2016 Employment Equity Data Report

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Executive summary

The Employment Equity Act (the Act) requires the Minister of Labour to give employers who report under the Legislated Employment Equity Program or the Federal Contractors Program the information they need to meet the Act’s requirements. In January 2019, the Labour Program released the labour market availability benchmarks for measuring firm equity performance in the Workplace Equity Information Management System (WEIMS). These benchmarks were derived from the 2016 Census and 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.

This 2016 Employment Equity Data Report (EEDR) informs employers on the changes in the employment equity environment, traces the main trends in the new availability data and details other data and research relevant to employment equity for groups that the Act designates: women, Aboriginal peoples, members of visible minorities and persons with disabilities.

Table 1: National labour market availability (percent)
Census cycle 1996 2001 2006 2011 2016
Women 46.4 47.3 47.9 48.2 48.2
Aboriginal peoples 2.1 2.6 3.1 3.5 4.0
Members of visible minorities 10.3 12.6 15.3 17.8 21.3
Persons with disabilities n/a 5.3 4.9 4.9 9.1

Women’s availability

Women’s availability was unchanged at 48.2% from 2011 to 2016. Their strong increase in business-related educational attainment suggests that higher availability should emerge in managerial occupations.

Aboriginal peoples’ availability

Members of visible minorities’ availability

Persons with disabilities availability

1. Introduction

The economic and social environment for employment equity in Canada shifted since the publication of the last Employment Equity Data Report in 2013. Research overwhelmingly identified diversity as a key generator of income for all Canadians. Labour markets tightened significantly, which made finding candidates more difficult.

The 2016 EEDR begins with a description of the trends affecting employment equity, followed by sections on each of the 4 designated groups. Appendix A contains sections on 2 of the important trends in employment equity: the large body of literature on the value of diversity and on teleworking to bridge geographical gaps between employers and workers.

1.1 The employment equity environment

The sustained annual retirement of some 400,000 Canadian workers from the post-war “baby boom” generation brought the national unemployment rate to a decades-old low of 5.8% in mid-2018 (versus 7.2% at the same point in the 2011 Census cycle). At the same time, fewer workers are entering the labour markets than in the past. It is anticipated that this combination will keep labour markets tight through the 2016 to 2021 census cycle.Footnote 2

Chart 1: Canada's unemployment rate
Chart 1: Canada's unemployment rate – Text version
Chart 1: Canada's unemployment rate
Year Rate
2001 to 2005 7.1
2006 to 2011 7.2
2011 to 2015 7.0
2016 7.0
2017 6.3
2018 5.8
2019 5.6
2020 5.6

Source: The Conference Board of Canada: Canadian Outlook Economic Forecast, Spring 2019

The low unemployment ratesFootnote 3 reflected a widespread and growing shortage of workers at all skill levels. Nearly half of the Canadian Federation for Independent Business members found that labour market shortages were one of their largest production problems in 2017 and 2018. Private and public employment agencies dealt with widespread shortages at most skill levels across the country.

These conditions forced North American employers to recruit in new ways. Many reduced their job requirements to find new hires from other similarly skilled occupations.Footnote 4 Large firms with well-defined career ladders and strong support for learning partnered with educational facilities to attract new recruits and develop the skills needed for success in those firms.

Chart 2: Firms' human resource strategies in 2016 to address skill shortages
Chart 2: Firms' human resource strategies in 2016 to address skill shortages – Text version
Chart 2: Firms' human resource strategies in 2016 to address skill shortages
Strategies Percent
Short-term hires 11
Develop skills of minority groups 12
Collaborate with firms in own industry 12
Collaborate with other industries 14
Offer apprenticeships 22
Attract foreign talent 22
Develop women's talent 25
Collaborate with education institutions 25
Support mobility, job rotation 39
Retain existing staff 65

Source: World Economic Forum, The Future of Jobs Report, 2016

1.2 Changes in workplace practices

Data and research demonstrate how workplace practices also changed to accommodate workers. For the flexibility that many workers needed, more employers implemented teleworking for workers with mobility issues, in remote locations or having family care duties.Footnote 5 By mid-2018, there were nearly as many people teleworking in the United States as there were unemployed. (See Appendix G for further readings.)

1.3 The value of diversity

The Employment Equity Act specifies that employers should hire or promote only employees who meet the essential qualifications for the work to be performed, and that employment equity plans should address systematically unfair treatment of designated groups. Research almost universally shows that diversity in employment results in stronger and more productive work places. International studies now include diversity measures in their set of economic indicators, for example, the World Economic Forum ranks Canada as the best in the world for its treatment of women and of the LGBT+ community. (See Appendix G for further readings.)

2. Data highlights and analysis

International agencies, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)Footnote 6 and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)Footnote 7 released studies showing that labour market tightness would persist throughout the 2016-2021 period. As a result, Canada’s economic growth could hinge on policies to increase labour market presence of women, Aboriginal peoples, members of visible minoritiesFootnote 8 and persons with disabilities.

2.1 Women

In 2011, the OECD began its Gender Initiative to focus on women’s issues and develop proposals for improving equality for women in the workplace. Since then, the program’s analysis and outreach has encouraged government and private-sector organizations from around the world to advance equality for women.Footnote 9 Since 2013, roughly two-thirds of the OECD’s 35 member countries have instituted new measures to promote equity for women.Footnote 10

Canada renewed its commitment to workplace equity for women in two ways since the release of the 2011 Employment Equity Data Report. First, the Canada-United States Council for Advancement of Women and Business Leaders released a series of publications on women’s place in the labour market. This work showed that only half of the firms in Canada’s private sector report data on women’s careers and even fewer of them use these data to set employment equity targets and to follow up.

Chart 3: Percent of Canada's private-sector employers making efforts to move towards gender parity
Chart 3: Percent of Canada's private-sector employers making efforts to move towards gender parity – Text version
Chart 3: Percent of Canada's private-sector employers making efforts to move towards gender parity
Efforts Report data Set targets
Attrition rates 31% 12%
Advancement rates 35% 19%
Pay by gender 39% 16%
Retention after maternity 40% 23%
Recruitment of women 43% 25%
Represent of women in leadership 47% 23%
Rep. of women in Exec. 51% 28%
Rep. of women in Mgt. 52% 25%

Source: Canada-United States Council for Advancement of Women as Entrepreneurs and Business Leaders (2018); advancing women as Leaders in the private sector

Second, Budget 2018 announced a five-year commitment to introduce pay transparency for federally-regulated employers in the private sector, including the provision of accessible online information on comparative wage gaps across all four designated groups on the Government of Canada Website. The federal government will also support research for discussion among private or public-sector leaders on issues that women face in the workplace. This will help develop tools that employers can use to narrow the wage gaps of women in the workplace.

2.1.1 Developments in women’s availability

Women’s availability changed little from 2006 to 2016 – rising from 47.9% in 2006 to 48.2% in both 2011 and 2016. While their share of the workforce was unchanged, women had large gains in their ability to compete for jobs.

2.1.2 Educational Attainment

Education matters. Women around the world raised their educational attainment dramatically over the 1996 to 2016 period, but not as much as Canadian women. The number of Canadian women with a Bachelor’s degree rose 147% from 1996 to 2016. The number with more advanced degrees was up more than 200%. By 2017, nearly 70% of all Canadian women between the ages of 25-34 held post-secondary credentials (including university degrees and college/CEGEP graduates) – the highest share in the world.Footnote 11

Chart 4: Growth by educational attainment (1996 to 2016)
Chart 4: Growth by educational attainment (1996 to 2016) – Text version
Chart 4: Growth by educational attainment (1996 to 2016)
Degrees Women Men
Bachelor's degree 147.2% 101.2%
Master's degree 226.0% 122.3%
Doctorate degree 257.5% 81.8%

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Women choose different fields of study than men. They accounted for more than half of all graduates, and 70% of the graduates in education and health-related studies in 2016. In mathematics, computer and information sciences (35%), personal, protective and transportation services (28%) architecture, engineering, and related technologies (20%), women accounted for many fewer graduates than men. Notably, the women’s share in business studies at the Bachelor’s level had increased to the point where more women than men were graduating in 2016. Women accounted for roughly half of all students taking business at the Master’s level.

Chart 5: Women's share of business graduates
Chart 5: Women's share of business graduates – Text version
Chart 5: Women's share of business graduates
Year Percent
1996 39.8
2001 43.0
2006 49.1
2011 50.0
2016 50.5

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Chart 6: Women's availability by EEOG
Chart 6: Women's availability by EEOG – Text version
Chart 6: Women's availability by EEOG
Occupational group women
Other manual workers 22.1%
Other sales and service 56.3%
Semi-skilled manual 17.1%
Intermediate sales and service 68.4%
Clerical 68.7%
Skilled crafts and trades workers 4.0%
Skilled sales and service 49.7%
Administrative and senior clerical 82.4%
Supervisors - Crafts and trades 10.8%
Supervisors 55.5%
Semi-professionals and technicians 53.5%
Professionals 55.0%
Middle and other managers 39.4%
Senior managers 27.6%

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Despite these improved qualifications for the work, women had not had significant recent experience in Canada’s middle and upper management by 2016. Their availability averages 27.6% in senior management and 39.4% in middle management – both are occupational groups where new entrants are likely to come from post-graduate business schools.

