Employment Equity Act: Annual Report 2019

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2019 message from the Minister

As the new Minister of Labour, I am pleased to present the Employment Equity Act: Annual Report 2019. This report demonstrates the ongoing efforts of employers in the federally regulated private sector to ensure equity in workplaces across the country for the 4 designated groups under the Employment Equity Act (women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities).

The 2019 report demonstrates that, overall, workplace representation of persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities has increased. It also shows that the representation of women in senior management positions exceeded labour market availability at the national level and at the industrial sector level. In addition, both women and members of visible minorities in middle management occupations continue to surpass labour market availability at the national level.

These results demonstrate the success of our continued efforts and commitment to making federally regulated workplaces more equitable and inclusive. Over the last 4 years, the Government has introduced a number of new pieces of legislation and regulations that will make a real difference for Canadians:

These and other measures will help ensure that workers in the federally regulated private sector have good quality jobs and, at the same time, will support employers in creating a supportive and positive work environment that attracts and retains talent.

We know that we need to do more.

The COVID-19 pandemic has touched every part of Canadian society; however, the pandemic is disproportionately impacting certain groups. For example, front-line workers are predominantly women, and many of them have had to balance work with increased child care responsibilities as a result of school and daycare closures. This situation amplifies the social and economic barriers they face, in some cases putting them at greater risk of stress, job loss, poverty and domestic violence.

While this unprecedented situation is undoubtedly creating many challenges, it is also an opportunity to make meaningful and lasting change. The decisions we make today will impact the workplaces of tomorrow. Together, let’s seize this opportunity to create more equitable, inclusive, respectful and secure workplaces where everyone has an equal and fair chance to succeed.

The Honourable Filomena Tassi, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Labour

Introduction

Under the Employment Equity Act (the Act), the Minister responsible for Labour must submit an annual report to Parliament on the status of employment equity in the federally regulated private sector.Footnote 1

The purpose of the Act is to achieve equality in the workplace so that no person shall be denied employment opportunities or benefits for reasons unrelated to ability. In the fulfilment of that goal, the Act seeks to correct the conditions of disadvantage in employment experienced by women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities.

The Act gives effect to the principle that employment equity means more than treating persons in the same way but also requires special measures and the accommodation of differences.

This report consolidates and highlights the results achieved by employers subject to the Legislated Employment Equity ProgramFootnote 2 during the 2018 calendar year for the 4 designated groups: women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities. While information from the employers’ submitted narrative reports is not consolidated in this report, it is used in program and policy development.

Data from 2017 is included throughout the report to allow for year-to-year comparisons.

Federally regulated private sector

Employers are organized by sector, based on the classification of the majority of their workforce using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The federally regulated private sector workforce comprises 4 industrial sectors:

About the data

Employment equity requires the establishment of working conditions that are free of barriers, corrects the conditions of disadvantage in employment and promotes the principle that equality requires special measures and the accommodation of differences.

A key indicator of employment equity is the extent to which the representation of members of designated groups in the employers’ workforce meets their representationFootnote 3 in the Canadian workforce. The representation of each of the 4 designated groups is compared to their availability in the Canadian labour market, referred to as labour market availabilityFootnote 4(LMA). A workforce is considered fully representative when the representation of designated group members is equal to their LMA.

The extent to which the representation of a particular designated group approaches, meets or surpasses LMA is referred to as the attainment rateFootnote 5. This indicator allows for the identification of gaps between the representation of a particular designated group and its LMA. For example, if a designated group’s representation is below its LMA, the attainment rate will be less than 100% and further analysis may be required to identify if barriers to employment exist and where appropriate corrective measures would need to be implemented.

Progress is considered to have been made when the gap between a designated group’s representation and LMA narrows (namely, the attainment rate approaches 100%) or when a group’s representation equals or exceeds LMA (namely, the attainment rate equals or surpasses 100%).

Other indicators of employment equity include salary ranges, as well as shares of hires, promotions and terminations. This report provides statistics on each of these indicators for the 4 designated groups.

Table 1 provides Statistics Canada’s LMA data at the national (Canadian) level that is used for comparison to representation of the designated groups reported by employers. In this report, the 2018 employer data is compared to the 2016 Census for women, Aboriginal peoples and members of visible minorities, and to the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD) for persons with disabilities.

Since the new LMA data based on the 2016 Census and 2017 CSD was not available until after the previous annual report was published, it was not used for comparisons to the 2017 representation data reported by employers. Throughout this report, the 2017 employer data is kept as previously reported and compared to LMA data that is based on the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) and 2012 CSD.

Table 1: Overall Canadian LMA* of the designated groups in the federally regulated private sector in 2011 and 2016 (by percentage)
Year Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
2011 48.2 3.5 4.9 17.8
2016 48.2 4.0 9.1 21.3

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.

At the national level, from 2011 to 2016, the new LMA data for Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities increased, while the LMA for women remained at the same level. The most significant increase in LMA was observed for persons with disabilities. This is due to changes made in capturing the CSD data by Statistics Canada. The CSD became more inclusive of all persons with a disability, especially of persons with less visible types of disabilities. Given that the 2017 CSD is more inclusive than the 2012 CSD, one cannot interpret the higher rate in 2017 to mean that disability has increased compared to 2012. The higher 2017 number of persons with disabilities is in large part due to the fact that the new Disability Screening Questions on the 2016 Census allowed to identify persons with disabilities that may have been missed previously. Those who tended to be missed with the previous census questions were people who had less visible types of disabilities such as learning, developmental, memory, mental health-related and pain-related disabilities. 

Section 1: The federally regulated private sector

For the 2018 calendar year, 603 employers submitted a report to the Minister of Labour. Together, these employers had a total of 771,698 employees across Canada, which represents approximately 3.9%Footnote 6 of the Canadian workforce. Of these submissions, 67 were from employers that reported for the first time on a combined total of 15,284 employees. These employers who reported for the first time were only required to include statistical reports by gender; no data was required to be included on Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities.

Table 2A shows the data from all 603 employers that submitted reports for the 2018 calendar year, including the 67 employers that reported for the first time and were only required to submit statistical reports by gender. The representation of women decreased by 0.4Footnote 7 of a percentage point while the attainment rate of Canadian LMA decreased from 82.5% in 2017 to 81.6% in 2018.

Table 2A: Representation and attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of women in the federally regulated private sector** in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Year Representation Attainment rate of Canadian LMA***
2017 39.8 82.5
2018 39.3 81.6

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** 603 employers overall in 2018.
*** The 2017 and 2018 attainment rates are respectively based on the 2011 Canadian LMA (48.2%) and the 2016 Canadian LMA (48.2%).

Table 2B provides the data submitted from the 536 employers with a total of 756,414 employees that had full reporting responsibility, excluding the 67 employers noted above. It shows that the representation of women decreased, while that of Aboriginal peoples remained the same between 2017 and 2018. Persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities made progress, increasing their overall representation by +0.1 and +1.0 percentage point respectively. Members of visible minorities was the only designated group whose representation continued to surpass Canadian LMA.

Table 2B: Designated group representation and attainment rate of Canadian LMA* for the federally regulated private sector** in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018*** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 Canadian LMA**** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 Canadian LMA*****
Women 40.2 39.4 -0.7 83.3 81.8
Aboriginal peoples 2.3 2.3 0.0 66.1 57.1
Persons with disabilities 3.3 3.4 +0.1 67.6 37.5
Members of visible minorities 22.8 23.8 +0.1 128.2 111.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** 536 employers overall in 2018
*** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding
**** The 2017 attainment rate is calculated from the 2011 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (3.5), persons with disabilities (4.9), and members of visible minorities (17.8).
***** The 2018 attainment rate is calculated from the 2016 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (4.0), persons with disabilities (9.1), and members of visible minorities (21.3).

From this point forward, this report will only include information on the 536 employers that did not report for the first time (namely, exclude the 67 employers who reported for the first time). For the 2019 data, these new employers will be expected to submit their workforce data on all 4 designated groups and their results will be included in the 2020 annual report.

Chart 1 provides an overview of the extent to which representation approaches, meets or exceeds LMA for the 4 designated groups at the overall national level. The chart shows that Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities have made progress towards LMA since 1987, when employers started reporting under the Act, and members of visible minorities have surpassed LMA since 2007.

Chart 1: Designated group attainment rate of Canadian LMA* from 1987 to 2018 (by percentage)
Chart 1

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 1986 to 2016 Census; 1986 and 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey; 2001 and 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey; 2011 National Household Survey; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Chart 1: text description
Year Women Aboriginal peoples Persons with disabilities Members of visible minorities
1987 93.0 31.4 29.4 79.3
1988 95.3 34.0 31.2 90.0
1989 96.6 37.7 43.3 105.9
1990 99.4 40.6 44.3 112.5
1991 96.3 32.1 38.6 83.1
1992 97.3 33.7 39.1 86.9
1993 99.1 34.8 39.5 88.5
1994 96.7 36.7 40.4 90.4
1995 96.9 39.1 42.0 97.1
1996 96.6 57.9 40.9 89.3
1997 96.0 61.3 35.6 93.9
1998 95.2 62.7 34.8 95.7
1999 96.1 69.4 36.8 101.2
2000 94.3 70.3 35.7 103.6
2001 94.8 59.8 43.2 92.6
2002 93.9 63.9 44.3 97.0
2003 93.0 63.6 43.8 101.0
2004 91.8 64.7 48.0 105.5
2005 91.5 67.8 50.9 111.6
2006 89.9 57.1 54.5 97.5
2007 89.2 61.2 55.0 103.8
2008 88.9 60.5 54.3 108.3
2009 88.2 60.8 54.2 111.9
2010 87.0 62.7 53.1 116.1
2011 85.5 56.4 52.2 102.1
2012 84.9 58.4 53.5 104.7
2013 86.2 60.7 55.4 110.0
2014 85.8 60.9 56.6 114.7
2015 85.1 63.1 60.4 119.0
2016 84.5 65.1 67.0 124.4
2017 83.3 66.1 67.6 128.2
2018 81.8 57.1 37.5 111.8

Note: In 1996, the Census methodology for calculating LMA of Aboriginal peoples changed, causing a drop in LMA. In 2001, Statistics Canada began using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to define disability rather than the 1980 International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps; this resulted in a drop in LMA for persons with disabilities. In 2017, Statistics Canada introduced new methodology for capturing persons with disabilities data that resulted in a significant increase in LMA for this designated group.

The attainment rate for women has been declining since reaching its highest point in 1990 (99.4%), and 2018 marked the lowest rate (81.8%) for women. The attainment rate for Aboriginal peoples was exhibiting an upward trend between 1987 and 2000, with a substantial increase of +18.8 percentage points from 1995 (39.1%) to 1996 (57.9%) due to changes made to the collection of LMA data, but has remained stable since 2001. The attainment rate for persons with disabilities more than doubled since 1987, but decreased from 67.6% in 2017 to 37.5% in 2018 and currently is the lowest of all 4 designated groups. This decrease in attainment rate is mainly due to the significant increase in persons with disabilities’ LMA from 4.9% in 2012 to 9.1% in 2017. The only group whose representation has continued to surpass LMA is members of visible minorities.

Table 3A and Table 3B displays the cumulative distribution of permanent full-time designated group and non-designated group members by salary ranges. The data shows that some of the designated groups experience higher concentrations in certain salary ranges when compared to other groups of employees within the same threshold. For example:

Table 3A: Salaries by women, men, Aboriginal peoples and non-Aboriginal peoples of federally regulated private sector employees in permanent full-time employment as of December 31, 2018 (cumulative percentage)
Salary range (by dollar) Women Men Aboriginal peoples Non-Aboriginal peoples
Under 15,000 0.5 0.6 1.7 0.5
15,000 to 19,999 0.6 0.8 2.1 0.7
20,000 to 24,999 1.5 1.2 2.7 1.3
25,000 to 29,999 3.6 2.4 4.8 2.8
30,000 to 34,999 7.3 4.8 8.6 5.7
35,000 to 39,999 13.6 8.9 14.2 10.6
40,000 to 44,999 22.0 14.7 20.6 17.3
45,000 to 49,999 30.7 20.6 27.4 24.3
50,000 to 59,999 49.9 35.6 44.3 40.9
60,000 to 69,999 63.2 49.8 59.0 54.7
70,000 to 84,999 75.9 65.2 73.4 69.1
85,000 to 99,999 84.5 75.8 83.1 79.0
100,000 and over 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Note: Each figure in the Cumulative percentage columns represents the cumulative total percentage of each designated group in the identified salary range or lower.

