1.0 Contest Challenge Statement

1.1 Introduction: A Contest to Develop Integrated Utilities Management Systems

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) must be ready to deploy on short notice, in any climate and for prolonged periods. The CAF presently relies on Relocatable Temporary Camps (RTCs) for its deployments that sustain personnel through demanding operational and environmental conditions.

The Department of National Defence’s (DND) Innovation for Defence Excellence and Security (IDEaS) Program is calling innovators on to propose and develop solutions that provide integrated energy, water and waste management systems for the CAF’s RTCs deployed in national and international operations.

The “Pop up City” Contest is a multi-phased contest for innovators to propose and develop reliable, energy efficient, integrated and scalable energy, water and waste management systems for RTCs. Contests are a competitive means of finding innovative solutions and awarding prizes to the best solutions derived from the innovation community. Specifically, this Contest is seeking solutions designed to manage the energy, water and waste needs of a 150 to 1,500-person RTC, operating in a temperate climate zone.

To standardize the required performance capacity for system designs, contestants will be supplied with per capita data for energy and water consumption, and waste production, along with representative annual climate data, including wind and solar patterns. Contestants will be asked to provide scalable solutions that can supply the requirements of RTCs over a 12-month period in this climate zone. System designs which would also allow for the occasional deployment to extreme hot and/or frigid climatic zones are strongly encouraged.

1.2 Contest Challenge Objectives

The objectives of the Pop up City Contest are to:

  1. Stimulate the innovation and development of solutions that significantly reduce RTC fuel and water inputs, and waste outputs, while maintaining specified performance capacities.
  2. Build on Canadian strengths to develop solutions that achieve a reduction of current fuel and water input and waste output by the following specific targets:
    1. at least a 33% reduction in the fuel supplied to the RTCs;
    2. at least a 33% reduction of the current potable water supplied to the RTCs; and
    3. at least a 33% reduction in the solid and liquid waste requiring disposal from the RTCs.

1.3 Current Practices

The RTC serves as a staging base that allows deployed CAF personnel to project out on operations or training activities. The population supported by RTCs can vary considerably from day to day, depending on operational activities as well as surges due to rotation of personnel.

RTCs provide accommodations, administration shelters, ablutions, and maintenance, storage, hangar and kitchen facilities. Systems are in place for electrical power generation and distribution, heating and cooling, storage and distribution of fuel and water, and waste disposal.

RTCs generally include tents similar to those deployed by militaries throughout the world. Deployed personnel are provided a bed space in a tent that holds 4 to 10 people. The accommodations are co-located in a condensed area adjacent to the ablutions. Ablutions units are composed of a shower, a toilet, and a sink, each unit serving 10 members of the camp population.

RTCs currently deployed by the CAF rely on multiple, independent systems for energy and water supply, and waste disposal. These systems have not been designed to maximize efficiency, nor has efficiency gain through integration of the individual systems been explored. For example, the current systems do not allow for heat recovery or water recycling.

The current energy, water, and waste management systems for the RTCs can be described as follows:

  1. Energy

Current RTCs rely heavily on diesel powered generators for electricity production. Diesel-fired space heaters are used for heating.

Electricity is provided to the camp via multiple single speed generator farms that incorporate variants of 300 kilowatt (kW), 350 kW and 500 kW generators. To avoid low load operation, load banks are employed to keep the generators running at optimal conditions and efficiency points. Excess electricity not required in the camp is ultimately diverted to a load bank where it is converted to waste heat.

Cooling is provided by electric environmental conditioning units. Heating and cooling units are attached to each individual tent and are controlled by individual users.

The RTC energy infrastructure is not designed to generate, store or manage energy in ways to optimize efficiency and minimize cost and environmental impacts, nor is it designed to draw electrical energy from alternate and/or renewable sources.

  1. Water

Maintaining an adequate supply of potable water for RTCs is essential. Large reservoirs are used for potable water storage. Bulk potable water for ablutions and bottled water for drinking is supplied by local contractors.

RTCs use a lot of water and there are currently no systems in place for water capture, re-use, or recycling. Reverse osmosis is currently used in many cases to produce potable water, which while highly effective, is inefficient in terms of energy and water consumption.

  1. Waste

RTCs lack environmentally sustainable options for solid and liquid waste management. Past practices have included the creation of lagoons to manage liquid waste, and the burning or incineration of solid waste. Generally, grey and black water are stored separately in reservoirs and removed daily by local contractors. The ability to properly and effectively manage waste is further complicated by the need to operate in isolated, austere, and ecologically sensitive locations.

1.4 Desired Outcomes and Considerations

1.4.1 General

Inefficiencies in current practices lead to a higher requirement for fuel and water resupply and waste removal. This has the knock-on effect of greatly increasing the transport logistics during operations. DND/CAF believe that significant gains in the efficiencies of RTC utilities systems would have an overall beneficial impact on deployed operations. In addition to making better use of known technologies, this may be achieved both by the introduction of innovative technologies, and by combining these technologies into a single, integrated system for RTC utilities. Scalable and transportable solutions are needed that minimize purchasing requirements, transportation costs and logistical demands. The Pop up City Contest is being issued to the Canadian innovation community to address this.