In contrast, women form the majority in most of the remaining employment equity occupational groups (EEOGs). The exceptions were primarily male EEOGs related to the trades and manual labour.

Availability of women in the least-skilled manual labour occupations remains high – largely due to an inflow of women, particularly visible minority women, in response to the labour shortages in the Greater Toronto area and in Vancouver.

Chart 7: Women's availability in low-skill manual occupations
Chart 7: Women's availability in low-skill manual occupations – Text version
City Members of visible minorities Non-visible minority members Total
Vancouver 19.7% 8.2% 27.9 %
Calgary 8.1% 9.5% 17.6 %
Regina 1.5% 12.8% 14.3 %
Winnipeg 10.0% 9.4% 19.4 %
Toronto 24.2% 7.1% 31.3 %
Montreal 9.9% 13.7% 23.6 %
Moncton 1.5% 14.4% 15.9 %
Halifax 1.3% 10.6% 11.9 %
St. John's 1.0% 11.3% 12.3 %

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

2.2 Aboriginal peoples

Canada’s Aboriginal peoples fill a small but dynamic role in the national labour market. They form 4.0% of Canada’s workforce (about 800,000 workers), but their availability has been growing rapidly – from 3.1% in 2006 to 3.5% in 2011. Their distribution across Canada, their age and their educational profile provide other keys to recruit Aboriginal candidates.

Chart 8: Availability of Aboriginal peoples by industry
Chart 8: Availability of Aboriginal peoples by industry – Text version
Industry Percent
National LMA 4.0
Banking 1.7
Communications 2.5
Transportation 3.9
Other 4.6

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Aboriginal peoples’ availability is below the 4.0% national average in banking and communications. It is about the average in transportation, and above the average in the other industries.

While Ontario had the most Aboriginal workers, their availability in Ontario is 2.8%. Their workforce is proportionally larger in western Canada and the territories. As a result, their availability is 13.2% in Manitoba, 11.1% in Saskatchewan and 20% or more throughout the territories.

Chart 9: National workforce shares
Chart 9: National workforce shares – Text version
Locations Aboriginal peoples Non-aboriginal peoples
Montreal 2.4% 12.0%
Toronto 3.2% 17.6%
Vancouver 4.2% 7.4%
Edmonton 5.0% 4.0%
Winnipeg 5.5% 2.1%
Other CMAs 23.3% 30.2%
Non CMA 56.4% 26.6%

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

More precisely, the majority (56.4%) of the Aboriginal workforce lived outside the major population centres (Census Metropolitan Areas or CMAs) – compared with 26.6% of other workers. Since the vast majority in either the CMAs or more rural areas have daily internet access, finding strategies for contacting and interviewing Aboriginal candidates was not a serious issue.

The Aboriginal workforce continued to be younger than other workers. While more than one in five non-Aboriginal workers is 55 or older, 43.3% of the Aboriginal workforce is younger than 35.

Chart 10: Age distribution of Aboriginal peoples in the workforce
Chart 10: Age distribution of Aboriginal peoples in the workforce – Text version
Age group Aboriginal peoples Non-Aboriginal peoples
15 to 24 years 20.8% 14.7%
25 to 34 years 22.5% 20.3%
35 to 44 years 19.9% 20.1%
45 to 54 years 20.2% 21.8%
55 and over 16.6% 23.1%

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

The Aboriginal share of Canada’s children under 14 was 7.7% -- nearly twice their 4.0% labour market availability. More than one in four children was Aboriginal in the territories, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This pattern shows that Aboriginal workforce growth will be above average in the future and that successful outreach programs could have long-term payoffs for employers.Footnote 12

Chart 11: Aboriginal share of children under 14
Chart 11: Aboriginal share of children under 14 – Text version
Chart 11: Aboriginal share of children under 14
Province and territories Percent
Canada 7.7
Nunavut 94.5
Northwest Territories 60.3
Yukon 30.8
British Columbia 10.1
Alberta 9.7
Saskatchewan 27.1
Manitoba 29.1
Ontario 4.1
Quebec 3.0
New Brunswick 6.1
Nova Scotia 8.6
Prince Edward Island 3.3
Newfoundland and Labrador 12.7

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

The Aboriginal workforce has less educational attainment than the national average. Nearly a quarter of them (22.3%) have less than high school graduation, which is twice that of others (10.9%). In addition, proportionally more Aboriginal workers hold high school graduation or an apprenticeship. In contrast, nearly one-third of all other workers hold university degrees – versus 14.0% among the Aboriginal workforce.

Chart 12: Distribution of Aboriginal peoples and Non-Aboriginal peoples aged 15 years and over, by level of educational attainment
Chart 12: Distribution of Aboriginal peoples and Non-Aboriginal peoples aged 15 years and over, by level of educational attainment – Text version
Chart 12: Distribution of Aboriginal peoples and Non-Aboriginal peoples aged 15 years and over, by level of educational attainment
Level of educational attainment Aboriginal peoples Non-Aboriginal peoples
Less than high school 22.3% 10.9%
High school diploma or equivalent 28.9% 26.0%
Apprenticeship or trades 12.4% 10.4%
College or CEGEP 22.5% 21.7%
Bachelor's degree or higher 14.0% 31.0%

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Evidence suggests that this gap in educational attainment deters full participation by Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian labour market, but that the gap can be closed. First, the Census shows that Aboriginal peoples educational attainment was more like that of others in the more-rural places where they live. Second, the General Social Survey of 2016 reveals that the proportion of Aboriginal workers who believe they need more education or training to perform their duties is similar to the Canadian average. Importantly, the share of Aboriginal workers who believe they are equipped to take on more responsibility in their organizations is higher than among other workers. The Metis Nation Skills and Employment Training Accord, signed in mid-2018, will help close the credentials gap for the nearly one-third of Aboriginal peoples who are Metis.

Chart 13: Skill fit on the job (percent of the workforce)
Chart 13: Skill fit on the job (percent of the workforce) – Text version
Chart 13: Skill fit on the job (percent of the workforce)
Skills for job Aboriginal peoples Non-Aboriginal peoples
Need more training 5.2 7.0
Good fit on job 52.3 57.6
Could do more 42.6 35.4

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Consistent with the rapid rise in the number of Aboriginal workers, the availability of Aboriginal peoples rose for all 14 Employment Equity Occupational Groups (EEOGs) between 2011 and 2016. The present availability is well above the national average in lower-skill occupations, such as the trades, intermediate sales and services, semi-skilled manual workers, other sales and services and other manual workers. Given the growth trends in the Aboriginal population, the availability in these EEOGs likely will climb rapidly in the next Census cycle.

Chart 14: Occupational availability of Aboriginal peoples
Chart 14: Occupational availability of Aboriginal peoples – Text version
Chart 14: Occupational availability of Aboriginal peoples
Occupational group percent
Other manual workers 6.8
Other sales and service 5.8
Semi-skilled manual 4.8
Intermediate sales and service 4.5
Clerical 4.2
Skilled crafts and trades workers 5.2
Skilled sales and service 3.7
Administrative and senior clerical 3.5
Supervisors – Crafts and trades 4.3
Supervisors 3.9
Semi-professionals and technicians 4.2
Professionals 2.4
Middle and other managers 2.7
Senior managers 3.2

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Table 2: Geographical profile of the Aboriginal peoples workforce
Percent Montreal Toronto Vancouver Edmonton Winnipeg Other CMAs Non CMA
Availability 0.8 0.8 2.3 5.0 9.8 3.2 8.2
Total Aboriginal workforce share 2.4 3.2 4.2 5.0 5.5 23.3 56.4

2.3 Members of visible minorities

The members of the visible minorities workforce grew rapidly from 2011 to 2016, and evidence suggests that the gains will continue to the 2021 Census. Their availability rose to 21.3% in 2016, up from 17.8% in 2011.

The increase occurred across the country, but it was most apparent in Toronto (where members of visible minorities form nearly half of the workforce), and to a lesser extent in Montreal and Vancouver. Excluding Toronto, their national availability started from a much-lower level and reached 16% in 2016.

Chart 15: Member of visible minorities availability by location
Chart 15: Member of visible minorities availability by location – Text version
Chart 15: Member of visible minorities availability by location
Location 1996 2001 2006 2011 2016
Canada 10.3% 12.6% 15.3% 17.8% 21.3%
Toronto 28.3% 34.6% 40.5% 44.1% 48.8%
Rest of Canada 7.0% 8.4% 10.3% 12.6% 15.6%

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Canada has relied on immigrants – the majority of whom arrive for work in Canada – to replace retiring “baby boomers” and maintain economic growth. Since 2001, Canada’s immigrants came more often from non-white Asia and Africa and so were more likely to self-identify as members of a visible minority. Notably, the annual number of immigrants to enter Canada, including refugees, is not much above the level of the early 1990s.