Table 3B: Salaries by persons with disabilities, persons without disabilities, members of visible minorities and non-visible minority members of federally regulated private sector employees in permanent full-time employment as of December 31, 2018 (cumulative percentage)
Salary range (by dollar) Persons with disabilities Persons without disabilities Members of visible minorities Non-visible minority members
Under 15,000 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.6
15,000 to 19,999 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.8
20,000 to 24,999 0.8 1.3 1.1 1.4
25,000 to 29,999 1.9 2.9 2.8 2.9
30,000 to 34,999 4.8 5.8 5.9 5.7
35,000 to 39,999 11.3 10.6 11.7 10.3
40,000 to 44,999 19.3 17.3 19.6 16.7
45,000 to 49,999 26.7 24.3 27.2 23.5
50,000 to 59,999 44.5 40.8 43.9 40.0
60,000 to 69,999 58.3 54.7 57.0 54.1
70,000 to 84,999 72.7 69.1 70.8 68.7
85,000 to 99,999 82.2 79.0 81.2 78.5
100,000 and over 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Note: Each figure in the Cumulative percentage columns represents the cumulative total percentage of each designated group in the identified salary range or lower.

Section 2: Sector profiles

This section provides an analysis of the sectors and subsectors that comprise the federally regulated private sector.

Table 4A and Table 4B show that overall, the number of employers across federally regulated private sectors increased by +16.0% and the number of employees increased by +5.0% between 2017 and 2018. The banking and financial services sector continued to account for less than 10% of employers but employed about a third of all employees. Communications was the third largest sector, comprising 10.8% of employers and 17.4% of employees. The transportation sector continued to have the largest number of employers (69.0%) and of employees (42.5%), with the majority of this workforce operating in the ground transportation subsector. Among all sectors, the transportation sector experienced the highest increase in the number of employees (+9.2%). The other sector experienced an increase in the number of employers and of employees by +14.8% and +4.9% respectively.

Table 4A: Count and distribution (by percentage) of federally regulated private sector employers* by sectors in 2017 and 2018
Federally regulated private sectors 2017 count 2018 count Change in number of employers from 2017 to 2018 (by percentage) 2017 distribution 2018 distribution
Banking and financial services 36 38 +5.6 7.8 7.1
Communications 52 58 +11.5 11.3 10.8
Transportation 313 370 +18.2 67.7 69.0
'Other' 61 70 +14.8 13.2 13.1
All sectors 462 536 +16.0 N/A N/A

* The number of employers in the federally regulated private sector can change from year to year as a result of mergers, acquisitions, closures, start-ups or organizations fluctuating above or below the 100-employee threshold.

Table 4B: Count and distribution (by percentage) of employees, members of designated groups, by federally regulated private sectors in 2017 and 2018
Federally regulated private sectors 2017 count 2018 count Change in number of employers from 2017 to 2018 (by percentage) 2017 distribution 2018 distribution
Banking and financial services 237,016 244,910 +3.3 32.9 32.4
Communications 132,890 131,305 -1.2 18.4 17.4
Transportation 294,612 321,707 +9.2 40.9 42.5
'Other' 55,779 58,492 +4.9 7.7 7.7
All sectors 720,297 756,414 +5.0 N/A N/A

Table 4C and Table 4D show the count and distributions of federally regulated private sector employers and employees by subsectors in 2017 and 2018. The highest proportional increases in the number of federally regulated private sector employers are in the production industries subsector (+25.9%) and the ground transportation subsector (+24.2%). Among all subsectors, the air transportation subsector experienced the highest increase in the number of employees (+10.8%).

Table 4C: Count and distribution (by percentage) of federally regulated private sector employers* by subsectors in 2017 and 2018
Federally regulated private sectors 2017 count 2018 count Change in number of employers from 2017 to 2018 (by percentage) 2017 distribution 2018 distribution
Air transportation 84 91 +8.3 26.8 24.6
Ground transportation 194 241 +24.2 62.0 65.1
Water transportation 35 38 +8.6 11.2 10.3
Production industries 27 34 +25.9 44.3 48.6
Service industries 34 36 +5.9 55.7 51.4

* The number of employers in the federally regulated private sector can change from year to year as a result of mergers, acquisitions, closures, start-ups or organizations fluctuating above or below the 100-employee threshold.

Table 4D: Count and distribution (by percentage) of employees, members of designated groups, by federally regulated private subsectors in 2017 and 2018
Federally regulated private sectors 2017 count 2018 count Change in number of employers from 2017 to 2018 (by percentage) 2017 distribution 2018 distribution
Air transportation 86,987 96,419 +10.8 29.5 30.0
Ground transportation 190,024 206,160 +8.5 64.5 64.1
Water transportation 17,601 19,128 +8.7 6.0 5.9
Production industries 29,327 30,525 +4.4 52.4 52.2
Service industries 26,542 27,967 +5.4 47.6 47.8

Table 5A shows that in the banking and financial services sector between 2017 and 2018, the representation of women decreased by -1.1 percentage point and the representation of members of visible minorities increased by +2.3 percentage points. While the representation of members of visible minorities continued to surpass sector LMA with an attainment rate above 100%, women’s attainment rate is getting closer to full representation. The representation of Aboriginal peoples in 2018 remained unchanged and stayed below the sector LMA (1.7%) with an attainment rate of 72.1%. While the representation of persons with disabilities increased by +0.5 of a percentage point, it was below the sector LMA of 9.2%.

Table 5A: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the banking and financial services sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA*** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA****
Women 57.7 56.6 -1.1 93.2 96.1
Aboriginal peoples 1.2 1.2 0.0 76.4 72.1
Persons with disabilities 4.5 5.0 +0.5 136.2 54.1
Members of visible minorities 31.6 33.9 +2.3 119.1 108.5

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding.
*** The 2011 banking and financial services sector LMA (%): women (61.9), Aboriginal peoples (1.6), persons with disabilities (3.3) and members of visible minorities (26.5).
**** The 2016 banking and financial services sector LMA (%): women (58.9), Aboriginal peoples (1.7), persons with disabilities (9.2) and members of visible minorities (31.2).

Table 5A.1 shows that in the banking and financial services sector between 2017 and 2018, the representation of women decreased and the representation of members of visible minorities increased, but both designated groups’ representation continued to surpass Canadian LMA with attainment rates above 100%. The representation of Aboriginal peoples in 2018 remained unchanged and stayed below the Canadian LMA (4.0%) with an attainment rate of only 30.6%. While the representation of persons with disabilities increased by +0.5%, it was below the Canadian LMA of 9.1%. The representation of members of visible minorities increased by +2.3% and continued to surpass the Canadian LMA, with attainment rates above 100%.

Table 5A.1: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of designated group members in the banking and financial services sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 attainment rate of 2011 Canadian LMA** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 Canadian LMA***
Women 119.7 117.4
Aboriginal peoples 34.9 30.6
Persons with disabilities 91.7 54.7
Members of visible minorities 177.3 159.0

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** The 2011 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (3.5), persons with disabilities (4.9) and members of visible minorities (17.8).
*** The 2016 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (4.0), persons with disabilities (9.1) and members of visible minorities (21.3).

Table 5B indicates that for the communications sector between 2017 and 2018, the representation among all designated groups remained generally stable. Given the increase in sector LMA in 2016 for all designated groups except women, the attainment rate of sector LMA for the communications sector decreased to 84.6% for Aboriginal peoples, to 31.0% for persons with disabilities and to 94.8% for members of visible minorities. Women’s attainment rate of this sector LMA slightly increased by +0.7 of a percentage point to 78.9%.

Table 5B: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the communications sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA*** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA****
Women 35.2 34.8 -0.4 78.2 78.9
Aboriginal peoples 2.2 2.1 -0.1 96.2 84.6
Persons with disabilities 3.5 3.4 -0.1 69.1 31.0
Members of visible minorities 23.2 23.5 +0.4 167.8 94.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding.
*** The 2011 communications sector LMA (%): women (45.0), Aboriginal peoples (2.3), persons with disabilities (5.1) and members of visible minorities (13.8).
**** The 2016 communications sector LMA (%): women (44.1), Aboriginal peoples (2.5), persons with disabilities (11.0) and members of visible minorities (24.8).

Table 5B.1 shows that members of visible minorities continued to surpass the Canadian LMA with an attainment rate above 100%. Given the increase in Canadian LMA in 2016 for the designated groups except women, the attainment rate of Canadian LMA decreased to 52.9% for Aboriginal peoples and to 37.5% for persons with disabilities.

Table 5B.1: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of designated group members in the communications sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 attainment rate of 2011 Canadian LMA** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 Canadian LMA***
Women 73.0 72.1
Aboriginal peoples 63.2 52.9
Persons with disabilities 71.9 37.5
Members of visible minorities 130.1 110.4

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** The 2011 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (3.5), persons with disabilities (4.9) and members of visible minorities (17.8).
*** The 2016 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (4.0), persons with disabilities (9.1) and members of visible minorities (21.3).

Table 5C indicates that in the transportation sector, representation remained stable from 2017 to 2018. While the representation of women continued to exceed sector LMA with an attainment rate of over 100%, higher sector LMA resulted in decreased attainment rates for the other 3 designated groups. The representation of persons with disabilities remained low in 2018 with a 25.0% attainment rate of sector LMA.

Table 5C: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the transportation sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA*** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA****
Women 30.4 30.1 -0.3 118.2 118.9
Aboriginal peoples 2.9 2.9 0.0 88.3 74.7
Persons with disabilities 2.5 2.5 0.0 42.2 25.0
Members of visible minorities 17.0 17.7 +0.7 87.4 70.6

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding.
*** The 2011 transportation sector LMA (%): women (25.7), Aboriginal peoples (3.3), persons with disabilities (5.9) and members of visible minorities (19.5).
**** The 2016 transportation sector LMA (%): women (25.3), Aboriginal peoples (3.9), persons with disabilities (9.8) and members of visible minorities (25.1).

Table 5C.1 shows that the attainment rate of Canadian LMA in the transportation sector for designated groups in 2017 and 2018. While none of the designated groups reached or surpassed Canadian LMA, the representation of women showed the smallest decrease in 2018. The representation of persons with disabilities continue to remain low compared to Canadian LMA.

Table 5C.1: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of designated group members in the transportation sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 attainment rate of 2011 Canadian LMA** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 Canadian LMA***
Women 63.0 62.4
Aboriginal peoples 83.3 72.9
Persons with disabilities 50.8 27.0
Members of visible minorities 95.7 83.2

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** The 2011 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (3.5), persons with disabilities (4.9) and members of visible minorities (17.8).
*** The 2016 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (4.0), persons with disabilities (9.1) and members of visible minorities (21.3).

Tables 5D.1, 5D.2 and5D.3 indicate that the representation of women decreased in the air and the ground transportation subsectors but increased in the water transportation subsector. Women’s representation continued to surpass the transportation sector LMA in the air and the ground transportation subsectors with an attainment rate above 100%, but remained below the transportation sector LMA in the water transportation subsector with a 66.8% attainment rate. The representation of Aboriginal peoples continued to surpass the transportation sector LMA in the water transportation subsector with an attainment rate above 100%. The representation of persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities remained below the transportation sector LMA across all transportation subsectors.

Table 5D.1: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the air transportation subsector of the transportation sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA*** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA****
Women 38.6 38.5 -0.1 150.2 152.0
Aboriginal peoples 2.9 2.8 -0.2 88.8 71.2
Persons with disabilities 1.6 1.6 0.0 27.7 16.4
Members of visible minorities 18.9 19.6 +0.7 97.0 78.0

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding.
*** The 2011 transportation sector LMA (%): women (25.7), Aboriginal peoples (3.3), persons with disabilities (5.9) and members of visible minorities (19.5).
**** The 2016 transportation sector LMA (%): women (25.3), Aboriginal peoples (3.9), persons with disabilities (9.8) and members of visible minorities (25.1).

