Annex D: Summary of new initiatives

Canadian Armed Forces core missions

At any given time, the Government of Canada can call upon the Canadian Armed Forces to undertake missions for the protection of Canada and Canadians and the maintenance of international peace and stability. This policy ensures the Canadian Armed Forces will be prepared to:

  • Detect, deter and defend against threats to or attacks on Canada;
  • Detect, deter and defend against threats to or attacks on North America in partnership with the United States, including through NORAD;
  • Lead and/or contribute forces to NATO and coalition efforts to deter and defeat adversaries, including terrorists, to support global stability;
  • Lead and/or contribute to international peace operations and stabilization missions with the United Nations, NATO and other multilateral partners;
  • Engage in capacity building to support the security of other nations and their ability to contribute to security abroad;
  • Provide assistance to civil authorities and law enforcement, including counter-terrorism, in support of national security and the security of Canadians abroad;
  • Provide assistance to civil authorities and non-governmental partners in responding to international and domestic disasters or major emergencies; and
  • Conduct search and rescue operations.

Concurrent operations

This policy ensures the Canadian Armed Forces will be prepared to simultaneously:

  • Defend Canada, including responding concurrently to multiple domestic emergencies in support of civilian authorities;
  • Meet its NORAD obligations, with new capacity in some areas;
  • Meet commitments to NATO Allies under Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty; and
  • Contribute to international peace and stability through:
    • Two sustained deployments of ~500-1500 personnel, including one as a lead nation;
    • One time-limited deployment of ~500-1500 personnel (6-9 months duration);
    • Two sustained deployments of ~100-500 personnel and;
    • Two time-limited deployments (6-9 months) of ~100-500 personnel;
    • One Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) deployment, with scaleable additional support; and
    • One Non-Combatant Evacuation Operation, with scaleable additional support.

Well-supported, diverse, resilient people and families

Recruitment, training and retention

To ensure the effective recruitment, training and retention of the future work force, the Defence team will:

  1. Reduce significantly the time to enroll in the Canadian Armed Forces by reforming all aspects of military recruiting.
  2. Implement a recruitment campaign to promote the unique full- and part-time career opportunities offered by the Canadian Armed Forces, as well as to support key recruitment priorities, including hiring more women, increasing diversity, addressing priority occupations and the requirements of the Reserve Force.
  3. Restore the Collège militaire royal in St-Jean as a full degree-granting institution to help prepare the next generation of Canadian Armed Forces leaders.
  4. Increase the capacity of the Canadian Armed Forces Leadership and Recruit School, and its supporting organizations, to accommodate the increased number of recruits associated with a larger force size.
  5. Develop and implement a comprehensive Canadian Armed Forces Retention Strategy to keep our talented people in uniform with a welcoming and healthy work environment.
  6. Undertake a comprehensive review of conditions of service and career paths to allow much more personalized career choices and flexibility.
  7. Modernize the Canadian Armed Forces Honours and Awards system to ensure military members’ service to Canada is recognized in a more timely and appropriate manner.
  8. Implement the first-ever, integrated strategy for human resources to balance the optimal assignment of tasks between the military, defence civilians and the private sector.
  9. Provide tax relief for all Canadian Armed Forces members deployed on all named international operations, up to the maximum rate of pay applied to a Lieutenant-Colonel. This would not impact hardship and risk pay or operational allowances regulated by the Military Foreign Service Instructions (MFSI) which will continue. This initiative is retroactive to January 2017.

Leveraging Canada’s diversity

To fully leverage Canada’s diversity, the Defence team will:

  1. Promote diversity and inclusion as a core institutional value across the Defence team.
  2. Appoint a Diversity Champion who will oversee the implementation of all aspects of the Diversity Strategy and Action plan including instituting mandatory diversity training across all phases of professional development.
  3. Integrate Gender-Based Analysis – Plus (GBA+) in all defence activities across the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of National Defence, from the design and implementation of programs and services that support our personnel, to equipment procurement and operational planning.
  4. Place a new focus on recruiting and retaining under-represented populations within the Canadian Armed Forces, including but not limited to, women, Indigenous peoples, and members of visible minorities.
  5. Aspire to be a leader in gender balance in the military by increasing the representation of women by 1 percent annually over the next 10 years to reach 25 percent of the overall force.