Chart 16: Annual number of immigrants entering Canada
Chart 16: Annual number of immigrants entering Canada – Text version
Chart 16: Annual number of immigrants entering Canada
Year Aged 25 to 44 All immigrants
1980 46.222 143.117
1981 46.305 128.618
1982 46.017 121.147
1983 30.374 89.157
1984 31.704 88.239
1985 31.497 84.302
1986 40.373 99.219
1987 66.37 152.098
1988 67.617 161.929
1989 85.998 192.001
1990 99.294 214.23
1991 110.16 230.781
1992 118.096 252.842
1993 112.044 255.819
1994 93.271 223.875
1995 93.609 212.504
1996 105.01 226.071
1997 102.542 216.036
1998 84.826 174.195
1999 96.229 189.95
2000 115.004 227.455
2001 126.136 250.636
2002 113.45 229.049
2003 110.567 221.349
2004 119.746 235.822
2005 131.226 262.242
2006 120.453 251.64
2007 114.699 236.753
2008 120.802 247.244
2009 124.048 252.17
2010 141.145 280.687
2011 125.505 248.747
2012 129.84 257.903
2013 127.024 259.023
2014 140.946 260.404

Source: Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada’s statistical publications

Immigrants tend to be younger than the population or the workforce in their destination countries. It follows that Canada’s visible minority workforce is younger on average than the non-visible minority workers. More than 63% of the members of the visible minorities workforce is younger than 45, while the share among other Canadians is around half.

Chart 17: Age distribution of Canadian workforce: members of visible minorities and non-visible minority members
Chart 17: Age distribution of Canadian workforce: members of visible minorities and non-visible minority members – Text version
Chart 17: Age distribution of Canadian workforce: members of visible minorities and non-visible minority members
Age group Members of visible minorities Non-visible minority members
15 to 24 years 15.4% 14.8%
25 to 34 years 24.3% 19.3%
35 to 44 years 24.0% 19.0%
45 to 54 years 21.2% 21.9%
55 to 64 years 12.1% 18.6%
65 and over 3.1% 6.3%

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Members of visible minorities are more likely to have children, and roughly one-third of Canada’s visible minority workforce was born in Canada. It follows that they have few barriers to employment, such as knowledge of the official languages or difficulty having their educational and other credentials recognized. In addition, the combination of a higher birth rate and continued flows of immigrants will push members of visible minority availability higher beyond the 2021 Census.

Chart 18: Share of households with children
Chart 18: Share of households with children – Text version
Chart 18: Share of households with children
Number of children Members of visible minorities Non-visible minority members
One child 22.0% 14.4%
Two children 12.9% 11.7%
Three or more 5.1% 4.4%

Source: Canada General Social Survey 2016

Because immigrant suitability is partly judged on educational attainment and because the children of immigrants obtain more university credentials than other Canadians, proportionally more members of visible minorities have university degrees (44%) than other workers (27%).

Chart 19: Distribution of members of visible minorities and non-visible minority members aged 15 years and over by level of educational attainment
Chart 19: Distribution of members of visible minorities and non-visible minority members aged 15 years and over by level of educational attainment – Text version
Chart 19: Distribution of members of visible minorities and non-visible minority members aged 15 years and over by level of educational attainment
Level of educational attainment Non-visible minority members Members of visible minorities
Less than high school 11.9% 9.6%
High school diploma or equivalent 26.6% 24.3%
Apprenticeship or trades 11.8% 5.2%
College or CEGEP 23.1% 16.9%
Bachelor's degree or higher 26.6% 44.0%

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Indeed, since it costs about $14,000 per year to educate a high school student and $22,000 for a university student in CanadaFootnote 13, members of visible minorities contribute greatly to Canada’s economy:

  • immigrants, the majority of whom are members of visible minorities, help build Canada’s productive capacity in a cost-effective way (even though many need additional training to meet Canada’s job requirements)
  • their availability for labour market participation and economic contribution is immediate
  • they increase diversity in Canada’s labour market, which increases its adaptability and potential for more global outreach (See Appendix G for further readings)
Chart 20: Availability of members of visible minorities by EEOG
Chart 20: Availability of members of visible minorities by EEOG – Text version
Chart 20: Availability of members of visible minorities by EEOG
Occupational group Percent
Other manual workers 21.0
Other sales and service 26.5
Semi-skilled manual 22.4
Intermediate sales and services 25.4
Clerical 21.9
Skilled crafts and trades workers 12.0
Skilled sales and service 27.7
Administrative and senior clerical 16.4
Supervisors - Crafts and trades 11.1
Supervisors 24.0
Semi-professionals and technicians 19.1
Professionals 23.2
Middle and other managers 17.6
Senior managers 11.5

Source: Derived from 2016 Census Canada

Since the second generation in families entered the labour market directly from Canadian schools, their opportunities for work match those of other Canadians. It follows that the availability of members of visible minorities varies less across employment equity occupational groups than in the past. Availability is lower than average in management and trades-related occupations and higher than average in sales- and services-related occupations.

2.4 Persons with disabilities

The 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD) found more people with a disability –22.3% of the population – than previous disability surveys. In practice, the Employment Equity Act covers workers who self-identify that their disability affects their employment or employability. The availability of persons with disabilities rose to 9.1% in the 2016 Census cycle from 4.9% in the 2011 Census cycle.

Note: The Employment Equity Act identifies people as disabled when they have a long-term or recurring impairment and:

  • consider themselves as disadvantaged in employment by that impairment, or
  • believe that an actual or potential employer likely considers them to be disadvantaged in employment by it.
This group includes those whose functional limitations have been accommodated in their current job or workplace.

This jump in availability came partly because the 2016 Census long form and CSD questionnaire included new questions to screen for persons with disabilities. It follows that employers will encounter increased equity gaps for people with disabilities. See the Questions and answers section for more information.

Chart 21: Employment equity workforce reports more serious disabilities
Chart 21: Employment equity workforce reports more serious disabilities – Text version
Chart 21: Employment equity workforce reports more serious disabilities
Level of disabilities Employment equity Non-employment equity
Mild 33.6% 68.6%
Moderate 22.5% 17.4%
Severe 23.9% 8.1%
Very severe 20.0% 6.0%

Source: Canadian Survey on Disability 2017

Statistics Canada judges a person’s disability status by 3 factors:

  • how many types of disability they have (the average is 3.0 types for the EE disabled versus 2.6 for other persons with disabilities);
  • how severe their disability is (one third of the EE disabled have mild disabilities, while two-thirds of other persons with disabilities have mild ones); and
  • how often their disability interferes with their daily activities – the Employment Equity Act also requires that a disability affect their work performance.Footnote 14
Chart 22: Share of increase in disabilities reported (2012 to 2017)
Chart 22: Share of increase in disabilities reported (2012 to 2017) – Text version
Chart 22: Share of increase in disabilities reported (2012 to 2017)
Type of disability Percent
Pain 21.2
Memory 26.5
Mental Health 1.3
Developmental 3.3
Learning 10.8
Dexterity 3.8
Flexibility 10.9
Mobility 9.3
Hearing 4.8
Sight 9.8

Source: Canadian Survey on Disability 2012, 2017

Of all conditions reported by persons with disabilities, the number of those with every type of disability rose between the 2011 Census cycle and the 2016 Census. Pain and memory loss account for almost half of the rise in the number of disabilities. These disabilities are both age-related and less obvious – leaving some question about whether the ageing of the workforce or the more-inclusive questionnaire used in the Canadian Survey on Disability contributes most to the increase.

In 2016, two-thirds (66.2%) of all people with an employment equity disability reported that they had pain that prevents some daily activities. Nearly half (46.7%) reported memory loss; 39.8% had a lack of flexibility that deters daily activities; and 34.0% had mobility issues.

2.4.1 Availability by industrial sector

The new availability of persons with disabilities falls in a tight range -- 8% to 11% -- for the four main industries in the federal jurisdiction. While each employer has its own talent mix, the industry-average is highest in communications (11.0%), followed by transportation (9.8%), banking (9.2%) and other industries (8.3%).

Chart 23: Availability of persons with disabilities by industry (2012 to 2017)
Chart 23: Availability of persons with disabilities by industry (2012 to 2017) – Text version
Chart 23: Availability of persons with disabilities by industry (2012 to 2017)
Industry Percent
National LMA 9.1
Banking 9.2
Communications 11.0
Transportation 9.8
Other 8.3

Source: Canadian Survey on Disability 2017

2.4.2 Availability by occupation

All Employment Equity Occupational Groups (EEOGs) except managerial ones had notable increases in their availability of persons with disabilities. The largest increase was among supervisory employees – from 13.9% in 2012 to 27.5% in 2017. While the level of availability is surprising, it follows the occupational pattern set by the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability. Most of the remaining EEOGs have availability rates below 11%.