Table 5D.2: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the ground transportation subsector of the transportation sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA*** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA****
Women 27.9 27.4 -0.6 108.7 108.2
Aboriginal peoples 2.8 2.8 0.0 83.8 71.7
Persons with disabilities 2.9 2.9 0.0 48.8 29.3
Members of visible minorities 16.4 17.1 +0.7 84.3 68.3

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding.
*** The 2011 transportation sector LMA (%): women (25.7), Aboriginal peoples (3.3), persons with disabilities (5.9) and members of visible minorities (19.5).
**** The 2016 transportation sector LMA (%): women (25.3), Aboriginal peoples (3.9), persons with disabilities (9.8) and members of visible minorities (25.1).

Table 5D.3: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the water transportation subsector of the transportation sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA*** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA****
Women 16.0 16.9 +0.9 62.3 66.8
Aboriginal peoples 4.5 4.9 +0.4 135.2 124.8
Persons with disabilities 2.5 2.2 -0.3 42.4 22.7
Members of visible minorities 14.2 14.5 +0.2 72.9 57.6

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding.
*** The 2011 transportation sector LMA (%): women (25.7), Aboriginal peoples (3.3), persons with disabilities (5.9) and members of visible minorities (19.5).
**** The 2016 transportation sector LMA (%): women (25.3), Aboriginal peoples (3.9), persons with disabilities (9.8) and members of visible minorities (25.1).

Table 5E shows that in the ‘other’ sector, the representation of women increased by +0.4 of a percentage point between 2017 and 2018 but remained below sector LMA. The representation of Aboriginal peoples decreased by -0.4 of a percentage point and their attainment rate of sector LMA decreased to 78.7%. The representation of persons with disabilities remained at the same level and below sector LMA. Members of visible minorities’ representation increased but their attainment rate is now below the sector LMA due to an increase of +2.2 percentage points in their sector LMA level.

Table 5E: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the ‘other’ sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA*** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA****
Women 29.3 29.8 +0.4 83.1 86.2
Aboriginal peoples 4.0 3.6 -0.4 93.6 78.7
Persons with disabilities 2.1 2.1 0.0 56.5 24.7
Members of visible minorities 15.4 15.9 +0.4 111.7 99.1

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding.
*** The 2011 ‘other’ sector LMA (%): women (35.3), Aboriginal peoples (4.3), persons with disabilities (3.8) and members of visible minorities (13.8).
**** The 2016 ‘other’ sector LMA (%): women (34.5), Aboriginal peoples (4.6), persons with disabilities (8.3) and members of visible minorities (16.0).

Table 5E.1 shows that, in the ‘other’ sector, women’s representation remained below the Canadian LMA. The attainment rate of the Canadian LMA for Aboriginal peoples also decreased to 90.5% respectively. The representation of persons with disabilities remained at the same level and below the Canadian LMA. Due to the increase in the LMA levels of members of visible minorities, their attainment rate continues to be below the Canadian LMA.

Table 5E.1: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of designated group members in the ‘other’ sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 attainment rate of 2011 Canadian LMA** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 Canadian LMA***
Women 60.9 61.7
Aboriginal peoples 114.9 90.5
Persons with disabilities 43.8 22.6
Members of visible minorities 86.6 74.4

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** The 2011 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (3.5), persons with disabilities (4.9) and members of visible minorities (17.8).
*** The 2016 Canadian LMA (%): women (48.2), Aboriginal peoples (4.0), persons with disabilities (9.1) and members of visible minorities (21.3).

Tables 5F.1 and 5F.2 show that the representation of women and members of visible minorities increased between 2017 and 2018 in both subsectors of the ‘other’ sector and continued to exceed the sector LMA in the service industries subsector. The representation of Aboriginal peoples decreased by -0.9 of a percentage point in the production industries subsector and increased by +0.1 of a percentage point in the service industries subsector but their attainment rates were below the ‘other’ sector LMA in both subsectors. The attainment rate of sector LMA for persons with disabilities across both subsectors of the ‘other’ sector dropped by more than half from 2017 to 2018, partly due to the sector LMA increase.

Table 5F.1: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the production industries subsector of the ‘other’ sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA*** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA****
Women 22.9 23.4 +0.6 64.8 67.9
Aboriginal peoples 5.2 4.3 -0.9 120.9 93.5
Persons with disabilities 2.4 2.2 -0.2 64.2 27.0
Members of visible minorities 12.2 12.7 +0.5 88.4 79.6

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding.
*** The 2011 other sector LMA (%): women (35.3), Aboriginal peoples (4.3), persons with disabilities (3.8) and members of visible minorities (13.8).
**** The 2016 other sector LMA (%): women (34.5), Aboriginal peoples (4.6), persons with disabilities (8.3) and members of visible minorities (16.0).

Table 5F.2: Representation and attainment rate of sector LMA* of designated group members in the service industries subsector of the other sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation Change in representation from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)** 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA*** 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA****
Women 36.5 36.7 +0.2 103.3 106.3
Aboriginal peoples 2.7 2.9 +0.1 63.4 62.5
Persons with disabilities 1.8 1.9 0.0 48.1 22.3
Members of visible minorities 18.9 19.3 +0.3 137.3 120.3

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey; 2016 Census; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the representation rates due to rounding.
*** The 2011 'other' sector LMA (%): women (35.3), Aboriginal peoples (4.3), persons with disabilities (3.8) and members of visible minorities (13.8).
**** The 2016 'other' sector LMA (%): women (34.5), Aboriginal peoples (4.6), persons with disabilities (8.3) and members of visible minorities (16.0).

Additional data on the representation, hires, promotions and terminations of employees by designated group and sector is provided in Appendix A.

Section 3: Designated group profiles

Women

In 2018, the representation of women decreased by -0.8 of a percentage point compared to 2017 (from 40.2% in 2017 to 39.4% in 2018), the only designated group to have experienced a decrease. At the combined workforce level, and more specifically in the banking and financial services sector and the communications sector, where the majority of women were employed (61.7%) in 2018, women continued to leave the workforce at a higher rate than enter it. Since 2013, this trend has affected and led to the decline in the representation of women at the overall level.

Progress was observed for women in some areas in the federally regulated private sector. For instance, between 2017 and 2018, the representation of women in the Senior Managers occupational group increased and surpassed LMA. During the same time period, although the representation of women in the Middle and Other Managers, Skilled Sales and Service Personnel, and Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers occupational groups decreased, it continued to surpass LMA.

Chart 2 shows that since 1987, the representation of women increased and peaked in 1993; however, it has been on a mostly downward trend since the early 2000s. The representation of women in 2018 (39.4%) was 1.5 of a percentage point below what it was in 1987 (40.9%).

Chart 2: Representation and Canadian LMA* of women in the federally regulated private sector from 1987 to 2018 (by percentage)
Chart 2

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 1986 to 2016 Census and 2011 National Household Survey.

Chart 2: text description
Year Canadian labour market availability Representation in federally regulated private sector workforce
1987 44 40.94
1988 N/A 41.95
1989 N/A 42.53
1990 N/A 43.74
1991 45.9 44.21
1992 N/A 44.68
1993 N/A 45.47
1994 N/A 44.38
1995 N/A 44.46
1996 46.4 44.81
1997 N/A 44.53
1998 N/A 44.16
1999 N/A 44.61
2000 N/A 43.75
2001 47.3 44.85
2002 N/A 44.42
2003 N/A 44.01
2004 N/A 43.43
2005 N/A 43.29
2006 47.9 43.07
2007 N/A 42.71
2008 N/A 42.60
2009 N/A 42.27
2010 N/A 41.68
2011 48.2 41.21
2012 N/A 40.90
2013 N/A 41.56
2014 N/A 41.36
2015 N/A 41.04
2016 48.2 40.73
2017 N/A 40.17
2018 N/A 39.45

Chart 3 illustrates that at the overall level, the attainment rates of women in management and skilled occupational groups exceeded the Canadian LMA (Senior Managers; Middle and Other Managers; Supervisors; Skilled Sales and Service Personnel; and Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers) but remain particularly low for the following 2 occupational groups: Semi-professionals and Technicians and Other Manual Workers. Women have the highest attainment rate of Canadian LMA of all 4 designated groups in the Senior Managers occupational group. Of all occupational groups, the attainment rate is highest for women in the Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers group.

Chart 3: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of women by occupational group in the federally regulated private sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Chart 3

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.

Chart 3: text description
Occupational group Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 2017 (percentage) Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 2018 (percentage)
Senior managers 99.6 101.3
Middle and other managers 107.8 105.0
Professionals 80.9 79.9
Semi-professionals and technicians 37.0 36.1
Supervisors 104.1 104.7
Supervisors: crafts and trades 73.7 78.5
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 92.5 88.7
Skilled sales and service personnel 107.9 106.9
Skilled crafts and trades workers 121.6 120.0
Clerical personnel 82.4 80.6
Intermediate sales and service personnel 93.6 90.9
Semi-skilled manual workers 62.5 68.1
Other sales and service personnel 71.6 72.5
Other manual workers 41.6 44.5

Banking and financial services sector

Table 6A shows that the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of women increased from 2017 to 2018 in the Senior Managers, Supervisors, Clerical Personnel, Intermediate Sales and Service Personnel, Other Sales and Service Personnel and Other Manual Workers occupational groups. The increase in the Other Manual Workers occupational group is particularly noticeable at +170.1 percentage points, but this is a very small occupational group, where only 2 women of a total of 3 employees were reported for 2018. The representation of women was above sector occupational LMA in the Senior Managers, Professionals, Supervisors and Other Manual Workers occupational groups in 2018. However, the representation of women was well below sector occupational LMA in the Supervisors: Crafts and Trades, a small occupational group that consisted of 2 women out of a total of 13 employees for 2018.

Table 6A: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of women in the banking and financial services sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 117.1 124.1 +7.1
Middle and other managers 88.8 88.8 -0.1
Professionals 106.2 105.1 -1.0
Semi-professionals and technicians 92.5 82.3 -10.1
Supervisors 93.6 100.1 +6.5
Supervisors: crafts and trades 123.3 47.1 -76.3
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 99.6 96.5 -3.2
Skilled sales and service personnel 97.4 97.0 -0.4
Skilled crafts and trades workers 84.9 69.4 -15.5
Clerical personnel 87.6 88.0 +0.5
Intermediate sales and service personnel 94.4 96.1 +1.6
Semi-skilled manual workers 108.7 65.3 -43.4
Other sales and service personnel 40.7 57.6 +16.9
Other manual workers 80.4 250.6 +170.1
Total 93.2 96.1 +2.9

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

Communications sector

Table 6B shows that the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of women improved in 11 of the 14 occupational groups from 2017 to 2018. The only 3 occupational groups that did not improve were the Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel, Clerical Personnel and Other Manual Workers. The representation of women was above the communications sector’s occupational LMA and reached the highest level of attainment rate of sector occupational LMA among the 4 sectors in the Senior Managers, Semi-skilled Manual Workers and Other Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups in 2018. However, women in this sector have the lowest level of attainment rate of sector occupational LMA in the Professionals, Supervisors and Clerical Personnel occupational groups. The decrease in the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA between 2017 and 2018 for the Other Manual Workers is particularly noticeable at -228.6 percentage points, but this is a very small occupational group that consisted of a total of 9 male employees for 2018.

Table 6B: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of women in the communications sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 108.5 124.8 +16.3
Middle and other managers 92.1 96.8 +4.7
Professionals 85.6 85.7 +0.1
Semi-professionals and technicians 84.0 87.0 +3.0
Supervisors 72.5 75.3 +2.9
Supervisors: crafts and trades 52.2 68.9 +16.6
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 98.3 97.1 -1.2
Skilled sales and service personnel 81.3 84.3 +3.0
Skilled crafts and trades workers 63.7 80.1 +16.4
Clerical personnel 86.2 84.6 -1.6
Intermediate sales and service personnel 85.3 88.0 +2.8
Semi-skilled manual workers 107.5 153.7 +46.2
Other sales and service personnel 112.7 135.1 +22.4
Other manual workers 228.6 0.0 -228.6
Total 78.2 78.9 +0.7

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

Transportation sector

Table 6C shows that the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of women increased in 5 of the 14 occupational groups from 2017 to 2018. In 2018, the representation of women was also above sector occupational LMA in 8 of the occupational groups, making this sector the most successful at reaching full representation for women at the occupational group level, compared to sector-specific occupational level LMA. Among the 4 sectors, women in the transportation sector reached the highest level of attainment rate of sector occupational LMA in the Middle and Other Managers, Supervisors, Clerical Personnel and Intermediate Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups in 2018.