Supporting health and resilience

To improve the resilience and health of its members, the Canadian Armed Forces will:

  1. Augment the Canadian Armed Forces Health System to ensure it meets the unique needs of our personnel with efficient and effective care, anywhere they serve in Canada or abroad. This includes growing the Medical Services Branch by 200 personnel.
  2. Implement a joint National Defence and Veterans’ Affairs Suicide Prevention Strategy that hires additional mental health professionals and implements a joint framework focused on preventing suicide across the entire military and Veteran community.
  3. Remove barriers to care, including creating an environment free from stigma where military members are encouraged to raise health concerns of any nature and seek appropriate help when they need it.

Promoting a culture of leadership, respect and honour

To eliminate harmful behaviours and ensure a work environment free from harassment and discrimination, the Defence team will:

  1. Complete the full implementation of the 10 recommendations of the Deschamps Report through Operation HONOUR.
  2. Provide a full range of victim and survivor support services to Canadian Armed Forces members.
  3. Deal with harassment complaints in a clear and timely manner by simplifying formal harassment complaint procedures.
  4. Be open and transparent with Canadians and members of the Canadian Armed Forces in communicating progress on this important issue.

Supporting military families

To improve support and services offered for military family members, the Defence team will:

  1. Implement teams at Wings and Bases across Canada, in partnership with Military Family Resource Centres, to prevent and respond to gender-based violence.
  2. Improve access to psychological services through social workers and referrals to community programs and services.
  3. Develop a Comprehensive Military Family Plan to help stabilize family life for Canadian Armed Forces Members and their families who frequently have to relocate. This includes:
    • providing an additional $6 million per year to modernize Military Family Support Programs, such as Military Family Resource Centres, to provide better support to families when members are deploying or during periods of absence;
    • establishing relocation expertise to help military families find and access the services they need in a new community; and
    • working with federal, provincial and private sector partners to improve the coordination of services across provinces to ease the burden of moving.

Reinventing transition

To better meet the needs of all retiring personnel, including the ill and injured, the Defence team will:

  1. Establish a personnel Administration Branch of experts in military human resources and personnel administration to focus and improve military human resource services to all Canadian Armed Forces members.
  2. Allocate some of the growth in the Medical Services Branch to support transition care.
  3. Create a new Canadian Armed Forces Transition Group that provides support to all members to seamlessly transition to post-military life. This Group, commanded by a General Officer and staffed from experts in human resources and personnel administration, will be approximately 1,200 personnel strong and include specialized staff and holding positions for ill and injured who are preparing to return to duty or transition out of the Canadian Armed Forces. The Group will provide a fully engaged, personalized, guided support to transition all Canadian Armed Forces members, with special care and attention being provided to those who are ill or injured, including those with psychological or critical stress injuries.
  4. Ensure that all benefits will be in place before a member transitions to post-military life. Long-Term Investments to Enhance the Canadian Armed Forces’ Capabilities and Capacity Investments in the Royal Canadian Navy

Long-term investments to enhance the Canadian Armed Forces’ capabilities and capacity

Investments in the Royal Canadian Navy

  1. Recapitalize the surface fleet through the investments in 15 Canadian Surface Combatants and two Joint Support Ships.
  2. Acquire five to six Arctic Offshore Patrol Ships.
  3. Operate and modernize the four Victoria-class submarines.
  4. Acquire new or enhanced naval intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems, upgraded armament, and additional systems for current and future platforms allowing for more effective offensive and defensive naval capabilities.
  5. Upgrade lightweight torpedoes carried by surface ships, maritime helicopters and maritime patrol aircraft.