Chart 24: Availability of persons with disabilities by EEOG
Chart 24: Availability of persons with disabilities by EEOG – Text version
Chart 24: Availability of persons with disabilities by EEOG
Occupational group Percent
Other manual workers 6.8
Other sales and service 10.7
Semi-skilled manual 10.3
Intermediate sales and service 10.8
Clerical 9.3
Skilled crafts and trades workers 7.8
Skilled sales and service 8.0
Administrative and senior clerical 10.0
Supervisors - crafts and trades 10.1
Supervisors 27.5
Semi-professionals and technicians 7.6
Professionals 8.9
Senior, middle and other managers 5.0

Source: Canadian Survey on Disability 2017

2.4.3 Availability by Province and Territory

Availability rates of persons with disabilities vary considerably by province and territory. The province-wide average is lowest in Quebec at 6.1%. The rate is highest in Nova Scotia (13.1%).

Chart 25: Labour market availability of persons with disabilities by province and territory
Chart 25: Labour market availability of persons with disabilities by province and territory – Text version
Chart 25: Labour market availability of persons with disabilities by province and territory
Province and Territories Avaibility
Nunavut 8.2%
Northwest Territories 9.8%
Yukon 11.3%
British Columbia 11.0%
Alberta 9.9%
Saskatchewan 9.1%
Manitoba 10.1%
Ontario 9.6%
Quebec 6.1%
New Brunswick 10.7%
Nova Scotia 13.1%
Prince Edward Island 10.2%
Newfoundland and Labrador 8.9%
Canada 9.1%

Source: Canadian Survey on Disability 2017

3. Technical notes

This section of the report provides information on the sources of data on groups designated by the Employment Equity Act (the Act), the legislative and operational definitions, regulatory parameters involved, and the process the Labour Program uses to develop labour market availability (LMA) benchmarks for employers.

3.1 Data sources

The main source of data for LMA estimates is the 2016 Census long form, which the Government of Canada reinstated to replace the voluntary National Household Survey used during the 2011 Census cycle. With a response rate of 97.8% for the long form, the Census produced more reliable estimates for LMA than the voluntary National Household Survey, which had a response rate of 77%.

The long form Census asks questions related to people and where they live, which permit identification of people in the designated groups as defined in the Employment Equity Act.

Identifying designated groups’ workforce
Designated group Census Canadian survey on disability
Women Fully identified n/a
Aboriginal peoples Fully identified n/a
Members of visible minorities Fully identified n/a
Persons with disabilities Screening for sampling frame Fully identified

To obtain the baseline data on designated groups’ LMA, all respondents who are first identified as a member of a designated population in the 2016 CensusFootnote 15, are further screened for their labour market status at the time the Census was conducted. They are included in the Employment Equity Workforce if they were:

  • employed when the Census data were collected
  • unemployed (out of work and looking for a job) at the time of the Census and had work experience in 2015 or 2016
  • out of the labour market, unretired and had work experience in 2015 or 2016

Additional questions on the longer-run labour market activity by persons with disabilities were placed in the Canadian Survey on Disability.

3.2 Definitions for designated groups

In general, the Employment Equity Act follows 2 kinds of definition: the legislative one provided by the Employment Equity Act and the ones defined by the operational practices that use the Act as enabling legislation.

Women

Legislative definition: Women are designated by Section 3 of the Employment Equity Act.

Operational definition: Persons identified as ‘Female’ in the question on “person’s sex” in the long form Census questionnaire.

Aboriginal peoples

Legislative definition: In the Employment Equity Act, “Aboriginal peoples” means persons who are Indians, Inuit or Métis.

Operational definition

Employment equity data on Aboriginal peoples in the 2016 Census refer to people who:

  • self-identified as being at least one of First Nation (North American Indian), Métis or Inuit (Question 18)
  • reported being a Status Indian (Registered or Treaty Indian) (Question 20) as defined by the Indian Act of Canada)”
  • reported they were members of a First Nation/Indian band (Question 21)

Question 18

Is this person an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit)?

Note: First Nations (North American Indian) includes Status and Non-Status Indians.

If "Yes", mark the circle(s) that best describe(s) this person now.

  1. No, not an Aboriginal person. Continue with the next question.
  2. Yes, First Nations (North American Indian). Go to question 20.
  3. Yes, Métis. Go to question 20.
  4. Yes, Inuk (Inuit). Go to question 20.

Question 20

Is this person a Status Indian (Registered or Treaty Indian as defined by the Indian Act of Canada)?

  1. No
  2. Yes, Status Indian (Registered or Treaty)

Question 21

Is this person a member of a First Nation/Indian band?

Note: If " Yes ", which First Nation/Indian band? For example, Musqueam Indian Band, Sturgeon Lake First Nation, Atikamekw of Manawan.

  1. No
  2. Yes, member of a First Nation/Indian band. Specify name of First Nation/Indian Band

Incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and settlements: In 2016, there were a total of 14 Indian reserves and Indian settlements that were incompletely enumerated. For these reserves and settlements, dwelling enumeration was either not permitted or was interrupted before it could be completed. The LMA estimates use higher-level geographic areas (Canada, provinces and territories and census metropolitan areas) and therefore, the impact of the missing data is very small.

Members of visible minorities

Legislative definition: In the Employment Equity Act, “members of visible minorities” means “persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.”

Operational definition: In the 2016 Census, persons who marked-in South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean or Japanese were included in the visible minority population.

Besides these visible minority sub-groups, two remaining groupings were formed in the 2016 Census [in other words, visible minority not included elsewhere and multiple visible minority]. Visible minority not included elsewhere includes responses that could not be classified into one of the sub-groups. Multiple visible minority responses include any combination of these.

Question 19:

This question collects information in accordance with the Employment Equity Act and its Regulations and Guidelines to support programs that promote equal opportunity for everyone to share in the social, cultural, and economic life of Canada.

Is this person (Make more than one circle or specify, if applicable):

  1. White
  2. South Asian (for example, East Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, etc.)
  3. Chinese
  4. Black
  5. Filipino
  6. Latin American
  7. Arab
  8. Southeast Asian (for example, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, etc.)
  9. West Asian (for example, Iranian, Afghan, etc.)
  10. Korean
  11. Japanese
  12. Other — specify

Persons with disabilities

Legislative definition

In the Employment Equity Act, persons with disabilities”means “persons who have a long-term or recurring physical, mental, sensory, psychiatric or learning impairment and who

  1. consider themselves to be disadvantaged in employment by reason of that impairment, or
  2. believe that a(n) employer or potential employer is likely to consider them to be disadvantaged in employment by reason of that impairment, and includes persons whose functional limitations owing to their impairment have been accommodated in their current job or workplace”.

Operational definition: Identifying persons with disabilities draws on information from the 2016 Census of Population and post-censal survey, the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.

2016 Census of population: Disability screening questions

Consistent with the intent of the Employment Equity Act in focusing on those with long-term conditions, the 2016 Census of Population implemented Canada’s new Disability Screening Questions (Question 11 in the long-form Census questionnaire) that filter for those who have a condition that is expected to last six months or more.

Adults aged 15 or above who answered “Sometimes”, “Often” or “Always” to at least one of the daily living activities under Question 11 were included the sampling frame for the Canadian Survey on Disability.

Activities of daily living

The following question is about difficulties a person may have doing certain activities. Only difficulties or long-term conditions that have lasted or are expected to last for six months or more should be considered.

Question identifier 11: Does this person have any:

a) difficulty seeing (even when wearing glasses or contact lenses)?

1. No

2. Sometimes

3. Often

4. Always

b) difficulty hearing (even when using a hearing aid)?

1. No

2. Sometimes

3. Often

4 Always

c) difficulty walking, using stairs, using his/her hands or fingers or doing other physical activities?

1. No

2. Sometimes

3. Often

4. Always

d) difficulty learning, remembering or concentrating?

1. No

2. Sometimes

3. Often

4. Always

e) emotional, psychological or mental health conditions (for example, anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse, anorexia, etc.)?

1. No

2. Sometimes

3. Often

4. Always

f) other health problem or long-term condition that has lasted or is expected to last for six months or more? (Exclude: any health problems previously reported above.)

1. No

2. Sometimes

3. Often

4. Always

2017 Canadian Survey on Disability

In the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability, four concepts are included in the definition of disability used in the Employment Equity act:

  • long term disability
  • employment disadvantage
  • perception of employment disadvantage
  • employment accommodations

In other words, people are part of the Employment Equity disability workforce if they have a condition that is expected to last 6 months or more, and if they are disadvantaged in employment, or if they see themselves as disadvantaged, or if they need accommodations or have been accommodated in the workplace.

Accordingly, a group of work-related questions were included in the Canadian Survey on Disability questionnaire to identify any of the following:

Employment disadvantage

EDE_Q10 - Does your condition limit the amount or kind of work you can do at your present job or business?

  1. Yes
  2. No

UDE_Q40 - Does your condition limit the amount or kind of work you can do at a job or business?

  1. Yes
  2. No

NDE_Q50 - Does your condition limit the amount or kind of work you could do at a job or business?

  1. Yes
  2. No

LFD_Q20 - Do you consider yourself to be disadvantaged in employment because of your condition?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Perception of employment disadvantage

EDE_Q30 - Do you believe that your condition makes it difficult for you to change jobs or to advance at your present job?