Table 6C: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of women in the transportation sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 117.1 123.7 +6.6
Middle and other managers 109.3 108.3 -0.9
Professionals 104.1 103.1 -1.0
Semi-professionals and technicians 89.1 79.2 -9.9
Supervisors 114.2 118.5 +4.3
Supervisors: crafts and trades 74.1 57.0 -17.1
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 89.9 88.0 -1.9
Skilled sales and service personnel 72.9 64.5 -8.5
Skilled crafts and trades workers 125.2 130.4 +5.2
Clerical personnel 101.5 99.4 -2.0
Intermediate sales and service personnel 112.2 109.0 -3.2
Semi-skilled manual workers 96.7 104.0 +7.3
Other sales and service personnel 131.3 125.1 -6.3
Other manual workers 37.9 39.2 +1.4
Total 118.2 118.9 +0.7

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

‘Other’ sector

Table 6D shows that, between 2017 and 2018, the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of women increased in 8 of the 14 occupational groups. In 2018, the representation of women surpassed sector occupational LMA in the Senior Managers, Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers and Other Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups. Among the 4 sectors, women in the ‘other’ sector reached the highest level of attainment rate of sector occupational LMA in the Supervisors: Crafts and Trades, Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel and Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers occupational groups in 2018. However, women in this sector have the lowest level of attainment rate of sector occupational LMA in the Senior Managers, Middle and Other Managers, Semi-professionals and Technicians, Skilled Sales and Service Personnel, Intermediate Sales and Service Personnel and Semi-skilled Manual Workers occupational groups in 2018.

Table 6D: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of women in the ‘other’ sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 104.9 119.4 +14.6
Middle and other managers 89.0 87.7 -1.3
Professionals 92.8 93.9 +1.1
Semi-professionals and technicians 64.3 67.2 +2.8
Supervisors 86.6 92.0 +5.4
Supervisors: crafts and trades 68.5 78.2 +9.8
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 101.4 98.8 -2.6
Skilled sales and service personnel 28.7 30.6 +1.9
Skilled crafts and trades workers 199.3 186.6 -12.7
Clerical personnel 104.9 99.0 -5.9
Intermediate sales and service personnel 79.7 79.0 -0.7
Semi-skilled manual workers 56.4 62.5 +6.1
Other sales and service personnel 94.6 101.7 +7.1
Other manual workers 46.5 46.2 -0.3
Total 83.1 86.2 +3.1

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

Additional data on the representation, hires, promotions and terminations of employees by designated group and sector is provided in Appendix A.

Aboriginal peoples

For the third year in a row, the representation of Aboriginal peoples remained at 2.3%. In 2018, more Aboriginal employees left than entered the workforce at the overall level and in 3 of the 4 sectors. The only exception was the transportation sector where a higher number and share of Aboriginal employees were hired than left the workplace.

Chart 4 shows that the representation of Aboriginal peoples remained short of the 4.0% Canadian LMA; however, the representation of Aboriginal peoples has been increasing steadily since its initial low of 0.7% in 1987.

Chart 4: Representation and Canadian LMA* of Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated private sector from 1987 to 2018 (by percentage)
Chart 4

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 1986 to 2016 Census and 2011 National Household Survey.

Chart 4: text description
Year Canadian labour market availability Representation in federally regulated private sector workforce
1987 2.1 0.66
1988 N/A 0.71
1989 N/A 0.79
1990 N/A 0.85
1991 3 0.96
1992 N/A 1.01
1993 N/A 1.04
1994 N/A 1.10
1995 N/A 1.17
1996 2.1 1.22
1997 N/A 1.29
1998 N/A 1.32
1999 N/A 1.46
2000 N/A 1.48
2001 2.6 1.55
2002 N/A 1.66
2003 N/A 1.65
2004 N/A 1.68
2005 N/A 1.76
2006 3.1 1.77
2007 N/A 1.90
2008 N/A 1.88
2009 N/A 1.88
2010 N/A 1.94
2011 3.5 1.97
2012 N/A 2.04
2013 N/A 2.12
2014 N/A 2.13
2015 N/A 2.21
2016 4.0 2.28
2017 N/A 2.31
2018 N/A 2.28

Note: In 1996, the Census methodology for calculating LMA of Aboriginal peoples changed, causing a drop in LMA.

Chart 5 shows that at the overall level, the representation of Aboriginal peoples continued to be significantly short of reaching full representation in the Senior Managers occupational group. Aboriginal peoples’ representation in the other supervisory and management occupations were also below Canadian LMA but to a lesser extent. Aboriginal employees in the Supervisors: Crafts and Trades occupational group were fully represented in 2017 but dropped to an attainment rate of Canadian LMA of 83.4% in 2018.

Chart 5: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of Aboriginal peoples by occupational group in the federally regulated private sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Chart 5

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.

Chart 5: text description
Occupational group Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 2017 (percentage) Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 2018 (percentage)
Senior managers 35.2 29.8
Middle and other managers 60.0 49.9
Professionals 58.6 52.8
Semi-professionals and technicians 72.0 60.8
Supervisors 66.4 62.6
Supervisors: crafts and trades 108.3 83.4
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 61.3 52.2
Skilled sales and service personnel 53.1 42.4
Skilled crafts and trades workers 86.2 74.4
Clerical personnel 62.9 50.7
Intermediate sales and service personnel 67.7 54.0
Semi-skilled manual workers 86.2 69.9
Other sales and service personnel 83.4 71.3
Other manual workers 96.5 86.5

Banking and financial services sector

Table 7A shows that, from 2017 to 2018, the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of Aboriginal peoples decreased in all occupational groups where there were employees, except in the Semi-skilled Manual Workers occupational group which increased by +0.9 of a percentage point. The decrease in the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA in the Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers occupational group is particularly noticeable at -240.5 percentage points, but this is a very small occupational group that consisted of a total of 14 employees and no reported Aboriginal peoples in 2018. The representation of Aboriginal peoples was well below sector occupational LMA in all occupational groups in 2018.

Table 7A: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of Aboriginal peoples in the banking and financial services sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 87.5 58.5 -29.1
Middle and other managers 86.9 74.0 -13.0
Professionals 89.6 84.6 -4.9
Semi-professionals and technicians 88.7 53.1 -35.6
Supervisors 100.2 67.7 -32.6
Supervisors: crafts and trades 0.0 0.0 0.0
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 76.2 63.8 -12.4
Skilled sales and service personnel 110.0 64.8 -45.2
Skilled crafts and trades workers 240.5 0.0 -240.5
Clerical personnel 71.9 71.7 -0.2
Intermediate sales and service personnel 76.6 69.5 -7.1
Semi-skilled manual workers 56.0 56.9 +0.9
Other sales and service personnel 0.0 0.0 0.0
Other manual workers 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total 76.4 72.1 -4.3

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

Communications sector

Table 7B shows that the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of Aboriginal peoples improved in Senior Managers, Supervisors, Supervisors: Crafts and Trades and Other Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups between 2017 and 2018. Two particularly noticeable declines in the Aboriginal peoples’ attainment rate of sector LMA were noted. The first decrease of -242.5 percentage points in the Semi-skilled Manual Workers occupational group was mainly due to the increase in the sector occupational LMA from 0.8% in 2017 based on the 2011 National Household Survey to 3.7% in 2018 based on the 2016 Census. The second noticeable decrease of -400.0 percentage points in the Other Manual Workers occupational group was due to the small size of this occupational group that consisted of a total of 9 employees and no reported Aboriginal peoples in 2018. However, the representation of Aboriginal peoples in the Professionals, Supervisors and Supervisors: Crafts and Trades occupational groups was above sector occupational LMA in 2018.

Table 7B: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of Aboriginal peoples in the communications sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 26.9 53.6 +26.6
Middle and other managers 109.6 85.2 -24.4
Professionals 111.4 109.3 -2.1
Semi-professionals and technicians 79.1 61.6 -17.5
Supervisors 179.4 231.4 +52.0
Supervisors: crafts and trades 69.8 104.0 +34.2
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 68.6 67.9 -0.7
Skilled sales and service personnel 118.7 84.8 -33.9
Skilled crafts and trades workers 126.3 93.3 -33.0
Clerical personnel 100.3 80.6 -19.7
Intermediate sales and service personnel 108.7 77.1 -31.6
Semi-skilled manual workers 317.6 75.0 -242.5
Other sales and service personnel 66.2 87.1 +20.9
Other manual workers 400.0 0.0 -400.0
Total 96.2 84.6 -11.6

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

Transportation sector

Table 7C shows that the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of Aboriginal peoples decreased in all 14 occupational groups from 2017 to 2018. The attainment rate of sector occupational LMA that were fully represented in 6 occupational groups in 2017 dropped below 100% in 2018 mainly due to increases in the Aboriginal peoples’ sector occupational LMA data between the 2011 National Household Survey and the 2016 Census.

Table 7C: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of Aboriginal peoples in the transportation sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 212.7 58.0 -154.7
Middle and other managers 86.4 65.6 -20.8
Professionals 145.3 101.1 -44.2
Semi-professionals and technicians 98.9 66.9 -32.0
Supervisors 88.2 83.5 -4.7
Supervisors: crafts and trades 152.4 77.7 -74.6
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 80.8 66.2 -14.6
Skilled sales and service personnel 224.3 77.5 -146.8
Skilled crafts and trades workers 111.5 85.8 -25.7
Clerical personnel 83.1 66.1 -17.0
Intermediate sales and service personnel 121.0 84.8 -36.2
Semi-skilled manual workers 90.2 79.4 -10.8
Other sales and service personnel 91.4 87.3 -4.1
Other manual workers 63.7 60.4 -3.3
Total 88.3 74.7 -13.6

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

‘Other’ sector

Between 2017 and 2018, Aboriginal peoples’ attainment rate of sector occupational LMA decreased in 10 occupational groups but this designated group continued to be fully represented in the Semi-professionals and Technicians, Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers and Semi-skilled Manual Workers occupational groups in 2018. The attainment rate of sector occupational LMA improved in the Professionals, Skilled Sales and Service Personnel and Other Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups.

Table 7D: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of Aboriginal peoples in the ‘other’ sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 20.0 14.8 -5.3
Middle and other managers 61.1 61.1 -0.0
Professionals 83.2 89.9 +6.6
Semi-professionals and technicians 109.5 106.3 -3.1
Supervisors 88.0 60.9 -27.1
Supervisors: crafts and trades 97.2 73.7 -23.5
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 82.1 73.3 -8.8
Skilled sales and service personnel 64.9 68.4 +3.5
Skilled crafts and trades workers 151.2 113.0 -38.2
Clerical personnel 86.4 65.4 -21.0
Intermediate sales and service personnel 48.4 44.4 -4.0
Semi-skilled manual workers 211.9 127.5 -84.4
Other sales and service personnel 43.5 45.8 +2.2
Other manual workers 79.2 71.6 -7.6
Total 93.6 78.7 -14.9

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

Additional data on the representation, hires, promotions and terminations of employees by designated group and sector is provided in Appendix A.

Persons with disabilities

The representation of persons with disabilities increased from 3.3% in 2017 to 3.4% in 2018 despite the continued trend over the past decade of a higher number of this designated group leaving than entering the workforce.

Statistics Canada introduced new methodology for collecting the LMA data on persons with disabilities when it conducted its 2017 CSD which resulted in a significant increase in LMA from 4.9% in 2012 to 9.1% in 2017 at the overall level. This change is largely due to one factor – better overall coverage of persons with disabilities in the 2017 CSD compared to the 2012 CSD. The significant changes are largely the result of introducing the new version of the 2016 Census “Activities of Daily Living” filter questions, which were used to create the sampling frame for the CSD. Qualitative and quantitative testing have shown that these new filter questions used for the 2017 CSD sampling frame, compared to the census filter questions used for the 2012 CSD, allow for better coverage overall of persons with disabilities, and especially of persons with disability types that are less visible, such as disabilities related to pain, memory, learning, development and mental health. The increased prevalence of disability in the 2017 CSD is attributable in large part to this improved coverage of persons with disabilities.Footnote 8

Chart 6 illustrates that the representation of persons with disabilities reached its highest level at 3.4% in 2018, a significant increase from the initial low of 1.6% in 1987. The 2018 representation rate is currently 5.7 percentage points below the 9.1% Canadian LMA.