Investments in the Canadian Army

  1. Acquire ground-based air defence systems and associated munitions capable of protecting all land-based force elements from enemy airborne weapons.
  2. Modernize weapons effects simulation to better prepare soldiers for combat operations.
  3. Replace the family of armoured combat support vehicles, which includes command vehicles, ambulances and mobile repair teams.
  4. Modernize the fleet of Improvised Explosive Device Detection and Defeat capabilities.
  5. Acquire communications, sustainment, and survivability equipment for the Army light forces, including improved light weight radios and soldier equipment.
  6. Upgrade the light armoured vehicle fleet to improve mobility and survivability.
  7. Modernize logistics vehicles, heavy engineer equipment and light utility vehicles.
  8. Improve the Army’s ability to operate in remote regions by investing in modernized communications, shelters, power generation, advanced water purification systems, and equipment for austere environments.
  9. Modernize land-based command and control, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems.
  10. Acquire all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles and larger tracked semi-amphibious utility vehicles optimized for use in the Arctic environment.

Investments in the Royal Canadian Air Force

  1. Replace the CF-18 fleet with 88 advanced fighter aircraft to improve Canadian Armed Forces air control and air attack capability.
  2. Acquire space capabilities meant to improve situational awareness and targeting, including: replacement of the current RADARSAT system to improve the identification and tracking of threats and improve situational awareness of routine traffic in and through Canadian territory; sensors capable of identifying and tracking debris in space that threatens Canadian and allied space-based systems (surveillance of space); and, space-based systems that will enhance and improve tactical narrow- and wide-band communications globally, including throughout Canada’s Arctic region.
  3. Acquire new Tactical Integrated Command, Control, and Communications, radio cryptography, and other necessary communications systems.
  4. Recapitalize next generation strategic air-to-air tanker-transport capability (CC-150 Polaris replacement).
  5. Replace utility transport aircraft (CC-138 Twin Otter replacement).
  6. Acquire next generation multi-mission aircraft (CP-140 Aurora maritime patrol aircraft replacement).
  7. Invest in medium altitude remotely piloted systems.
  8. Modernize short-range air-to-air missiles (fighter aircraft armament).
  9. Upgrade air navigation, management, and control systems.
  10. Acquire aircrew training systems.
  11. Recapitalize or life-extend existing capabilities in advance of the arrival of next generation platforms.
  12. Sustain domestic search and rescue capability, to include life extension of existing systems, acquisition of new platforms, and greater integration with internal and external partners.
  13. Operationalize the newly acquired Fixed-Wing Search and Rescue aircraft fleet.

Investments in Special Operations Forces

  1. Acquire airborne ISR platforms.
  2. Recapitalize existing commercial pattern, SUV-type armoured vehicles.
  3. Modernize and enhance Special Operations Forces Command, Control and Communications information systems, and computer defence networks.
  4. Enhance next generation Special Operations Forces integrated soldier system equipment, land mobility, and maritime mobility platforms and fighting vehicle platforms.
  5. Increase Special Operations Forces by 605 personnel.

Investments in Joint Capabilities

  1. Acquire joint command and control systems and equipment, specifically for integrated information technology and communications.
  2. Acquire joint signals intelligence capabilities that improve the military’s ability to collect and exploit electronic signals intelligence on expeditionary operations.
  3. Improve the capabilities of the Joint Deployable Headquarters and Signals Regiment, including the portable structures that house the headquarters when deployed and the equipment employed by that headquarters for command, control and communications.
  4. Improve cryptographic capabilities, information operations capabilities, and cyber capabilities to include: cyber security and situational awareness projects, cyber threat identification and response, and the development of military-specific information operations and offensive cyber operations capabilities able to target, exploit, influence and attack in support of military operations.
  5. Improve Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive detection and response capabilities.


Prioritizing joint intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

To enhance its Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance capabilities, the Defence team will:

  1. Invest in Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance platforms, including next generation surveillance aircraft, remotely piloted systems, and space-based surveillance assets (see pages 38-40).
  2. Integrate existing and future assets into a networked, joint system-of-systems that will enable the flow of information among multiple, interconnected platforms and operational headquarters.
  3. Prioritize Arctic Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance as a defence research and development priority to produce innovative solutions to surveillance challenges in the North.