  1. Yes, very difficult
  2. Yes, difficult
  3. No, not difficult

LFD_Q25 - Do you believe that your current employer or any potential employer would be likely to consider you disadvantaged in employment because of your condition?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Employment accommodation

EMO_Q05 - Because of your condition, [do/would] you require any of the following to be able to work?

  1. Modified or different duties
  2. Working from home
  3. Modified hours or days or reduced work hours
  4. Human support (for example, reader, sign language interpreter, job coach or personal assistant)
  5. Technical aids (for example, voice synthesizer, TTY, infrared system or portable note-taker)
  6. Computer, laptop or tablet with specialized software or other adaptations (for example, Braille, screen magnification software, voice recognition software or a screen reader)
  7. Communication aids (for example, Braille or large print reading material or recording equipment)
  8. Modified or ergonomic workstation
  9. Special chair or back support
  10. Handrails, ramps, widened doorways or hallways
  11. Adapted or accessible parking
  12. Accessible elevators
  13. Adapted washrooms
  14. Specialized transportation
  15. Other equipment, help or work arrangement - specify:
  16. None of the above

A positive response to any of these questions places the respondents among those who have a disability under the terms of the Employment Equity Act.

3.3 Special notes

2016 Census: random rounding, suppression and confidentiality

Random rounding

The Census-based estimates included in this report have undergone a random rounding adjustment – a confidentiality procedure to prevent the possibility of associating statistical data with any identifiable individual. Under this method, all figures, including totals and margins, are randomly rounded either up or down to a multiple of '5,' and in some cases '10.' While providing strong protection against disclosure, this technique does not add significant error to the Census-based estimates.

It should be kept in mind that totals and margins are rounded independently of the cell data so that some differences between these and the sum of rounded cell data may exist. Minor differences can also occur in corresponding totals and cell values among various data tabulations. Similarly, percentages, which are calculated on rounded figures, do not necessarily add up to 100%. Statistics such as median, quartiles, percentiles, are computed in the usual manner.

Possible data distortions can happen when rounded data are aggregated. Imprecision as a result of rounding tend to cancel each other out when data cells are re-aggregated. However, data distortions can be minimized if the appropriate subtotals, whenever possible, are used for aggregating.

The option exists for those seeking maximum precision to use custom tabulations. With custom products, aggregation is done using individual Census database records. Random rounding occurs only after the data cells have been aggregated, thus minimizing any distortion.

Suppression and confidentiality

In addition to random rounding, area suppression has been adopted to further protect the confidentiality of respondents. Area suppression is the deletion of all characteristic data from the Census for geographic areas with populations below 40 persons. However, if the Census data refer to six-character postal codes or to groups of either dissemination blocks or block-faces, they are suppressed if the total population in the area is less than 100 persons.

For further information on the quality of Census data, Please refer to Statistics Canada's Guide to the Census of Population, 2016.

3.4 Canadian Survey on Disability

Statistics Canada’s Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD), a Census follow-up survey conducted every 5 years, collects information about adults whose everyday activities are limited due to a condition or health-related problem. The 2017 CSD was conducted from March 1 to August 31, 2017. Improvements were made to the methodology and content of the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability, which can affect comparability with the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability data. The main differences between the 2017 and the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability can be summarized as follows:

Disability screening questions: Overall, the same employment equity-related questions were asked in the Canadian Survey on Disability. However, the most significant change is the screening questions for disability in the Census to identify potential candidates for follow-up questions in the Canadian Survey on Disability.

In the past, Census respondents had been asked two questions:

  1. Did they have difficulty hearing, seeing, communicating, walking, climbing stairs, bending, learning or doing any similar activities
  2. at home, at school or work or in other activities

These questions typically screened 22.3% of the Canadian population into the Canadian Survey on Disability sampling frame.

The 2016 Census cycle, including the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability, expanded the number of health problems to include:

  • mobility, flexibility and dexterity instead of walking/mobility
  • pain-related as a new category
  • developmental, memory and mental health related instead of a single emotional / psychological category

Changes to the 2016 Census filter questions provided increased coverage of persons with a disability, especially persons with a cognitive or mental health-related disability for the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability than for the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability. These questions screened 35% of Canada’s population into the Canadian Survey on Disability sampling frame.

Data collection methods: For the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability, data collection was conducted using an electronic questionnaire, which was either self-administered online by some respondents or completed by phone with the assistance of an interviewer for the others. Approximately 2 in 5 respondents (40%) opted for the self-administered online collection. This change could affect the collected data relative to the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability, which was entirely conducted by telephone interview.

Time lag between the Census and the Canadian Survey on Disability: The 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability was conducted 10 to 16 months after the 2016 Census, a shorter time lag than the time between the 2011 National Household Survey and the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability, which was 16 to 20 months. Nonetheless, in both cases, survey weights of the NO sample had to be adjusted to avoid underestimating the prevalence of disability due to losses caused by deaths, institutionalization and people who left the country. The adjustment, which took into account the duration of the time lag, may have a slight impact on comparisons between the 2 cycles.

Response rate: For the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability, the sampling frame was established based on the mandatory 2016 Census, which had a response rate of 97.8% (for the long-form), while the sampling frame for the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability was based on the voluntary 2011 National Household Survey, which had a response rate of 77.2%. This difference may have had an impact on the results of the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability.

Questionnaire content: Compared to the 2012 cycle, the content of the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability has been changed in many ways. Several new survey modules were added for 2017, and several modules were also substantially reorganized. Questions were asked in a new order that better reflected standard employment indicators found on other labour surveys by Statistics Canada. Some of the content from the 2012 cycle was removed in 2017 in order to balance the respondent burden created by extensive new content additions.

In summary, these changes, particularly those related to the Census filter questions, make it difficult to compare data on disability between the 2012 and 2017 CSDs. For details, please refer to Statistics Canada’s Canadian Survey on Disability, 2017: Concepts and Methods Guide.

4. Data considerations

4.1 Labour Market Availability (LMA)

The Employment Equity Act promotes “equality in the workplace so that no person shall be denied employment opportunities…for reasons unrelated to ability…” (Section 2 of the Act).

To that end, the Act requires employers to analyze their workforce and to take action where any of the four designated groups is under-represented relative to the availability in the Canadian labour market—referred to as labour market availability (LMA) of similarly skilled designated group members in either:

  • the Canadian workforce as a whole
  • those segments of the Canadian workforce that are identifiable by qualification, eligibility or geography, and from which the employer may reasonably be expected to draw employees (section 5 of the Act, section 6 of the Regulations)

The types of jobs in an organization help to determine a reasonable area from which to draw employees. For example, highly specialized professional jobs may require a fairly wide recruitment area such as a province, a region or the country. Occupations requiring lesser skills can usually be addressed through recruitment at a local level, such as a Census Metropolitan Area (CMA).

Under the provisions of the Employment Equity Act, the Labour Program has provided availability rates to employers participating in the Legislated Employment Equity Program (LEEP) and the federal contractors participating in the Federal Contractors Program (FCP). The LMAs also are available on the Open Government Portal.

4.2 Employers Covered under the Employment Equity Act

The following employers are covered by the Employment Equity Act:

  1. organizations that employ 100 or more employees in the federally-regulated private sector, federal Crown corporations and other federal government business enterprises;
  2. core public administration organizations listed under Schedule I or IV of the Financial Administration Act (FAA) (federal government departments and agencies);
  3. separate employer organizations in the federal public sector with 100 or more employees, listed in Schedule V of the Financial Administration Act (FAA) (separate agencies);
    1. other public-sector employer organizations with 100 or more employees, including the Canadian Forces (officers and non-commissioned members in the Regular and Reserve Forces) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (regular and civilian members, excluding federal public service employees); and
  4. federal contractor organizations that are provincially regulated suppliers of goods and services with at least 100 permanents full-time and/or permanent part-time employees in Canada that receive contracts of $1 million or more from the federal government.

4.3 Census Metropolitan Area (CMA)

A Census metropolitan area (CMA) is formed by one or more adjacent municipalities centered on a large urban area (known as the urban core). It is an important Census geographical concept to understand and use as employers under the Employment Equity Act conduct workforce analysis using CMA level data.

Canada in 2016 had 35 CMAs, as compared with 33 in 2011. For more information related to the concept of CMA, please refer to Statistics Canada’s Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016. Appendix E in this report has the complete list of CMAs and their municipalities, and refer to Statistics Canada’s Geography Series about each CMA and its geographic boundaries. Due to the small sample size of the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability, data are not available for persons with disabilities at the CMA level.

4.4 National Occupational Classification

The National Occupational Classification (NOC) is the nationally accepted classification system for occupations in the Canadian labour market. NOC codes, signaling both skill type and skill level, are the basis for grouping Employment Equity Occupational Groups. In the 2016 Census, data on occupation is based on the National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016.