Chart 6: Representation and Canadian LMA* of persons with disabilities in the federally regulated private sector from 1987 to 2018 (by percentage)
Chart 6

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 1986 and 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey; 2001 and 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey; and 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Chart 6: text description
Year Canadian labour market availability Representation in federally regulated private sector workforce
1987 5.4 1.59
1988 N/A 1.69
1989 N/A 2.34
1990 N/A 2.39
1991 6.5 2.51
1992 N/A 2.54
1993 N/A 2.56
1994 N/A 2.63
1995 N/A 2.73
1996 6.5 2.66
1997 N/A 2.32
1998 N/A 2.26
1999 N/A 2.39
2000 N/A 2.32
2001 5.3 2.29
2002 N/A 2.35
2003 N/A 2.32
2004 N/A 2.54
2005 N/A 2.70
2006 4.9 2.67
2007 N/A 2.70
2008 N/A 2.66
2009 N/A 2.66
2010 N/A 2.60
2011 4.9 2.56
2012 N/A 2.62
2013 N/A 2.72
2014 N/A 2.78
2015 N/A 2.96
2016 9.1 3.28
2017 N/A 3.31
2018 N/A 3.41

Note: In 2001, Statistics Canada began using the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to define disability rather than the 1980 International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps; this resulted in a drop in LMA. In 2017, Statistics Canada introduced new methodology for capturing persons with disabilities data that resulted in a significant increase in LMA for this designated group.

Chart 7 shows that at the overall level, the attainment rate of Canadian LMA of persons with disabilities is low in all occupational groups in 2018. The attainment rate of persons with disabilities dropped by more than 50 percentage points in the Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel and Skilled Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups, where this designated group was previously well represented in 2017. The main reason for the decrease in attainment rates of Canadian LMA of persons with disabilities is Statistics Canada’s change in methodology, when it collected the LMA data through the new 2017 CSD, which led to higher LMA data.

Chart 7: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of persons with disabilities by occupational group in the federally regulated private sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Chart 7

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2012 and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Chart 7: text description
Occupational group Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 2017 (percentage) Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 2018 (percentage)
Senior managers 70.5 64.6
Middle and other managers 81.1 72.4
Professionals 88.9 40.6
Semi-professionals and technicians 57.9 33.4
Supervisors 27.6 14.6
Supervisors: crafts and trades 28.4 20.8
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 109.1 41.0
Skilled sales and service personnel 123.0 49.3
Skilled crafts and trades workers 63.7 29.3
Clerical personnel 60.0 49.2
Intermediate sales and service personnel 60.9 32.7
Semi-skilled manual workers 54.9 25.1
Other sales and service personnel 67.9 38.5
Other manual workers 54.5 38.2

Data on the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of persons with disabilities is not available as numbers are negligible. Additional data on the representation, hires, promotions and terminations of employees by designated group and sector is provided in Appendix A.

Members of visible minorities

The representation of members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector increased from 22.8% in 2017 to 23.8% in 2018. All sectors combined and in each sector, except for the communications sector, more members of visible minorities entered than left the workforce. This designated group also received a higher share of promotions than their representation level at the overall level and in each sector, with the exception of the ‘other’ sector.

Chart 8 illustrates that since 1987, the representation of members of visible minorities has been increasing steadily; this designated group has made the most progress in overall representation since 1987.

Chart 8: Representation and Canadian LMA* of members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector from 1987 to 2018 (by percentage)
Chart 8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 1986 to 2016 Census and 2011 National Household Survey.

Chart 8: text description
Year Canadian labour market availability Representation in federally regulated private sector workforce
1987 6.3 5.00
1988 N/A 5.67
1989 N/A 6.67
1990 N/A 7.09
1991 9.1 7.57
1992 N/A 7.91
1993 N/A 8.05
1994 N/A 8.23
1995 N/A 8.84
1996 10.3 9.20
1997 N/A 9.67
1998 N/A 9.86
1999 N/A 10.43
2000 N/A 10.67
2001 12.6 11.67
2002 N/A 12.22
2003 N/A 12.73
2004 N/A 13.30
2005 N/A 14.06
2006 15.3 14.91
2007 N/A 15.88
2008 N/A 16.57
2009 N/A 17.11
2010 N/A 17.76
2011 17.8 18.17
2012 N/A 18.64
2013 N/A 19.58
2014 N/A 20.41
2015 N/A 21.18
2016 21.3 22.15
2017 N/A 22.82
2018 N/A 23.81

Chart 9 shows that at the overall level, members of visible minorities had attainment rates of Canadian LMA that are above the 100% threshold in 7 of the 14 occupational groups in 2018, including reaching full representation and the highest attainment rate of Canadian LMA in the Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel occupational group. This designated group’s representation continued to surpass Canadian LMA in the Middle and Other Managers and Professionals occupational groups that are important feeder groups to the Senior Managers occupational group.

Chart 9: Attainment rate of Canadian LMA* of members of visible minorities by occupational group in the federally regulated private sector in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Chart 9

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.

Chart 9: text description
Occupational group Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 2017 (percentage) Attainment rate of Canadian LMA 2018 (percentage)
Senior managers 100.3 95.5
Middle and other managers 161.5 144.6
Professionals 156.6 139.4
Semi-professionals and technicians 83.2 73.5
Supervisors 114.5 87.9
Supervisors: crafts and trades 107.5 98.1
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 184.8 173.0
Skilled sales and service personnel 129.7 111.1
Skilled crafts and trades workers 136.6 122.4
Clerical personnel 125.9 116.9
Intermediate sales and service personnel 115.2 101.0
Semi-skilled manual workers 94.8 79.7
Other sales and service personnel 66.4 56.8
Other manual workers 74.7 63.7

Banking and financial services sector

Table 8A shows that, from 2017 to 2018, the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of members of visible minorities increased in the Supervisors: Crafts and Trades, Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel and Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers occupational groups. The increase in the attainment rate of the Supervisors: Crafts and Trades occupational group is particularly noticeable at +457.1 percentage points, but this is a very small occupational group, where only 8 visible minority employees of a total of 13 employees were reported for 2018, and the sector occupational LMA increased from a negligible amount based on the 2011 NHS to 13.5% based on the 2016 Census. The representation of members of visible minorities was above sector occupational LMA in all but 2 occupational groups where the sector reported representation in 2018. Only in the Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers and Intermediate Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups did the representation of members of visible minorities remain below the sector occupational LMA.

Table 8A: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of members of visible minorities in the banking and financial services sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 112.8 107.3 -5.5
Middle and other managers 125.4 111.4 -14.0
Professionals 113.7 104.9 -8.8
Semi-professionals and technicians 119.7 106.8 -12.9
Supervisors 143.9 130.5 -13.4
Supervisors: crafts and trades - 457.1 +457.1
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 147.8 155.1 +7.3
Skilled sales and service personnel 130.3 105.1 -25.2
Skilled crafts and trades workers 0.0 54.0 +54.0
Clerical personnel 123.4 118.3 -5.1
Intermediate sales and service personnel 86.3 82.8 -3.5
Semi-skilled manual workers 277.1 234.5 -42.5
Other sales and service personnel 230.2 154.6 -75.6
Other manual workers 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total 119.1 108.5 -10.6

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.
“-“ Amount is negligible.

Communications sector

Table 8B shows that the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of members of visible minorities improved in Senior Managers, Supervisors: Crafts and Trades, Clerical Personnel and Other Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups between 2017 and 2018. The decrease in the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of this designated group in the Other Manual Workers occupational group by ‑124.6 percentage points is particularly noticeable, but this is a very small occupational group where only one visible minority employee of a total of 9 employees were reported for 2018, and the sector occupational LMA increased from 9.4% based on the 2011 NHS to 20.9% based on the 2016 Census. The representation of members of visible minorities was above sector occupational LMA in only 4 of the 14 occupational groups in 2018, including the Middle and Other Managers occupational group.

Table 8B: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of members of visible minorities in the communications sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 73.7 87.6 +13.9
Middle and other managers 115.6 109.9 -5.7
Professionals 106.0 98.3 -7.7
Semi-professionals and technicians 89.6 86.1 -3.5
Supervisors 122.7 82.3 -40.4
Supervisors: crafts and trades 62.7 79.9 +17.3
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 122.1 109.9 -12.2
Skilled sales and service personnel 83.6 75.5 -8.1
Skilled crafts and trades workers 98.6 84.7 -14.0
Clerical personnel 107.1 107.3 +0.2
Intermediate sales and service personnel 90.9 78.6 -12.3
Semi-skilled manual workers 115.5 101.8 -13.7
Other sales and service personnel 35.7 72.9 +37.2
Other manual workers 177.8 53.1 -124.6
Total 167.8 94.8 -73.0

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

Transportation sector

Table 8C shows that the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of members of visible minorities only increased in the Semi-professionals and Technicians occupational group from 2017 to 2018. The representation of this designated group only continued to exceed sector occupational LMA in the Administrative and Senior Clerical Personnel occupational group in 2018.

Table 8C: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of members of visible minorities in the transportation sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 73.8 66.0 -7.8
Middle and other managers 91.6 75.0 -16.6
Professionals 95.5 82.5 -13.0
Semi-professionals and technicians 72.1 72.9 +0.8
Supervisors 80.5 59.8 -20.7
Supervisors: crafts and trades 108.7 82.8 -25.8
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 129.3 101.8 -27.5
Skilled sales and service personnel 53.3 28.2 -25.0
Skilled crafts and trades workers 104.5 99.2 -5.3
Clerical personnel 91.3 82.2 -9.1
Intermediate sales and service personnel 93.4 83.4 -10.0
Semi-skilled manual workers 85.0 63.1 -22.0
Other sales and service personnel 51.2 44.9 -6.3
Other manual workers 96.9 63.7 -33.2
Total 87.4 70.6 -16.8

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

‘Other’ sector

Table 8D shows that, between 2017 and 2018, the attainment rate of sector occupational LMA of members of visible minorities increased in the Senior Managers, Semi-professionals and Technicians, Skilled Sales and Service Personnel and Other Manual Workers occupational groups. This designated group’s representation continued to exceed sector occupational LMA in the Middle and Other Managers, Skilled Crafts and Trades Workers and Other Sales and Service Personnel occupational groups in 2018.

Table 8D: Attainment rate of sector LMA* of members of visible minorities in the ‘other’ sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 attainment rate of 2011 sector LMA 2018 attainment rate of 2016 sector LMA Change in attainment rate from 2017 to 2018 (point of percentage)**
Senior managers 62.4 70.7 +8.4
Middle and other managers 145.2 128.8 -16.4
Professionals 108.2 94.9 -13.3
Semi-professionals and technicians 61.7 64.6 +2.9
Supervisors 83.8 57.9 -25.9
Supervisors: crafts and trades 109.9 86.0 -23.9
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 99.4 90.8 -8.6
Skilled sales and service personnel 47.6 66.0 +18.3
Skilled crafts and trades workers 137.6 119.7 -17.9
Clerical personnel 91.7 81.1 -10.5
Intermediate sales and service personnel 116.0 91.9 -24.1
Semi-skilled manual workers 66.0 62.3 -3.7
Other sales and service personnel 130.9 101.5 -29.4
Other manual workers 84.8 86.3 +1.5
Total 111.7 99.1 -12.6

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey and 2016 Census.
** Change values may not equal the differences between the attainment rates due to rounding.

Additional data on the representation, hires, promotions and terminations of employees by designated group and sector is provided in Appendix A.

Section 4: Employment equity program highlights

Under the Act, in addition to ensuring compliance with the annual reporting requirements of federally regulated private sector employers, the Minister of Labour is mandated a number of responsibilities including:

This section provides an overview of the Labour Program’s activities as they relate to the Federal Contractors Program, the Workplace Opportunities: Removing Barriers to Equity grants and contributions program, pay transparency, the Employment Equity Achievement Awards and the 2019 Symposium on Women and the Workplace.

Federal Contractors Program

The Federal Contractors Program (FCP) seeks to advance social and economic development objectives through procurement by ensuring that organizations that do business with the Government of Canada implement employment equity in their workplace. It applies to provincially regulated employers that have a workforce in Canada of 100 or more employees and that received a federal government goods and services contract valued at $1 million or more (including applicable taxes).

The Treasury Board’s Contracting Policy is the main policy instrument through which FCP is administered, making Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat and Public Services and Procurement Canada key partners.

As part of their obligations, contractors must collect and analyze data about their workforce and, where gaps in representation exist, establish goals to increase representation for the 4 designated groups: women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities. Contractors are required to make reasonable efforts to ensure that reasonable progress is made towards meeting their goals and achieving an equitable workforce.