Enhancing defence intelligence

In order to address the demand for defence intelligence internally, across the Government of Canada, and among our allies, the Defence team will:

  1. Establish up to 120 new military intelligence positions, some of which will be filled by Reservists, and add up to 180 new civilian intelligence personnel.
  2. Build CFINTCOM’s capacity to provide more advanced intelligence support to operations, including through an enhanced ability to forecast flashpoints and emerging threats, and better support next generation platforms, and understand rapid developments in space, cyber and other emerging domains.
  3. Establish a Canadian Armed Forces targeting capability to better leverage intelligence capabilities to support military operations.

Bolstering academic outreach

To enhance its relationship with and derive greater benefit from Canada’s rich academic and analytic community, the Defence team will:

  1. Increase investment in academic outreach to $4.5 million per year in a revamped and expanded defence engagement program, including:
    • Collaborative networks of experts;
    • A new scholarship program for Masters and Post-Doctoral fellows; and
    • Expansion of the existing expert briefing series and engagement grant program.


A new vision for the Reserve Force

To enhance the role and capabilities of the Reserve Force, the Canadian Armed Forces will:

  1. Increase the size of the Primary Reserve Force to 30,000 (an increase of 1,500) and dramatically reduce the initial recruitment process from a number of months to a matter of weeks.
  2. Assign Reserve Force units and formations new roles that provide full-time capability to the Canadian Armed Forces through part-time service, including:
    • Light Urban Search and Rescue;
    • Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defence;
    • Combat capabilities such as direct fire, mortar and pioneer platoons;
    • Cyber Operators;
    • Intelligence Operators;
    • Naval Security Teams; and
    • Linguists.
  3. Enhance existing roles assigned to Reserve Force units and formations, including:
    • Information Operations (including Influence Activities);
    • Combat Support and Combat Service Support; and
    • Air Operations Support Technicians.
  4. Employ the Reserve Force to deliver select expeditionary missions in a primary role such as Canadian Armed Forces capacity building.
  5. Create an agile service model that supports transition between full- and part-time service and provides the flexibility to cater to differing Reserve career paths.
  6. Align Primary Reserve Force remuneration and benefits with those of the Regular Force where the demands of service are similar.
  7. Revise annuitant employment regulations to attract and retain more former Regular Force personnel to the Reserves.
  8. Offer full-time summer employment to Reservists in their first four years with the Reserves commencing in 2018.
  9. Work with partners in the federal government to align Federal Acts governing job professionalization legislation. Subsequently, we will work with provinces and territories to harmonize job protection for Reservists at that level.

Space capabilities

To adapt to evolving challenges and opportunities in the space domain, the Defence team will:

  1. Defend and protect military space capabilities, including by working closely with allies and partners to ensure a coordinated approach to assuring continuous access to the space domain and space assets.
  2. Work with partners to promote Canada’s national interests on space issues, promote the peaceful use of space and provide leadership in shaping international norms for responsible behavior in space.
  3. Invest in and employ a range of space capabilities, including space situational awareness, space-based earth observation and maritime domain awareness, and satellite communications that achieve global coverage, including in the Arctic. (For more detail on Defence investments in space capabilities, please see pages 38-39).
  4. Conduct cutting-edge research and development on new space technologies in close collaboration with allies, industry and academia to enhance the resilience of space capabilities and support the Canadian Armed Forces’ space capability requirements and missions.

Cyber capabilities

To better leverage cyber capabilities in support of military operations, the Defence team will:

  1. Protect critical military networks and equipment from cyber attack by establishing a new Cyber Mission Assurance Program that will incorporate cyber security requirements into the procurement process.
  2. Develop active cyber capabilities and employ them against potential adversaries in support of government-authorized military missions.
  3. Grow and enhance the cyber force by creating a new Canadian Armed Forces Cyber Operator occupation to attract Canada’s best and brightest talent and significantly increasing the number of military personnel dedicated to cyber functions.
  4. Use Reservists with specialized skill-sets to fill elements of the Canadian Armed Forces cyber force.

Remotely piloted systems

To better leverage the unique benefits associated with remotely piloted systems, the Defence team will:

  1. Invest in a range of remotely piloted systems, including an armed aerial system capable of conducting surveillance and precision strikes (For more details on planned investments in remotely piloted systems, please see pages 38-39).
  2. Conduct research and development of remotely piloted land, sea and aerial capabilities, in close collaboration with industry and academia.
  3. Promote the development of international norms for the appropriate responsible and lawful use of remotely piloted systems, in support of Global Affairs Canada.