4.5 Employment Equity Occupational Groups

Employers covered under the Legislated Employment Equity Program (LEEP), the Federal Contractors Program (FCP) and separate employers are required, for the purpose of reporting, to aggregate the different NOC codes that they have assigned to the occupations that exist within their organization into 14 Employment Equity Occupational Groups (EEOGs) (see Appendix D). EEOGs have been developed to reflect the underlying structure of the economy. Grouping NOC codes by EEOGs allows employers to track the movement of designated group members as they progress up in the hierarchy of the organization.

For details, please refer to a full list of Employment Equity Occupational Groups and their Corresponding Unit Groups in Appendix C and Employment Equity Occupational Group Definitions in Appendix D.

5. Questions and answers

Q. What is labour market availability?

A. The availability in the Canadian labour market—referred to as labour market availability (LMA) — is the benchmark against which employers covered by the Employment Equity Act (the Act) measure their employment equity performance. These estimates are derived from the Census and post-censal survey on disability conducted by Statistics Canada. The most recent LMA data is from the 2016 Census and the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability. The LMA figures for women, Aboriginal peoples, and members of visible minorities include those aged 15 years and over who worked in their chosen occupation in 2015 or 2016. The LMA for persons with disabilities (Employment Equity Act defined) figures include those aged 15 to 64 who worked in 2016 or 2017.

Q. Does employment equity really mean hiring unqualified people?

A. Employment equity (EE) helps give all qualified people equal opportunities – only ability matters from an EE perspective. The Employment Equity Act was introduced to address the systematic disadvantage that the 4 designated groups suffer in the labour market. Data show that their disadvantage persists to this day, and that EE helps level the playing field for qualified people.

Q. Do women do better now that their educational levels have increased over the years?

A. Full equality of opportunity for women involves improvement on many fronts. Since Canadian women lead the world in scholastic achievement, it should be reflected in their working lives. To that end, Canada recently joined many developed countries in a new round of measures to ensure that women are paid equitably. Ongoing use of the Employment Equity Act broadens their opportunity to participate in the most desirable occupational niches. For example, the numbers of women taking management at the Bachelor’s and Master’s levels now approximate men’s participation. Labour market availability rates for managerial occupations suggest that they still need the support that the Employment Equity Act provides.

Q. Aren’t the population counts inflated for Aboriginal peoples and visible minorities?

A. The numbers are likely more accurate than ever. For 2016, Statistics Canada brought back the compulsory Census long form to replace the voluntary National Household Survey (NHS) of 2011. This increased the accuracy of population counts for all designated groups – the non-response rate to the 2016 Census was 2%, while 23% of Canadians did not complete the 2011 NHS form.

The 2016 Census also was more inclusive than the NHS. In 2011, 36 reserves or settlements (10% of the total) were incompletely enumerated. There were only 14 of these reserves or settlements in 2016.

Q. Why did the availability of persons with disabilities rise so much?

A. First, it rose because more people have conditions that interfere with their daily lives and their ability to earn a living. With Canada’s largestFootnote 16 “baby boom” generation at or near retirement, the number of people living with limitations has grown rapidly.Footnote 17 Second, people of all ages seem to be more willing to self-identify and discuss these limitations. The 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability reflected that change in mood, and the results fall in a range that earlier research identifies.

Q. Does diversity matter?

A. Everyone can make a difference. In the past, Canada’s productivity was built on a system where workers repeated small tasks many times to produce goods and services. In a more competitive economic environment, the ability to adapt becomes more important and having workers with varied experience can contribute greatly. This principle has been proven in a vast number of recent studies that almost universally show that diversity improves performance in firms.Footnote 18 It builds an employer’s reputation for fairness, which improves recruiting and staff retention. Indeed, international agencies, such as the OECD or the World Economic Forum, now include diversity measures among their economic indicators.

Q. How did the Canadian Survey on Disability (CSD) increase disability counts so much?

A. Statistics Canada conducts the CSD as a follow-up among Census respondents who reported that they have a long-lasting limitation on their daily activity. The 2016 Census asked questions about a number of specific limitations, which gave individuals more time to assess their situation and identify their disabilities. The 2011 National Household Survey asked a single question related to a shorter list of disabilities. As a result, the proportion of the Canadian population aged 15 years or older who self- identified with one or more disabilities rose from 14% in 2012 to 24% in 2017.

The following questions are from the 2011 National Household Survey

Activities of daily living

Question 7. Does this person have any difficulty hearing, seeing, communicating, walking, climbing stairs, bending, learning or doing any similar activities?

  1. Yes, sometimes
  2. Yes, often
  3. No

Question 8. Does a physical condition or mental condition or health problem reduce the amount or the kind of activity this person can do:

a) at home?

  1. Yes, sometimes
  2. Yes, often
  3. No

b) at work or at school?

  1. Yes, sometimes
  2. Yes, often
  3. No
  4. Not applicable

c) in other activities, for example, transportation or leisure?

  1. Yes, sometimes
  2. Yes, often
  3. No

The following questions are from the 2016 Census questionnaire.

The following question is about difficulties a person may have doing certain activities. Only difficulties or long-term conditions that have lasted or are expected to last for 6 months or more should be considered.

Question 11. Does this person have any:

a) difficulty seeing (even when wearing glasses or contact lenses)?

  1. No
  2. Sometimes
  3. Often
  4. Always

b) difficulty hearing (even when using a hearing aid)?

  1. No
  2. Sometimes
  3. Often
  4. Always

c) difficulty walking, using stairs, using his/her hands or fingers or doing other physical activities?

  1. No
  2. Sometimes
  3. Often
  4. Always

d) difficulty learning, remembering or concentrating?

  1. No
  2. Sometimes
  3. Often
  4. Always

 e) emotional, psychological or mental health conditions (for example anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse, anorexia, etc.)?

  1. No
  2. Sometimes
  3. Often
  4. Always

f) other health problem or long-term condition that has lasted or is expected to last for 6 months or more?

Exclude: any health problems previously reported above.

  1. No
  2. Sometimes
  3. Often
  4. Always

Appendix A: Recent trends in workplace practices

Highlight of recent trends in workplace practices

External data and research point out significant shifts in labour markets that are relevant for employment equity in the federal jurisdiction. Tight markets, with low unemployment rates and a scarcity of candidates, have forced employers to revise their human resource strategies to find innovative approaches/technologies to make the workforce more diverse and inclusive. The following are 2 examples out of many emerging and promising workplace approaches.

1. The value of inclusion and diversity

Canada’s economy has lifted productivity by training many workers to do a set of occupational tasks that they can repeat often.Footnote 19 No worker, however, can know enough to perform all the tasks that need to be done. In a trading world, this translates into hiring workers with all the required skills and whose varied experience can contribute to growth - diversity.

“Out of the totality of what is known by society at large, a single person knows practically nothing, no matter how well educated or how brilliant!” Sherwin Rosen

Surveys conducted by the World Economic Forum reflect a variety of reasons why diversity works. Employers use their reputations for fairness and equity as recruiting tools. This raises retention rates and is more cost effective than enduring high staff turnover and constant retraining.

“Your staff should reflect your client base” is the best-known rule of thumb for building a business through diversity. Having employees from diverse background provides learning opportunities for all staff. Organizations could also use the diverse attributes that each employee contributes in order to harness these potentially significant contributions to innovation growth.Footnote 20

Chart 26. Reasons why firms diversify their staff (percent of reporting firms, worldwide)
Chart 26. Reasons why firms diversify their staff (percent of reporting firms, worldwide) – Text version
Chart 26. Reasons why firms diversify their staff (percent of reporting firms, worldwide)
Reasons why firms diversity their staff Percent
Government regulation 10
Reputational issues 16
Expand talent pool 16
Enhance decision making 22
Reflect customer base 23
Enhance innovation 23
Fairness and equity 42

Source: World Economic Forum, the Future of Jobs Report 2016

Diversity in executive teams improves performance. In a study of 1,000 firms in 12 countries, Hunt et al Footnote 21 showed that gender diversity in the executive teams was linked to greater profitability and value creation. The firms with greater ethnic diversity were much more likely to be near the top in profitability.Footnote 22

Chart 27: Effects of building a good climate for diversity
Chart 27: Effects of building a good climate for diversity – Text version

Chart 27 is effects of building a good climate for diversity. It shows a structural model describing how improving the diversity climate builds trust and openness in the workplace. Trust and openness are mutually supportive – and they raise job satisfaction and inclusiveness in the workplace.

Source: Hofhuis et al, 2016

Ideally, management should build a good climate for diversity in the workplace that includes trust and openness for developing job satisfaction and inclusion.

The following are steps that help build a good climate for employment equityFootnote 23:

  • in recruiting, emphasize details that appeal to more diverse candidates
  • undertake diversity training in the workplace
  • have transparent policies for all human resource policies
  • accommodate – religious holidays, daycare needs, flexibility in work schedules, dress requirements, etc.
  • give people a reason to stay
    • show recruits how their work fits into the big picture
    • inform them on the company culture
    • provide them with opportunities for advancement

In the longer run, diversity benefits communities. In an extensive study of 160 U.S. cities, Ottaviano and PeriFootnote 24 show that cultural diversity improves productivity in the whole community. Kemeny and CookeFootnote 25 produce similar results. Indeed, the annual World Competitiveness Report includes a measure of diversity related to women and the LGBT community-in its large set of economic indicators.