As of December 31, 2018, 328 (321 certified and 7 voluntary) employers were covered under the FCP. A total of 36 (34 certified and 2 voluntary) employers were added during the 2018 calendar year.

The Labour Program conducts compliance assessments to ensure that contractors fulfill their commitment to implement employment equity. A first compliance assessment is conducted one year after an employer has been awarded a contract. Subsequent assessments are conducted 4 years after the contract award date and every 3 years thereafter to verify that progress is being made. In 2018, the Labour Program completed 45 first-year assessments and 122 subsequent assessments for a combined total of 167 compliance assessments, with all contractors being found in compliance.

Workplace opportunities: Removing barriers to equity

Workplace Opportunities: Removing Barriers to Equity is a grants and contributions program designed to support employers in their efforts to improve the representation and participation of designated group members in areas experiencing low representation through partnerships, information sharing and implementation of industry-tailored strategies. Up to $500,000 per fiscal year in total funding is available to eligible recipients.

Since the launch of Workplace Opportunities in 2014, a total of 10 projects have been funded. Four grant projects were completed in 2016. Two contribution agreements concluded in 2017 and 3 contribution agreements concluded in March 2018. Project results were included in the Employment Equity Act: Annual Report 2018. A contribution agreement with Ryerson University for the “ALiGN Network for Employment Equity and Inclusion” project began in 2018 and will conclude in October 2021.

Workplace opportunities project in 2019

Ryerson University Diversity Institute, ALiGN Network for Employment Equity and Inclusion
Funding: $1,498,370 (November 2018 to October 2021)

The “ALiGN Network for Employment Equity and Inclusion” project aims to:

Pay transparency

In Budget 2018, the Government of Canada committed to reducing the gender wage gap through several measures including new pay transparency requirements for employers subject to the Act. The pay transparency measures will provide Canadians with accessible, comparable, online information about the wage gaps of federally regulated private sector employers with 100 or more employees. Pay transparency will go beyond addressing the gender wage gap by highlighting wage gaps that affect women, Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities, making Canada the first country to make this level of information publicly available.

Pay transparency is recognized across the world as a key measure towards addressing wage gaps. The United Kingdom was the first country to require all large employers to publish gender wage gaps online and has found pay transparency to be effective in raising awareness on wage gaps. Making this information publicly available prompts employers to take action to examine their practices and show leadership in reducing wage gaps, helping to shift business culture and expectations towards greater equality.

In Canada, despite narrowing educational and work experience gaps, the gap in wages between men and women persists among workers at the overall national level. According to Statistics Canada, on average, women aged 15 years and over in full-time employment earned $0.89 for every dollar earned by men in 2018, up from $0.83 in 1997.Footnote 9

Wage gaps also exist for Aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities in the Canadian federally regulated private sector as reported to the Labour Program. In 2018, the earnings of designated group members in permanent full-time positions were consistently lower than those not belonging to the designated groups. For example, as per the salary data displayed in Table 2 of this report:

Federally regulated private sector employers with 100 or more employees already report employee salary information as part of the requirements under the Act and the Employment Equity Regulations (the Regulations). Budget 2019 introduced amendments to both the Act and the Regulations that will change the way employers report salary information to, in part, support the introduction of pay transparency.

Throughout 2019, the Labour Program engaged Legislated Employment Equity Program employers, Federal Contractors Program employers, union representatives, special interest groups, industry associations and representatives from provincial and municipal orders of government in several consultation initiatives aimed at soliciting feedback on the proposed amendments to the Regulations. Feedback was collected from in-person sessions that were held across Canada, an online questionnaire and communication with the Labour Program. Overall, employers, industry associations and other stakeholders are supportive of the proposed amendments to the Regulations, as well as the overarching purpose. Several stakeholders have also emphasized that pay transparency is an important measure that will support reducing wage gaps.

Work is ongoing and the Labour Program will continue to engage employers, employee representatives and special interest groups in the coming months regarding supporting tools detailing the changes to reporting processes and to system tools that are provided by the Government of Canada.

2019 Employment Equity Achievement Awards

The Employment Equity Achievement Awards (EEAA) recognize federally regulated private sector employers, federal contractors and individual business leaders for their outstanding achievements in employment equity and their commitment to creating diverse and inclusive workplaces.

Following an application process, 14 private sector employers and 4 champion award recipients were recognized for their efforts in advancing employment equity, as well as promoting diversity and inclusiveness in the workplace.

The 2019 awards were distributed according to the following categories:

Symposium on women and the workplace

The Labour Program hosted a 2-day Symposium on Women and the Workplace at the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management in May 2019. Two hundred and forty Canadian leaders and champions of workplace gender equality and diversity shared best practices to inspire and advance women's participation in the workplace. Presenters and participants came from the public and private sector, unions, academia, industry and human resource associations and civil society organizations.

Although their perspectives varied, there was general agreement on 3 key components to advancing workplace gender equality and diversity in Canada:

  1. Increasing awareness about gender equality and challenging widespread myths
  2. Changing structures instead of people
  3. Adopting an intersectional approach to gender equality in the workplace

Best practice strategies that emerged during the Symposium centred around 3 phases of the employment cycle: hiring, retention and career advancement. To disseminate the learnings from the event to a broader Canadian audience, a report, “Women and the workplace – How employers can advance equality and diversity,” was written that provides readers links to key note and panel discussions, workshop presentations and resources. Partners from the event have shared the developed resources with their networks.Footnote 10

Conclusion

This report contains a high-level analysis of the results that employers have achieved in implementing employment equity in their workplaces for the 2018 calendar year. This year’s report includes submissions received from 536 employers with a combined workforce of 756,414 employees, an increase of 27.0% in the workforce coverage since the collection of employment equity data commenced in 1987, when 373 employers reported on their workforce data, which was composed of 595,417 employees.

At the overall level, the representation of members of visible minorities has continued to consistently exceed labour market availability since 2007, reaching 23.8% in 2018. Women, Aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities remain under-represented. The representation of women decreased from 40.2% in 2017 to 39.4% in 2018, which is the lowest level of representation for this designated group since the implementation of the Act in 1986. Aboriginal peoples remained at 2.3% and persons with disabilities increased from 3.3% in 2017 to 3.4% in 2018, yet both of these groups’ representation shows a gradual long-term upward trend. Some increases in representation of the designated groups were observed at the sector and occupational group levels. Although members of visible minorities continue to maintain a representation rate that exceeds LMA at the overall level, they are still under-represented in certain sectors and occupational groups.

Three Workplace Opportunities: Removing Barriers to Equity projects successfully concluded in 2018 and 1 new contribution agreement has been put in place. As part of each completed project, outcomes and tools have been disseminated to relevant stakeholders through in-person presentations and webinars, as well as online, to help strengthen employers’ efforts and support them in implementing measures to remove barriers and improve their workplaces.

The Labour Program has been working on addressing wage gaps through the Pay Transparency initiative for the 4 designated groups. Consultations on employment equity regulatory changes with stakeholders from across the country took place during the 2019 calendar year, including the engagement of stakeholders on supporting tools that detail the changes to reporting processes and to system tools that are provided by the Government of Canada. This initiative will raise awareness of the wage gaps affecting the designated group members, providing a platform for further action.

The 2-day Symposium on Women and the Workplace that was hosted by the Labour Program in 2019 brought together Canadian leaders and champions of workplace gender equality and diversity to share best practices to inspire and advance women’s participation in the workplace. A report was produced and made available online to provide materials and resources related to the event.

It is encouraging to see the level of commitment from employers engaging in activities to identify and eliminate employment barriers and to improve working conditions for the 4 designated groups.

Appendix A: Federally regulated private sector employers tables

The following tables consolidate data from the annual reports submitted by federally regulated private sector employers. To allow for comparative analysis, some of the data from 1987 (the year data was first collected) is included with 2017 and 2018 data.

Tables 1.1 to 3.4 in this appendix present data aggregated to include permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. Tables 4.1 to 4.10 summarize information for the 4 industrial sectors, including: number, representation, hires, promotions, terminations and the net effect of hires less terminations. Tables 5.1 to 6.4 present salary data for permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees respectively.

List of tables

Table 1.1: Women’s representation and availability* in the federally regulated private sector by census metropolitan area, province and territory in 1987, 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Census metropolitan area, province and territory 1987 2017 2018 Availability
Halifax 41.2 41.2 40.9 49.6
Montréal 39.0 40.4 39.6 48.5
Toronto 47.1 44.2 43.5 48.7
Winnipeg 32.7 32.2 31.8 48.6
Regina 42.9 48.4 47.2 48.1
Calgary 47.6 43.5 43.0 47.2
Edmonton 44.5 38.5 37.1 47.1
Vancouver 40.4 37.5 37.5 48.5
Newfoundland and Labrador 38.4 44.6 42.9 48.2
Prince Edward Island 38.0 32.3 35.2 49.4
Nova Scotia 34.4 42.5 42.6 49.2
New Brunswick 32.2 47.7 46.7 48.5
Quebec 39.8 39.2 38.3 48.1
Ontario 44.2 42.4 41.6 48.6
Manitoba 30.5 31.9 31.2 47.9
Saskatchewan 35.1 36.8 37.0 47.5
Alberta 45.3 41.1 40.0 46.7
British Columbia 41.5 37.2 36.9 48.4
Yukon 31.4 41.5 40.3 49.7
Northwest Territories 21.9 25.7 27.6 47.8
Nunavut N/A 25.3 26.4 48.4
Canada 40.9 40.2 39.4 48.2

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census.

Table 1.2: Aboriginal peoples’ representation and availability* in the federally regulated private sector by census metropolitan area, province and territory in 1987, 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Census metropolitan area, province and territory 1987 2017 2018 Availability
Halifax 0.5 2.4 2.5 3.8
Montréal 0.3 0.9 0.8 0.8
Toronto 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.8
Winnipeg 0.8 7.2 7.3 9.8
Regina 0.4 2.8 2.9 6.8
Calgary 0.5 2.1 2.1 2.7
Edmonton 0.7 3.1 3.1 5.0
Vancouver 0.5 2.2 2.1 2.3
Newfoundland and Labrador 0.6 6.0 6.1 8.7
Prince Edward Island 0.2 0.9 1.3 1.8
Nova Scotia 0.4 2.5 2.6 5.3
New Brunswick 0.4 1.4 1.4 3.6
Quebec 0.4 1.1 1.1 2.1
Ontario 0.7 1.5 1.5 2.5
Manitoba 1.0 8.1 8.1 13.2
Saskatchewan 1.4 7.4 6.2 11.1
Alberta 0.7 2.8 2.8 5.2
British Columbia 0.7 3.2 3.4 5.2
Yukon 3.8 7.3 7.3 19.9
Northwest Territories 9.6 8.6 9.2 41.7
Nunavut N/A 29.9 32.0 75.6
Canada 0.7 2.3 2.3 4.0

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census.

Table 1.3: Person with disabilities’ representation and availability* in the federally regulated private sector by census metropolitan area, province and territory in 1987, 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Census metropolitan area, province and territory 1987 2017 2018 Availability
Halifax 1.6 5.4 5.6 N/A
Montréal 1.1 2.3 2.3 N/A
Toronto 1.5 3.4 3.6 N/A
Winnipeg 1.8 3.4 3.4 N/A
Regina 2.4 3.8 3.6 N/A
Calgary 1.9 3.2 3.1 N/A
Edmonton 2.0 3.3 3.4 N/A
Vancouver 1.5 3.1 3.0 N/A
Newfoundland and Labrador 1.0 3.0 3.0 8.9
Prince Edward Island 1.2 2.2 2.9 10.2
Nova Scotia 3.5 5.3 5.5 13.1
New Brunswick 1.8 4.2 4.5 10.7
Quebec 1.1 2.2 2.2 6.1
Ontario 1.6 3.7 3.9 9.6
Manitoba 1.7 3.3 3.3 10.1
Saskatchewan 1.8 3.1 3.1 9.1
Alberta 1.9 3.3 3.3 9.9
British Columbia 1.7 3.4 3.3 11.0
Yukon 0.8 2.9 3.2 11.3
Northwest Territories 1.4 1.8 1.6 9.8
Nunavut N/A 1.9 2.1 8.2
Canada 1.6 3.3 3.4 9.1

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Table 1.4: Members of visible minorities’ representation and availability* in the federally regulated private sector by census metropolitan area, province and territory in 1987, 2017 and 2018 (by percentage
Census metropolitan area, province and territory 1987 2017 2018 Availability
Halifax 1.9 9.0 9.8 9.7
Montréal 3.0 17.2 18.1 20.7
Toronto 12.0 37.9 39.0 48.8
Winnipeg 2.9 19.8 20.9 25.2
Regina 1.6 17.2 18.0 16.9
Calgary 5.6 23.6 24.8 31.3
Edmonton 4.4 23.0 24.2 26.5
Vancouver 7.9 36.3 37.0 45.9
Newfoundland and Labrador 0.7 2.2 2.5 2.3
Prince Edward Island 1.0 2.9 2.8 4.2
Nova Scotia 1.3 7.7 8.5 5.8
New Brunswick 1.1 4.0 5.0 3.0
Quebec 2.6 14.4 15.2 12.1
Ontario 7.3 28.6 29.9 27.9
Manitoba 2.6 16.8 17.6 17.8
Saskatchewan 1.2 10.1 11.0 10.7
Alberta 4.0 20.8 21.5 22.3
British Columbia 6.2 29.0 29.4 29.2
Yukon 1.4 12.0 13.0 8.5
Northwest Territories 2.5 12.2 14.3 10.5
Nunavut N/A 7.1 8.6 4.0
Canada 5.0 22.8 23.8 21.3

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census.