Improving defence procurement

To streamline defence procurement, better meet the needs of the military, and deliver projects in a more timely manner, the Defence team will:

  1. Reduce project development and approval time in the Department of National Defence by at least 50 percent for low-risk and low-complexity projects through improved internal coordination, increased delegation, and strengthened approval processes.
  2. Work with partners to increase the Department of National Defence’s contracting authorities for goods up to $5 million by 2018, allowing over 80 percent of defence procurement contracts to be managed by Defence.
  3. Use procurement to incentivize Canadian research and development in important and emerging technological areas.
  4. Increase the transparency and timeliness of communication with defence industry associations, including instituting meetings between the Department of National Defence and Canadian industry through the Defence Industry Advisory Group and other fora.
  5. Grow and professionalize the defence procurement workforce in order to strengthen the capacity to manage the acquisition and support of today’s complex military capabilities. This includes the addition of new procurement specialists and enhanced training and professional accreditation for defence procurement personnel.
  6. Provide Canadians with regular updates on major project and programs to increase transparency, communicate challenges and measure performance.
  7. Ensure that Canadian environmental standards are adhered to in all procurement projects.

Greening defence

To ensure it supports the low-carbon government targets outlined in the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy, the Defence team will:

  1. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40 percent from the 2005 levels by 2030, including through the following measures:
    • Investing $225 million by 2020 in a wide range of infrastructure projects across Canada to reduce our carbon footprint.
    • Transitioning 20 percent of non-military vehicle fleets to hybrid and electric by 2020.
    • Requiring new construction and major recapitalization projects to meet industry-recognized standards for high performing buildings such as the Silver Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard or equivalent.
    • Expanding the use of Energy Performance Contracts to implement energy efficiencies on bases and wings across Canada.
    • Installing electric charging stations at new or retrofitted buildings for personnel to use with defence fleets and/or personal vehicles.
  2. Examine alternative energy options and their potential use for operations.

Repairing and rebuilding defence infrastructure

To modernize the management of the real property portfolio to better serve defence and free up personnel to perform military tasks, the Defence team will:

  1. Dispose of underutilized or obsolete buildings. This will improve the efficiency of the infrastructure portfolio, while at the same time help us accelerate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
  2. Improve infrastructure on bases and wings, including housing for Canadian Armed Forces personnel. In doing so, we will explore ways to partner with the private sector and will consult with public sector unions.

Innovation for Defence Excellence and Security (IDEaS)

To transform defence innovation in Canada, the Defence team will:

  1. Invest $1.6 billion over the next 20 years to implement the new Innovation for Defence Excellence and Security (IDEaS) program, including :
    • Creating clusters of defence innovators (academics, industry and other partners) to conduct leading-edge research and development in areas critical to future defence needs.
    • Holding competitions that invite innovators to present viable solutions to specific defence and security challenges.
    • Implementing flexible new procurement mechanisms that allow Defence to develop and test ideas and the ability to follow through on the most promising ones with procurement.

Enhancing Arctic capability

To enhance the Canadian Armed Forces’ ability to operate in the Arctic and adapt to a changed security environment, the Defence team will:

  1. Enhance the mobility, reach and footprint of the Canadian Armed Forces in Canada’s North to support operations, exercises, and the Canadian Armed Forces’ ability to project force into the region.
  2. Align the Canadian Air Defence Identification Zone (CADIZ) with our sovereign airspace.
  3. Enhance and expand the training and effectiveness of the Canadian Rangers to improve their functional capabilities within the Canadian Armed Forces.
  4. Collaborate with the United States on the development of new technologies to improve Arctic surveillance and control, including the renewal of the North Warning System.
  5. Conduct joint exercises with Arctic allies and partners and support the strengthening of situational awareness and information sharing in the Arctic, including with NATO.

Global defence engagement

To ensure the continued security of North America, Defence will:

  1. Modernize NORAD to meet existing challenges and evolving threats to North America, taking into account the full range of threats.

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