2. Teleworking

Research shows that when employers include teleworking in their operations, they open their workplace to a deeper pool of candidates, improve productivity and reduce costs. For candidates, the benefits include avoiding a long commute, raising their earning potential and for some of the most isolated, the possibility of working at all.Footnote 26

Chart 28: US unemployment rate and percent of workers who telework
Chart 28: US unemployment rate and percent of workers who telework – Text version
Chart 28: US unemployment rate and percent of workers who telework
Year Unemployment rate Telework
2001 4.7 1.2
2002 5.8 1.2
2003 6.6 1.3
2004 5.5 1.4
2005 5.1 1.4
2006 4.6 1.6
2007 4.6 1.7
2008 5.8 1.9
2009 9.3 2.1
2010 9.6 2.2
2011 8.9 2.3
2012 8.1 2.3
2013 7.4 2.5
2014 6.2 2.6
2015 5.3 2.8
2016 4.9 3.1
2017 4.4 n/a

In the United States (U.S.), there are roughly as many full-time teleworkers – people who work away from their employer’s main workplace – as there are unemployed. In Canada, data from the General Social Survey (GSS) of 2016 shows that 2.3 million paid workers (12.7% of the workforce) telework at least an hour a week. Of these, more than 500,000 workers telework for more than 15 hours per week (the point where work is insurable for Employment Insurance purposes). This suggests that teleworking is roughly as frequent in Canada as in the U.S.

Teleworking is linked to the occupations that are most connected to the knowledge economy. More than one in three workers in management occupationsFootnote 27 already telework and the shares in education and in natural and applied sciences is above 20%. In contrast, the shares are less than half the national average in the less-skilled sales and service occupations, in those related to manufacturing, natural resource extraction, the trades and among transportation operators. Health care occupations, which rely on close interaction between patient and care provider, also have low rates of teleworking.

Chart 29: Share of workforce who telework by occupation
Chart 29: Share of workforce who telework by occupation – Text version
Chart 29: Share of workforce who telework by occupation
Occupation share
Management 36.6
Business, financial and administration 13.7
Nature, applied science 21.7
Health 4.5
Education 24.3
Art, culture 13.3
Sales, service 5.4
Trades, transports operators 2.5
Nature resources 4.1
Manufacturing 4.7

Source: Canada General Social Survey 2016

The GSS data also show that teleworking could continue to grow over the 2016 to 2021 Census cycle and beyond.

  • More than half of all jobs do not involve teleworking, but it is a possibility.
  • About 1 job in 3 (34.7%) involves tasks that can only be done at the employer’s workplace.
  • The remainder involve teleworking or working at home.

The combination of the tight labour market and large number of jobs that could be re-organized for teleworking raises the probability that teleworking will expand beyond the 2016 Census cycle.

Chart 30: Can Canadian jobs be done at home?
Chart 30: Can Canadian jobs be done at home? – Text version
Chart 30: Can Canadian jobs be done at home?
Responses Percent
Yes 12.8
No 51.5
Not possible 34.7
Only done at home 1.0

Source: Canada General Social Survey 2016

Extending teleworking is likely to benefit designated groups greatly: nearly 70% of those who telework are designated group members. For example, nearly one-quarter of all teleworkers are persons with disabilities, while their workforce availability is 9.1%. This implies that persons with disabilities account for a disproportional share of those who telework.

Chart 31: Shares of those who telework
Chart 31: Shares of those who telework – Text version
Chart 31: Shares of those who telework
Groups Shares
Aboriginal peoples 1.8%
Members of visible minorities 21.1%
Persons with disabilities 20.4%
White women without disabilities 26.1%
White men without disabilities 30.6%

Source: Canada General Social Survey 2016

Existing literature suggests that teleworking arrangements produce the best results when management acts to:

  • select the most productive operations for teleworking (creative work or research improves with teleworking; repetitive tasks such as data entry deteriorate);
  • discuss the reasons for teleworking and the criteria involved with all staff to avoid incurring workplace conflict;
  • follow up on the results

Appendix B: Incompletely Enumerated Indian Reserves and Indian Settlements in the 2016 Population

Population of the Indian Reserves and Settlements for the province of Quebec
Indian Reserves and Settlements 2011 2006
Doncaster n/a n/a
Kahnawake n/a n/a
Kanesatake n/a n/a
Lac-Rapide n/a n/a
Population of the Indian Reserves and Settlements for the province of Ontario
Indian Reserves and Settlements 2011 2006
Six Nations (Part) 40 946 n/a
Six Nations (Part) 40 6,213 n/a
Chippewas of the Thames First Nation 42 762 747
Oneida 41 1,282 n/a
Wahta Mohawk Territory n/a n/a
Rankin Location 15D n/a 566
Goulais Bay 15A n/a 82
Pikangikum 14 n/a 2,100
Population of the Indian Reserves and Settlements for the province of Alberta
Indian Reserves and Settlements 2011 2006
Saddle Lake 125 n/a n/a
Population of the Indian Reserves and Settlements for the province of British Columbia
Indian Reserves and Settlements 2011 2006
Esquimalt n/a n/a

“n/a”: not available for a specific reference period. Incompletely enumerated Indian reserve or Indian settlement.

Appendix C: Employment Equity Occupational Groups and their Corresponding Unit Groups (2016 NOC)