1.4.2 Desired Outcomes

Successful proposals can incorporate existing technologies, modifications, or new innovations that can be developed to testable integrated solutions at Solution Readiness Level (SRL) 6 by the end of the Contest (See Annex A for SRL definitions). Integrated solutions for the management of energy, waste and water for RTCs are expected to deliver the following desired outcomes:

  1. designed to supply and manage given per capita requirements for energy and water consumption, and waste generation (data provided in Table 1 below);
  2. designed to minimize RTC fuel and water input and waste output;
  3. designed with secure centralized control, capable at a minimum of monitoring energy and water consumption;
  4. scalable for RTCs accommodating from 150 to 1,500 persons;
  5. designed for continuous operation over a 12-month period using the sample climate data provided;
  6. transportable in standard 20-foot (6.1 m) intermodal containers; and
  7. designed for durability and high reliability, both in transport and in operation. A plan for maintenance and replacement of hardware/software components must be included.

Contestants should note that reducing per capita consumption, for example by improving accommodation insulation or by changing personnel behaviours, while important, is outside the scope of the Contest.

1.4.3 Climate Considerations: Temperate Climate Zone

Contestants are expected to propose solutions that, at a minimum, are capable of operating in a temperate climate zone for a 12-month period. For the purposes of this Contest, temperature, precipitation, daylight and wind data obtained for Brandon, Manitoba, should be used for all design considerations and calculations (e.g. efficiency calculations, provisions for ambient temperature storage, etc.). Designs should, however, be conceived to accommodate all temperate zone climactic conditions as described below.

The temperate zone extends throughout the world and includes variable climates of the middle latitudes (i.e. between the extremes of the tropical and frigid climates). The temperate zone is divided into humid, long summer; temperate marine; and humid subtropical environments, described below:

  1. Humid, long summer. This climate is prevalent in the lower middle latitudes of North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, and has the following characteristics:
    1. an average temperature of 22 ºC in the summer with a maximum temperature exceeding 38 ºC;
    2. an average winter temperature below 0 ºC; and
    3. an average annual rainfall of between 500 and 1100 mm with maximum precipitation occurring during the summer months.
  1. Temperate marine. This climate is situated on the west coasts of continents in the middle latitudes. Specific areas include north-western Europe, the Central Pacific Coast of North America, southern Chile, and south-western Australia and New Zealand. It is characterized by:
    1. mild summer temperatures with highs up to 38 ºC;
    2. mild winters with average temperatures above 0 ºC and in the coldest month a chance of frost; and
    3. an annual average precipitation levels of between 500 and 2500 mm.
  1. Humid subtropical. This climate includes the east coasts of all continents just north and south of the tropics. Specific areas include the south-eastern United States, south-eastern Europe, northern India and Myanmar, eastern China and southern Japan. It is characterized by:
    1. a long, hot summer season with temperatures similar to the tropics. The average temperature in the summer is 27 ºC with a maximum temperature greater than 38 ºC;
    2. mild winter months with an average temperature above 0 ºC; and
    3. annual average precipitation of between 750 and 2000 mm.

NOTE: The capability of a solution to operate for prolonged periods in extreme hot (up to 50 ºC) or cold (down to -40 ºC), as well as in the conditions described above will be taken into consideration in the assessment of solutions.

1.4.4 Utilities Requirements

Electrical power, water and waste requirements for proposed solutions are presented in Table 1.

To be successful, contestants are expected to propose solutions that are capable of managing the per capita demand for energy, water and waste as set out in Table 1. These data have been derived and collated from past RTC deployments and are provided as a reference for the design process.

Table 1 – Per Capita electricity, water and waste management requirements for a 500-person RTC in a temperate climate.

Description Requirement

Basic power load

1.5 kW/person

Potable Water

150 L/person/day

Non potable water

50 L/person/day

Sewage – black water

89.5 L/person/day

Sewage – grey water

48.5 L/person/day

Solid Waste – dry*

1.1 kg/person/day

Solid Waste – wet

1.1 kg/person/day

Water supplied to RTC at ≥4 ºC. 20% of potable water requirement,

(i.e. 30 L/person/day), is used as hot water at 60 ºC.

* Total energy content can be assumed to be 15 MJ/kg

† Water content can be assumed to be 70%

For the purposes of the design process for submissions to the Contest, the same per capita data can be used for all camp sizes. That is, it can be assumed that RTC size does not affect the per capita consumption of energy or water.

1.4.5 Additional Design Requirements

To be successful, contestants are expected to meet the reduction targets set out in Table 2.

Table 2 – Summary of current and target requirements for RTC inputs and outputs. Target requirements listed are maximum allowable amounts for the Contest.