Table 2.1: Representation and availability* of women in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 representation 2018 representation 2016 availability
Senior managers 27.3 28.0 27.6
Middle and other managers 42.0 41.4 39.4
Professionals 44.5 44.0 55.0
Semi-professionals and technicians 19.2 19.3 53.5
Supervisors 58.8 58.1 55.5
Supervisors: crafts and trades 8.3 8.4 10.8
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 76.4 73.1 82.4
Skilled sales and service personnel 53.9 53.1 49.7
Skilled crafts and trades workers 4.7 4.8 4.0
Clerical personnel 56.4 55.4 68.7
Intermediate sales and service personnel 62.5 62.2 68.4
Semi-skilled manual workers 11.2 11.6 17.1
Other sales and service personnel 41.1 40.8 56.3
Other manual workers 9.5 9.8 22.1
Total 40.2 39.4 48.2

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census.

Table 2.2: Representation and availability* of Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 representation 2018 representation 2016 availability
Senior managers 1.0 1.0 3.2
Middle and other managers 1.3 1.3 2.7
Professionals 1.2 1.2 2.4
Semi-professionals and technicians 2.6 2.5 4.2
Supervisors 2.4 2.4 3.9
Supervisors: crafts and trades 4.0 3.6 4.3
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 1.9 1.8 3.5
Skilled sales and service personnel 1.7 1.6 3.7
Skilled crafts and trades workers 3.9 3.9 5.2
Clerical personnel 2.1 2.1 4.2
Intermediate sales and service personnel 2.5 2.4 4.5
Semi-skilled manual workers 3.5 3.3 4.8
Other sales and service personnel 4.2 4.1 5.8
Other manual workers 5.8 5.9 6.8
Total 2.3 2.3 4.0

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census.

Table 2.3: Representation and availability* of persons with disabilities in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 representation 2018 representation 2016 availability
Senior managers 3.0 3.2 5.0
Middle and other managers 3.5 3.6 5.0
Professionals 3.4 3.6 8.9
Semi-professionals and technicians 2.7 2.5 7.6
Supervisors 3.8 4.0 27.5
Supervisors: crafts and trades 2.2 2.1 10.1
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 3.7 4.1 10.0
Skilled sales and service personnel 4.3 4.0 8.0
Skilled crafts and trades workers 2.4 2.3 7.8
Clerical personnel 4.2 4.6 9.3
Intermediate sales and service personnel 3.4 3.5 10.8
Semi-skilled manual workers 2.6 2.6 10.3
Other sales and service personnel 4.3 4.1 10.7
Other manual workers 2.9 2.6 6.8
Total 3.3 3.4 9.1

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Table 2.4: Representation and availability* of members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 representation 2018 representation 2016 availability
Senior managers 10.1 11.0 11.5
Middle and other managers 24.2 25.4 17.6
Professionals 31.2 32.4 23.2
Semi-professionals and technicians 13.6 14.0 19.1
Supervisors 21.2 21.1 24.0
Supervisors: crafts and trades 10.2 10.9 11.1
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 26.1 28.3 16.4
Skilled sales and service personnel 29.6 30.7 27.7
Skilled crafts and trades workers 14.0 14.7 12.0
Clerical personnel 23.9 25.6 21.9
Intermediate sales and service personnel 23.9 25.6 25.4
Semi-skilled manual workers 17.7 17.9 22.4
Other sales and service personnel 14.6 15.1 26.5
Other manual workers 12.9 13.4 21.0
Total 22.8 23.8 21.3

* Sources: Statistics Canada, 2016 Census.

Table 3.1: Distribution of women and men in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 women distribution 2017 men distribution 2018 women distribution 2018 men distribution
Senior managers 0.6 1.0 0.6 1.0
Middle and other managers 11.5 10.7 11.3 10.5
Professionals 21.7 18.2 21.4 17.8
Semi-professionals and technicians 3.2 9.0 3.2 8.7
Supervisors 4.8 2.2 4.6 2.2
Supervisors: crafts and trades 0.3 2.2 0.3 2.2
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 5.3 1.1 5.4 1.3
Skilled sales and service personnel 4.8 2.8 4.4 2.5
Skilled crafts and trades workers 1.0 13.2 1.0 13.0
Clerical personnel 17.8 9.2 18.0 9.5
Intermediate sales and service personnel 24.9 10.0 25.0 9.9
Semi-skilled manual workers 3.5 18.7 4.0 19.9
Other sales and service personnel 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Other manual workers 0.2 1.1 0.2 1.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 3.2: Distribution of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 Aboriginal peoples distribution 2017 non-Aboriginal peoples distribution 2018 Aboriginal peoples distribution 2018 non-Aboriginal peoples distribution
Senior managers 0.4 0.9 0.4 0.9
Middle and other managers 6.3 11.1 6.3 10.9
Professionals 10.3 19.9 10.5 19.4
Semi-professionals and technicians 7.6 6.7 7.2 6.5
Supervisors 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.1
Supervisors: crafts and trades 2.5 1.4 2.3 1.5
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 2.2 2.8 2.3 2.9
Skilled sales and service personnel 2.6 3.6 2.3 3.3
Skilled crafts and trades workers 13.9 8.2 14.1 8.2
Clerical personnel 11.7 12.7 11.9 12.9
Intermediate sales and service personnel 17.3 16.0 16.8 15.9
Semi-skilled manual workers 19.0 12.4 19.9 13.5
Other sales and service personnel 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.4
Other manual workers 1.8 0.7 1.9 0.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 3.3: Distribution of persons with and without disabilities in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 persons with disabilities distribution 2017 persons without disabilities distribution 2018 persons with disabilities distribution 2018 persons without disabilities distribution
Senior managers 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9
Middle and other managers 11.6 11.0 11.4 10.8
Professionals 20.0 19.6 20.5 19.2
Semi-professionals and technicians 5.4 6.7 4.8 6.6
Supervisors 3.8 3.2 3.7 3.1
Supervisors: crafts and trades 1.0 1.5 0.9 1.5
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 3.2 2.8 3.5 2.9
Skilled sales and service personnel 4.6 3.5 3.8 3.2
Skilled crafts and trades workers 6.0 8.4 5.6 8.4
Clerical personnel 16.0 12.5 17.2 12.7
Intermediate sales and service personnel 16.4 16.0 16.4 15.9
Semi-skilled manual workers 10.0 12.7 10.3 13.7
Other sales and service personnel 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4
Other manual workers 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 3.4: Distribution of members and non-members of visible minorities in the federally regulated private sector by occupational group in 2017 and 2018 (by percentage)
Occupational group 2017 members of visible minorities distribution 2017 non-members of visible minorities distribution 2018 members of visible minorities distribution 2018 non-members of visible minorities distribution
Senior managers 0.4 1.0 0.4 1.0
Middle and other managers 11.7 10.8 11.6 10.6
Professionals 26.9 17.5 26.1 17.1
Semi-professionals and technicians 4.0 7.5 3.8 7.3
Supervisors 3.0 3.3 2.8 3.3
Supervisors: crafts and trades 0.7 1.7 0.7 1.7
Administrative and senior clerical personnel 3.2 2.7 3.5 2.7
Skilled sales and service personnel 4.6 3.3 4.2 3.0
Skilled crafts and trades workers 5.1 9.3 5.1 9.3
Clerical personnel 13.2 12.5 13.8 12.5
Intermediate sales and service personnel 16.7 15.8 17.1 15.5
Semi-skilled manual workers 9.8 13.4 10.2 14.7
Other sales and service personnel 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.5
Other manual workers 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.8
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Table 4.1: Number, hires, promotions, terminations and net effect* of designated group members in the banking and financial services sector in 2017 and 2018**
Designated groups 2017 count 2018 count 2017 hires 2018 hires 2017 promotions 2018 promotions 2017 terminations 2018 terminations 2017 net effect 2018 net effect
Women 136,762 138,586 19,124 22,763 17,686 21,046 22,514 22,652 -3,390 111
Aboriginal peoples 2,889 3,002 378 465 364 500 553 559 -175 -94
Persons with disabilities 10,651 12,199 1,227 1,557 1,054 1,475 1,913 1,917 -686 -360
Members of visible minorities 74,811 82,920 9,803 14,603 11,002 13,560 10,898 11,671 -1,095 2,932
All employees 237,016 244,910 38,007 45,721 31,924 37,658 39,326 40,533 -1,319 5,188

* The number of employees hired reduced by those terminated.
** The number of employees covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 4.2: Representation, and shares of hires, promotions and terminations of designated group members in the banking and financial services sector in 2017 and 2018* (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation 2017 share of hires 2018 share of hires 2017 share of promotions 2018 share of promotions 2017 share of terminations 2018 share of terminations
Women 57.7 56.6 50.3 49.8 55.4 55.9 57.2 55.9
Aboriginal peoples 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.4
Persons with disabilities 4.5 5.0 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.9 4.9 4.7
Members of visible minorities 31.6 33.9 25.8 31.9 34.5 36.0 27.7 28.8
All employees 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

* The representation of the designated groups covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The shares of hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 4.3: Number, hires, promotions, terminations and net effect* of designated group members in the communications sector in 2017 and 2018**
Designated groups 2017 count 2018 count 2017 hires 2018 hires 2017 promotions 2018 promotions 2017 terminations 2018 terminations 2017 net effect 2018 net effect
Women 46,740 45,662 7,623 7,193 2,635 2,955 8,430 9,040 -807 -1,847
Aboriginal peoples 2,941 2,776 585 456 154 161 594 624 -9 -168
Persons with disabilities 4,680 4,484 643 571 206 252 747 849 -104 -278
Members of visible minorities 30,773 30,877 5,242 5,335 1,889 2,127 5,103 5,884 139 -549
All employees 132,890 131,305 20,084 20,032 6,706 7,783 21,665 24,226 -1,581 -4,194

* The number of employees hired reduced by those terminated.
** The number of employees covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 4.4: Representation, and shares of hires, promotions and terminations of designated group members in the communications sector in 2017 and 2018* (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation 2017 share of hires 2018 share of hires 2017 share of promotions 2018 share of promotions 2017 share of terminations 2018 share of terminations
Women 35.2 34.8 38.0 35.9 39.3 38.0 38.9 37.3
Aboriginal peoples 2.2 2.1 2.9 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.7 2.6
Persons with disabilities 3.5 3.4 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5
Members of visible minorities 23.2 23.5 26.1 26.6 28.2 27.3 23.6 24.3
All employees 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

* The representation of the designated groups covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The shares of hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 4.5: Number, hires, promotions, terminations and net effect* of designated group members in the transportation sector in 2017 and 2018**
Designated groups 2017 count 2018 count 2017 hires 2018 hires 2017 promotions 2018 promotions 2017 terminations 2018 terminations 2017 net effect 2018 net effect
Women 89,460 96,736 14,488 18,739 3,293 3,716 13,628 16,467 860 2,272
Aboriginal peoples 8,587 9,375 2,176 2,556 264 343 1,868 2,155 308 401
Persons with disabilities 7,331 7,895 970 1,278 209 287 1,315 1,469 -345 -191
Members of visible minorities 50,201 56,997 12,209 17,694 2,107 2,397 9,794 13,249 2,415 4,445
All employees 294,612 321,707 55,793 74,744 11,070 12,474 53,502 65,584 2,291 9,160

