recorded on the dosimeter is accumulated only from usage of an EOD X-ray device or from actual radiation exposure during IEDD operations or training, an EOD operator or IEDD assistant must travel with their dosimeter in their carry‑on luggage, not their checked baggage, when travelling by air between places of duty. In Canada, a dosimeter may be removed from carry-on baggage and be declared to security personnel to avoid unnecessary X-ray screening of the dosimeter in carry-on baggage.

Laptop Security

5.14 All pictures generated, as well as other information collected and processed, using the software installed on a laptop to generate reports from the XRS-3 device, are classified SECRET. All laptop computers containing this software are classified SECRET and must be stored under appropriate security conditions. If in doubt about security and storage, the unit security officer should be consulted.

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6. Compliance and Consequences

Compliance

6.1 DND employees and CAF members must comply with this DAOD. Should clarification of the policies or instructions set out in this DAOD be required, DND employees and CAF members may seek direction through their channel of communication or chain of command, as appropriate. Managers and military supervisors have the primary responsibility for and means of ensuring the compliance of their DND employees and CAF members with this DAOD.

Consequences of Non-Compliance

6.2 DND employees and CAF members are accountable to their respective managers and military supervisors for any failure to comply with the direction set out in this DAOD. Non-compliance with this DAOD may have consequences for both the DND and the CAF as institutions, and for DND employees and CAF members as individuals. Suspected non-compliance may be investigated. Managers and military supervisors must take or direct appropriate corrective measures if non-compliance with this DAOD has consequences for the DND or the CAF. The decision of an level one advisor or other senior official to take action or to intervene in a case of non-compliance, other than in respect of a decision under the Code of Service Discipline regarding a CAF member, will depend on the degree of risk based on the impact and likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from the non-compliance and other circumstances of the case.

6.3 The nature and severity of the consequences resulting from non-compliance should be commensurate with the circumstances of the non-compliance and other relevant circumstances. Consequences of non-compliance may include one or more of the following:

  1. the ordering of the completion of appropriate learning, training or professional development;
  2. the entering of observations in the CF Personal EOD log;
  3. the entering of observations in individual performance evaluations;
  4. increased reporting and performance monitoring;
  5. the withdrawal of any authority provided under this DAOD to a DND employee or CAF member;
  6. the reporting of suspected offences to responsible law enforcement agencies;
  7. the application of specific consequences as set out in applicable laws, codes of conduct, and DND and CAF policies and instructions;
  8. other administrative action, including the imposition of disciplinary measures, for a DND employee;
  9. other administrative or disciplinary action, or both, for a CAF member; and
  10. the imposition of liability on the part of Her Majesty in right of Canada, DND employees and CAF members. 

Note – In respect of the compliance of DND employees, see the Treasury Board Framework for the Management of Compliance for additional information.

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7. Responsibilities

Responsibility Table

7.1 The following table identifies the responsibilities associated with this DAOD:

The or an…
is or are responsible for ...

Commander, CANSOFCOM

  • issuing SOP for the use in CANSOFCOM of any EOD X-ray device other than the XRS-3 device.

D N Safe

  • verifying and enforcing compliance in accordance with applicable DAODs, NSOD and D N Safe authorizations;
  • providing expert advice to units and other organizations in the fulfillment of their responsibilities; and
  • providing a radiation dosimetry service supporting units and other organizations.

CO of any EOD operator or IEDD assistant who uses an EOD X-ray device

  • developing and implementing SOP for the operation of EOD X‑ray devices;
  • ensuring that X-ray activities are conducted and managed in accordance with applicable DAODs, CAFEOD SOPs, and tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs);
  • implementing appropriate procedures for reporting incidents or accidents in their unit relating to X-ray activities, and training DND employees and CAF members in the reporting requirements and procedures; and
  • notifying, in the event of an EOD X‑ray device incident, accident or other hazardous condition, the OIC CAFEOD by the most expedient and practical means.

OIC CAFEOD

  • directing and managing the CAFEOD Radiation Safety Program, including the review of the CAFEOD SOP for the operation of EOD X-ray devices and the related records of units using EOD X-ray devices;
  • developing and maintaining a database of trained and qualified EOD operators for the operation of EOD X‑ray devices;
  • developing and implementing training and qualification standards for the operation of EOD X-ray devices in collaboration with D N Safe and all other DND and CAF organizations that use EOD X‑ray devices; and
  • conducting technical investigations of radiation exposures that exceed the dose limits.
EOD operators and IEDD assistants
  • reporting immediately to their supervisor any incident, accident or other hazardous condition associated with the operation of an EOD X‑ray device.

8. References

Acts, Regulations, Central Agency Policies, and Policy DAOD

Other References

  • DAOD 3002-0, Ammunition and Explosives
  • DAOD 4002-1, Nuclear and Ionizing Radiation Safety
  • DAOD 8000-1, Conduct of Explosive Ordnance Disposal
  • DAOD 8000-2, Reporting and Investigation of Explosive Ordnance Disposal Incidents and Accidents
  • CANFORGEN 056/08, CDS Organizational Order – Stand-up of CF EOD
  • B-GJ-005-316/FP-001, Canadian Forces Joint Publication 3-16: Explosive Ordnance Disposal
  • B-GJ-005-316/FP-101, Canadian Forces Joint Publication 3-16.1: Improvised Explosive Device Disposal
  • B-PD-055-000/RQ-001, Canadian Forces Personal Explosive Ordnance Disposal Log
  • Dosimetry Acknowledgement
  • Radiation Safety Programme Compliance Inspection Report
  • Nuclear Safety Orders and Directives
  • IEDD Tools Handbook (in draft)
  • AAP-6, NATO Glossary of Terms and Definitions (English and French)
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