RTC Inputs and Outputs Current Requirement Target Requirement

Fuel supplied (diesel or equivalent) **

2500 L/person/year

1650 L/person/year

Potable water supplied

150 L/person/day

100 L/person/day

Black water

89.5 L/person/day

60 L/person/day

Grey water

50 L/person/day

32 L/person/day

Dry solid waste

1.1 kg/person/day

0.7 kg/person/day

Wet solid waste

1.1 kg/person/day

0.7 kg/person/day

** For both electricity generation (2000 L/person/year) and space heating (500 L/person/year), see below.

Energy Generation and Management

Camp electric power capacity must be sized for 1.5 kW/person. Generators must be sized with a 10% overload and a further 10% expansion capability factor. For the purposes of the energy management calculations, the electrical load profiles provided  must be taken into consideration. Provision for fuel storage must take into consideration ambient temperatures. Typical current fuel consumption for a 1.5 kW/person load provision is approximately 2,000 litres (L) of diesel per person per year. In addition, for the purposes of this Contest, it can be assumed that 500 L of diesel fuel per person per year is used for direct combustion, which after accounting for an 80% efficiency provides 15 gigajoules (GJ) of energy for space heating. This energy can be derived from alternative sources. Contestant designs must achieve at least a 33% reduction in overall fuel consumption (i.e. 1650 L/person/year or less) for the same per capita power provision and space heating requirement.

Contestants may propose innovative approaches, new technologies and systems designed to increase energy efficiency. The Contest is also open to proposals involving renewable energy sources, cogeneration and other innovative proposals that tie into RTC power grids to supplement or displace petroleum-fired electricity generation, all with the primary aim of minimizing RTC fuel resupply. Whichever systems are proposed for electricity generation, heating and air conditioning, consideration must be given to the travel weight and volume, logistical support, required maintenance, and any hazards associated with the systems. Note that emissions from all on-site RTC combustion must meet or surpass current Canadian standards in accordance with the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (S.C. 1999, c. 33). Footnote 1

Water Management

RTCs need to ensure sufficient water supply based on minimal sustainment requirements and estimates of water usage. For the purposes of the energy management calculations, the assumption can be made that all water supplied to the camp is potable, and at or above 4 ºC. The baseline planning factor for potable water demand is 150 L/person/day (of which 30 L/person/day is to be used as hot water at 60 ºC), and 50 L/person/day non-potable water for toilet systems (subsequently collected as black water). Additional demands of non-potable water for washing vehicles, controlling dust, construction, decontamination, etc. is to be considered out of the scope for the Contest. A 200% reserve of the daily demand for both potable and non-potable water (the latter principally for fire protection) must be maintained at all times. For example, a 500-person RTC would require a reserve of 150,000 L of potable and 50,000 L of non-potable water. Provision for water storage must take into consideration ambient temperatures.

Contestant designs must achieve at least a 33% reduction in potable water supplied to the RTC (i.e. daily per capita provision of 100 L or less) for the same per capita potable water consumption (i.e. 150 L/person/day). To minimize RTC water inputs, the Contest is seeking innovative solution proposals which could include concepts and or new technologies for recovering and recycling water within the RTC for re-use as potable water. Supplementing water supplied to the RTC via collection from the environment (e.g. rain, snow and ice collection, or from local waterways) is out of scope for the current Contest.

Waste Management

Every RTC needs to manage both liquid waste, and solid waste.

Liquid waste is managed both as “black water”, and “grey water”. Black water is sewage with a higher concentration of contaminants, usually originating from toilets, urinals, and kitchens. Grey water has lower concentrations of contaminants and is associated with the waste from ablutions, and laundries. Waste water from vehicle wash racks is out of scope for this Contest. As defined, the level of treatment for black water is greater than that required for grey water.

RTCs also generate solid waste in the form of organic waste from food preparation, as well as shipping, office, plastic, metal and textile wastes. For the purposes of this Contest, the total energy content of dry solid waste can be assumed to be 15 mega joules (MJ) per kilogram (kg). Likewise, the water content of the wet solid waste can be assumed to be 70%.

In all cases, liquid and solid waste should be managed and disposed of using the method that maximizes protection of human health and the environment. Separate control measures are used in the supply, storage and transportation of hazardous material and hazardous waste, and are to be considered outside the scope of the Contest. Innovators can also assume that infectious waste will be segregated at the point of origin, and mixtures of solid waste and infectious waste can be neglected.

Contestant solutions must achieve at least a 33% reduction in liquid and solid waste requiring collection for transport and disposal (i.e. daily per capita amounts not to exceed 60 L black water, 32 L grey water, and 0.7 kg wet solid waste and 0.7 kg dry solid waste). Treated wastewater can be discharged from the RTC into the environment provided it meets or surpasses the minimum effluent quality standards for secondary wastewater treatment as defined in the Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations Footnote 2 under the Canadian Fisheries Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. F-14). Any wastewater effluent discharge from the RTC that does not meet or surpass these minimum standards must be collected for transport and disposal (and will be measured as waste output for the purposes of this contest). Likewise, emissions from all on-site RTC combustion must meet or surpass current Canadian standards in accordance with the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (S.C. 1999, c. 33). All solid waste issued from the RTC must be collected for transport and disposal (and will be measured as waste output for the purposes of this contest).

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