* The number of employees hired reduced by those terminated.
** The number of employees covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 4.6: Representation, and shares of hires, promotions and terminations of designated group members in the transportation sector in 2017 and 2018* (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation 2017 share of hires 2018 share of hires 2017 share of promotions 2018 share of promotions 2017 share of terminations 2018 share of terminations
Women 30.4 30.1 26.0 25.1 29.7 29.8 25.5 25.1
Aboriginal peoples 2.9 2.9 3.9 3.4 2.4 2.7 3.5 3.3
Persons with disabilities 2.5 2.5 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.5 2.2
Members of visible minorities 17.0 17.7 21.9 23.7 19.0 19.2 18.3 20.2
All employees 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

* The representation of the designated groups covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The shares of hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 4.7: Number, hires, promotions, terminations and net effect* of designated group members in the ‘other’ sector in 2017 and 2018**
Designated groups 2017 count 2018 count 2017 hires 2018 hires 2017 promotions 2018 promotions 2017 terminations 2018 terminations 2017 net effect 2018 net effect
Women 16,365 17,403 2,462 2,698 901 869 2,302 2,289 160 409
Aboriginal peoples 2,244 2,117 278 293 100 129 345 527 -67 -234
Persons with disabilities 1,198 1,201 97 88 66 37 180 159 -83 -71
Members of visible minorities 8,597 9,274 1,959 2,072 323 322 1,603 1,675 356 397
All employees 55,779 58,492 8,244 8,827 2,746 2,690 8,277 8,448 -33 379

* The number of employees hired reduced by those terminated.
** The number of employees covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 4.8: Representation, and shares of hires, promotions and terminations of designated group members in the ‘other’ sector in 2017 and 2018* (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation 2017 share of hires 2018 share of hires 2017 share of promotions 2018 share of promotions 2017 share of terminations 2018 share of terminations
Women 29.3 29.8 29.9 30.6 32.8 32.3 27.8 27.1
Aboriginal peoples 4.0 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.6 4.8 4.2 6.2
Persons with disabilities 2.1 2.1 1.2 1.0 2.4 1.4 2.2 1.9
Members of visible minorities 15.4 15.9 23.8 23.5 11.8 12.0 19.4 19.8
All employees 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

* The representation of the designated groups covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The shares of hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 4.9: Number, hires, promotions, terminations and net effect* of designated group members in the federally regulated private sector in 2017 and 2018**
Designated groups 2017 count 2018 count 2017 hires 2018 hires 2017 promotions 2018 promotions 2017 terminations 2018 terminations 2017 net effect 2018 net effect
Women 289,327 298,387 43,697 51,393 24,515 28,586 46,874 50,448 -3,177 945
Aboriginal peoples 16,671 17,270 3,417 3,770 882 1,133 3,360 3,865 57 -95
Persons with disabilities 23,860 25,779 2,937 3,494 1,535 2,051 4,155 4,394 -1,218 -900
Members of visible minorities 164,382 180,068 29,213 39,704 15,321 18,406 27,398 32,479 1,815 7,225
All employees 720,297 756,414 122,128 149,324 52,446 60,605 122,770 138,791 -642 10,533

* The number of employees hired reduced by those terminated.
** The number of employees covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 4.10: Representation, and shares of hires, promotions and terminations of designated group members in the federally regulated private sector in 2017 and 2018* (by percentage)
Designated groups 2017 representation 2018 representation 2017 share of hires 2018 share of hires 2017 share of promotions 2018 share of promotions 2017 share of terminations 2018 share of terminations
Women 40.2 39.4 35.8 34.4 46.7 47.2 38.2 36.3
Aboriginal peoples 2.3 2.3 2.8 2.5 1.7 1.9 2.7 2.8
Persons with disabilities 3.3 3.4 2.4 2.3 2.9 3.4 3.4 3.2
Members of visible minorities 22.8 23.8 23.9 26.6 29.2 30.4 22.3 23.4
All employees 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

* The representation of the designated groups covers permanent full-time, permanent part-time and temporary employees. The shares of hires, promotions, terminations and net effect data cover only permanent full-time and permanent part-time employees.

Table 5.1: Number and representation of women in permanent full-time employment in the federally regulated private sector by salary range as of December 31, 2018
Salary range (by dollar) Total Men Women Women’s representation over total
employees within the salary range (by percentage)
Under 15,000 3,447 2,326 1,121 32.5
15,000 to 19,999 1,188 753 435 36.6
20,000 to 24,999 3,974 1,859 2,115 53.2
25,000 to 29,999 9,871 4,905 4,966 50.3
30,000 to 34,999 18,783 9,665 9,118 48.5
35,000 to 37,499 15,325 8,095 7,230 47.2
37,500 to 39,999 16,586 8,600 7,986 48.1
40,000 to 44,999 43,778 23,467 20,311 46.4
45,000 to 49,999 45,452 24,136 21,316 46.9
50,000 to 59,999 107,271 60,816 46,455 43.3
60,000 to 69,999 89,944 57,681 32,263 35.9
70,000 to 84,999 93,488 62,685 30,803 32.9
85,000 to 99,999 64,148 43,043 21,105 32.9
100,000 and over 135,601 98,085 37,516 27.7
Total 648,856 406,116 242,740 37.4
Table 5.2: Number and representation of Aboriginal peoples in permanent full-time employment in the federally regulated private sector by salary range and gender as of December 31, 2018
Salary range (by dollar) Total Aboriginal men Aboriginal women Representation over total
employees within the salary range
(by percentage)
Under 15,000 246 171 75 7.1
15,000 to 19,999 66 46 20 5.6
20,000 to 24,999 85 50 35 2.1
25,000 to 29,999 306 146 160 3.1
30,000 to 34,999 554 278 276 2.9
35,000 to 37,499 400 177 223 2.6
37,500 to 39,999 412 244 168 2.5
40,000 to 44,999 937 482 455 2.1
45,000 to 49,999 989 545 444 2.2
50,000 to 59,999 2,470 1,424 1,046 2.3
60,000 to 69,999 2,135 1,470 665 2.4
70,000 to 84,999 2,099 1,520 579 2.2
85,000 to 99,999 1,418 1,001 417 2.2
100,000 and over 2,468 1,950 518 1.8
Total 14,585 9,504 5,081 2.2
Table 5.3: Number and representation of persons with disabilities in permanent full-time employment in the federally regulated private sector by salary range and gender as of December 31, 2018
Salary range (by dollar) Total Men with disabilities Women with disabilities Representation over total
employees within the salary range(by percentage)
Under 15,000 68 45 23 2.0
15,000 to 19,999 36 17 19 3.0
20,000 to 24,999 83 42 41 2.1
25,000 to 29,999 241 114 127 2.4
30,000 to 34,999 637 256 381 3.4
35,000 to 37,499 593 245 348 3.9
37,500 to 39,999 822 396 426 5.0
40,000 to 44,999 1,765 824 941 4.0
45,000 to 49,999 1,633 737 896 3.6
50,000 to 59,999 3,928 1,951 1,977 3.7
60,000 to 69,999 3,039 1,679 1,360 3.4
70,000 to 84,999 3,188 1,921 1,267 3.4
85,000 to 99,999 2,092 1,254 838 3.3
100,000 and over 3,916 2,584 1,332 2.9
Total 22,041 12,065 9,976 3.4
Table 5.4: Number and representation of members of visible minorities in permanent full-time employment in the federally regulated private sector by salary range and gender as of December 31, 2018
Salary range (by dollar) Total Visible minorities men Visible minorities women Representation over total
employees within the salary range (by percentage)
Under 15,000 659 445 214 19.1
15,000 to 19,999 212 131 81 17.8
20,000 to 24,999 845 360 485 21.3
25,000 to 29,999 2,544 1,353 1,191 25.8
30,000 to 34,999 4,788 2,450 2,338 25.5
35,000 to 37,499 4,369 2,301 2,068 28.5
37,500 to 39,999 4,649 2,285 2,364 28.0
40,000 to 44,999 12,133 6,282 5,851 27.7
45,000 to 49,999 11,777 6,295 5,482 25.9
50,000 to 59,999 25,641 14,181 11,460 23.9
60,000 to 69,999 20,188 12,257 7,931 22.4
70,000 to 84,999 21,308 13,355 7,953 22.8
85,000 to 99,999 15,917 9,985 5,932 24.8
100,000 and over 29,036 19,525 9,511 21.4
Total 154,066 91,205 62,861 23.7
Table 6.1: Number and representation of women in permanent part-time employment in the federally regulated private sector by salary range as of December 31, 2018
Salary range (by dollar) Total Men Women Women's representation over total
employees within the salary range (by percentage)
Under 5,000 2,304 1,327 977 42.4
5,000 to 14,999 1,500 665 835 55.7
15,000 to 17,499 8,692 4,290 4,402 50.6
17,500 to 19,999 9,122 4,627 4,495 49.3
20,000 to 22,499 7,117 3,235 3,882 54.5
22,500 to 24,999 8,859 4,283 4,576 51.7
25,000 to 29,999 14,968 6,410 8,558 57.2
30,000 to 34,999 11,161 4,652 6,509 58.3
35,000 to 39,999 8,016 3,505 4,511 56.3
40,000 to 49,999 8,751 4,017 4,734 54.1
50,000 and over 6,102 3,032 3,070 50.3
Total 101,814 48,165 53,649 52.7
Table 6.2: Number and representation of Aboriginal Peoples in permanent part-time employment in the federally regulated private sector by salary range and gender as of December 31, 2018
Salary range (by dollar) Total Aboriginal men Aboriginal women Representation over total
employees within the salary range (by percentage)
Under 5,000 56 24 32 2.4
5,000 to 14,999 31 14 17 2.1
15,000 to 17,499 267 121 146 3.1
17,500 to 19,999 248 116 132 2.7
20,000 to 22,499 201 84 117 2.8
22,500 to 24,999 212 93 119 2.4
25,000 to 29,999 376 145 231 2.5
30,000 to 34,999 260 116 144 2.3
35,000 to 39,999 208 93 115 2.6
40,000 to 49,999 184 55 129 2.1
50,000 and over 135 66 69 2.2
Total 2,573 1,116 1,457 2.5
Table 6.3: Number and representation of persons with disabilities in permanent part-time employment in the federally regulated private sector by salary range and gender as of December 31, 2018
Salary range (by dollar) Total Men with disabilities Women with disabilities Representation over total
employees within the salary range (by percentage)
Under 5,000 57 35 22 2.5
5,000 to 14,999 42 23 19 2.8
15,000 to 17,499 291 110 181 3.3
17,500 to 19,999 326 146 180 3.6
20,000 to 22,499 269 84 185 3.8
22,500 to 24,999 331 142 189 3.7
25,000 to 29,999 614 200 414 4.1
30,000 to 34,999 420 133 287 3.8
35,000 to 39,999 301 107 194 3.8
40,000 to 49,999 274 96 178 3.1
50,000 and over 218 98 120 3.6
Total 3,661 1,396 2,265 3.6
Table 6.4: Number and representation of members of visible minorities in permanent part-time employment in the federally regulated private sector by salary range and gender as of December 31, 2018
Salary range (by dollar) Total Visible minorities men Visible minorities women Representation over total
employees within the salary range (by percentage)
Under 5,000 534 355 179 23.2
5,000 to 14,999 244 134 110 16.3
15,000 to 17,499 2,384 1,286 1,098 27.4
17,500 to 19,999 2,542 1,433 1,109 27.9
20,000 to 22,499 1,783 928 855 25.1
22,500 to 24,999 2,630 1,515 1,115 29.7
25,000 to 29,999 3,891 2,164 1,727 26.0
30,000 to 34,999 2,740 1,344 1,396 24.5
35,000 to 39,999 1,745 885 860 21.8
40,000 to 49,999 1,589 910 679 18.2
50,000 and over 1,143 655 488 18.7
Total 25,385 14,114 11,271 24.9

Appendix B: Technical notes

Employers covered under the Employment Equity Act

The Act covers:

Limitations of the employment equity data

This report provides the most recent information on employment equity data for the federally regulated private sector, with the following limitations:

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