1. Senior managers [1]

0011 Legislators

0012 Senior government managers and officials

0013 Senior managers - financial, communications and other business services

0014 Senior managers - health, education, social and community services and membership organizations

0015 Senior managers - trade, broadcasting and other services, n.e.c. [2]

0016 Senior managers - construction, transportation, production and utilities

2. Middle and other managers [1]

0111 Financial managers

0112 Human resources managers

0113 Purchasing managers

0114 Other administrative services managers

0121 Insurance, real estate and financial brokerage managers

0122 Banking, credit and other investment managers

0124 Advertising, marketing and public relations managers

0125 Other business services managers

0131 Telecommunication carriers managers

0132 Postal and courier services managers

0211 Engineering managers

0212 Architecture and science managers

0213 Computer and information systems managers

0311 Managers in health care

0411 Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration

0412 Government managers - economic analysis, policy development and program administration

0413 Government managers - education policy development and program administration

0414 Other managers in public administration

0421 Administrators - post-secondary education and vocational training

0422 School principals and administrators of elementary and secondary education

0423 Managers in social, community and correctional services

0431 Commissioned police officers

0432 Fire chiefs and senior firefighting officers

0433 Commissioned officers of the Canadian Armed Forces

0511 Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers

0512 Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts

0513 Recreation, sports and fitness program and service directors

0601 Corporate sales managers

0621 Retail and wholesale trade managers

0631 Restaurant and food service managers

0632 Accommodation service managers

0651 Managers in customer and personal services, n.e.c. [2]

0711 Construction managers

0712 Home building and renovation managers

0714 Facility operation and maintenance managers

0731 Managers in transportation

0811 Managers in natural resources production and fishing

0821 Managers in agriculture

0822 Managers in horticulture

0823 Managers in aquaculture

0911 Manufacturing managers

0912 Utilities managers

3. Professionals

1111 Financial auditors and accountants

1112 Financial and investment analysts

1113 Securities agents, investment dealers and brokers

1114 Other financial officers

1121 Human resources professionals

1122 Professional occupations in business management consulting

1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations

2111 Physicists and astronomers

2112 Chemists

2113 Geoscientists and oceanographers

2114 Meteorologists and climatologists

2115 Other professional occupations in physical sciences

2121 Biologists and related scientists

2122 Forestry professionals

2123 Agricultural representatives, consultants and specialists

2131 Civil engineers

2132 Mechanical engineers

2133 Electrical and electronics engineers

2134 Chemical engineers

2141 Industrial and manufacturing engineers

2142 Metallurgical and materials engineers

2143 Mining engineers

2144 Geological engineers

2145 Petroleum engineers

2146 Aerospace engineers

2147 Computer engineers (except software engineers and designers)

2148 Other professional engineers, n.e.c. [2]

2151 Architects

2152 Landscape architects

2153 Urban and land use planners

2154 Land surveyors

2161 Mathematicians, statisticians and actuaries

2171 Information systems analysts and consultants

2172 Database analysts and data administrators

2173 Software engineers and designers

2174 Computer programmers and interactive media developers

2175 Web designers and developers

3011 Nursing co-ordinators and supervisors

3012 Registered nurses and registered psychiatric nurses

3111 Specialist physicians

3112 General practitioners and family physicians

3113 Dentists

3114 Veterinarians

3121 Optometrists

3122Chiropractors

3124 Allied primary health practitioners

3125 Other professional occupations in health diagnosing and treating

3131 Pharmacists

3132 Dietitians and nutritionists

3141 Audiologists and speech-language pathologists

3142 Physiotherapists

3143 Occupational therapists

3144 Other professional occupations in therapy and assessment

4011 University professors and lecturers

4012 Post-secondary teaching and research assistants

4021 College and other vocational instructors

4031 Secondary school teachers

4032 Elementary school and kindergarten teachers

4033 Educational counsellors

4111 Judges

4112 Lawyers and Quebec notaries

4151 Psychologists

4152 Social workers

4153 Family, marriage and other related counsellors

4154 Professional occupations in religion

4155 Probation and parole officers and related occupations

4156 Employment counsellors

4161 Natural and applied science policy researchers, consultants and program officers

4162 Economists and economic policy researchers and analysts

4163 Business development officers and marketing researchers and consultants

4164 Social policy researchers, consultants and program officers

4165 Health policy researchers, consultants and program officers

4166 Education policy researchers, consultants and program officers

4167 Recreation, sports and fitness policy researchers, consultants and program officers

4168 Program officers unique to government

4169 Other professional occupations in social science, n.e.c. [2]

5111 Librarians

5112 Conservators and curators

5113 Archivists

5121 Authors and writers

5122 Editors

5123 Journalists

5125 Translators, terminologists and interpreters

5131 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations

5132 Conductors, composers and arrangers

5133 Musicians and singers

5134 Dancers

5135 Actors and comedians

5136 Painters, sculptors and other visual artists

4. Semi-professionals and technicians

2211 Chemical technologists and technicians

2212 Geological and mineral technologists and technicians

2221 Biological technologists and technicians

2222 Agricultural and fish products inspectors

2223 Forestry technologists and technicians

2224 Conservation and fishery officers

2225 Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists

2231 Civil engineering technologists and technicians

2232 Mechanical engineering technologists and technicians

2233 Industrial engineering and manufacturing technologists and technicians

2234 Construction estimators

2241 Electrical and electronics engineering technologists and technicians

2242 Electronic service technicians (household and business equipment)

2243 Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics

2244 Aircraft instrument, electrical and avionics mechanics, technicians and inspectors

2251 Architectural technologists and technicians

2252 Industrial designers

2253 Drafting technologists and technicians

2254 Land survey technologists and technicians

2255 Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology

2261 Non-destructive testers and inspection technicians

2262 Engineering inspectors and regulatory officers

2263 Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety

2264 Construction inspectors

2271 Air pilots, flight engineers and flying instructors

2272 Air traffic controllers and related occupations

2273 Deck officers, water transport

2274 Engineer officers, water transport

2275 Railway traffic controllers and marine traffic regulators

2281 Computer network technicians

2282 User support technicians

2283 Information systems testing technicians

3211 Medical laboratory technologists

3212 Medical laboratory technicians and pathologists' assistants

3213 Animal health technologists and veterinary technicians

3214 Respiratory therapists, clinical perfusionists and cardiopulmonary technologists

3215 Medical radiation technologists

3216 Medical sonographers

3217 Cardiology technologists and electrophysiological diagnostic technologists, n.e.c. [2]

3219 Other medical technologists and technicians (except dental health)

3221 Denturists

3222 Dental hygienists and dental therapists

3223 Dental technologists, technicians and laboratory assistants

3231 Opticians

3232 Practitioners of natural healing

3233 Licensed practical nurses

3234 Paramedical occupations

3236 Massage therapists

3237 Other technical occupations in therapy and assessment

4211 Paralegal and related occupations

4212 Social and community service workers

4214 Early childhood educators and assistants

4215 Instructors of persons with disabilities

4216 Other instructors

4217 Other religious occupations

4311 Police officers (except commissioned)

4312 Firefighters

4313 Non-commissioned ranks of the Canadian Armed Forces

5211 Library and public archive technicians

5212 Technical occupations related to museums and art galleries

5221 Photographers

5222 Film and video camera operators

5223 Graphic arts technicians

5224 Broadcast technicians

5225 Audio and video recording technicians

5226 Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts

5227 Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing arts

5231 Announcers and other broadcasters

5232 Other performers, n.e.c. [2]

5241 Graphic designers and illustrators

5242 Interior designers and interior decorators

5243 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers

5244 Artisans and craftspersons

5245 Patternmakers - textile, leather and fur products

5251 Athletes

5252 Coaches

5253 Sports officials and referees

5254 Program leaders and instructors in recreation, sport and fitness

5. Supervisors

1211 Supervisors, general office and administrative support workers

1212 Supervisors, finance and insurance office workers

1213 Supervisors, library, correspondence and related information workers

1214 Supervisors, mail and message distribution occupations

1215 Supervisors, supply chain, tracking and scheduling co-ordination occupations

6211 Retail sales supervisors

6311 Food service supervisors

6312 Executive housekeepers

6313 Accommodation, travel, tourism and related services supervisors

6314 Customer and information services supervisors

6315 Cleaning supervisors

6316 Other services supervisors

6. Supervisors - crafts and trades

7201 Contractors and supervisors, machining, metal forming, shaping and erecting trades and related occupations

7202 Contractors and supervisors, electrical trades and telecommunications occupations

7203 Contractors and supervisors, pipefitting trades

7204 Contractors and supervisors, carpentry trades

7205 Contractors and supervisors, other construction trades, installers, repairers and servicers

7301 Contractors and supervisors, mechanic trades

7302 Contractors and supervisors, heavy equipment operator crews

7303 Supervisors, printing and related occupations

7304 Supervisors, railway transport operations

7305 Supervisors, motor transport and other ground transit operators

8211 Supervisors, logging and forestry

8221 Supervisors, mining and quarrying

8222 Contractors and supervisors, oil and gas drilling and services

8252 Agricultural service contractors, farm supervisors and specialized livestock workers

8255 Contractors and supervisors, landscaping, grounds maintenance and horticulture services

9211 Supervisors, mineral and metal processing

9212 Supervisors, petroleum, gas and chemical processing and utilities

9213 Supervisors, food and beverage processing

9214 Supervisors, plastic and rubber products manufacturing

9215 Supervisors, forest products processing

9217 Supervisors, textile, fabric, fur and leather products processing and manufacturing

9221 Supervisors, motor vehicle assembling

9222 Supervisors, electronics manufacturing

9223 Supervisors, electrical products manufacturing

9224 Supervisors, furniture and fixtures manufacturing

9226 Supervisors, other mechanical and metal products manufacturing

9227 Supervisors, other products manufacturing and assembly

7. Administrative and senior clerical personnel

1221 Administrative officers

1222 Executive assistants

1223 Human resources and recruitment officers

1224 Property administrators

1225 Purchasing agents and officers

1226 Conference and event planners

1227 Court officers and justices of the peace

1228 Employment insurance, immigration, border services and revenue officers

1241 Administrative assistants

1242 Legal administrative assistants

1243 Medical administrative assistants

1251 Court reporters, medical transcriptionists and related occupations

1252 Health information management occupations

1253 Records management technicians

1254 Statistical officers and related research support occupations

1311 Accounting technicians and bookkeepers

1312 Insurance adjusters and claims examiners

1313 Insurance underwriters

1314 Assessors, valuators and appraisers

1315 Customs, ship and other brokers

8. Skilled sales and service personnel

6221 Technical sales specialists - wholesale trade

6222 Retail and wholesale buyers

6231 Insurance agents and brokers

6232 Real estate agents and salespersons

6235 Financial sales representatives

6321 Chefs

6322 Cooks

6331 Butchers, meat cutters and fishmongers - retail and wholesale

6332 Bakers

6341 Hairstylists and barbers

6342 Tailors, dressmakers, furriers and milliners

6343 Shoe repairers and shoemakers

6344 Jewellers, jewellery and watch repairers and related occupations

6345 Upholsterers

6346 Funeral directors and embalmers

9. Skilled crafts and trades workers

7231 Machinists and machining and tooling inspectors

7232 Tool and die makers

7233 Sheet metal workers

7234 Boilermakers

7235 Structural metal and platework fabricators and fitters

7236 Ironworkers

7237 Welders and related machine operators

7241 Electricians (except industrial and power system)

7242 Industrial electricians

7243 Power system electricians

7244 Electrical power line and cable workers

7245 Telecommunications line and cable workers

7246 Telecommunications installation and repair workers

7247 Cable television service and maintenance technicians

7251 Plumbers

7252 Steamfitters, pipefitters and sprinkler system installers

7253 Gas fitters

7271 Carpenters

7272 Cabinetmakers

7281 Bricklayers

7282 Concrete finishers

7283 Tilesetters

7284 Plasterers, drywall installers and finishers and lathers

7291 Roofers and shinglers

7292 Glaziers

7293 Insulators

7294 Painters and decorators (except interior decorators)

7295 Floor covering installers

7311 Construction millwrights and industrial mechanics

7312 Heavy-duty equipment mechanics

7313 Heating, refrigeration and air conditioning mechanics

7314 Railway carmen/women

7315 Aircraft mechanics and aircraft inspectors

7316 Machine fitters

7318 Elevator constructors and mechanics

7321 Automotive service technicians, truck and bus mechanics and mechanical repairers

7322 Motor vehicle body repairers

7331 Oil and solid fuel heating mechanics

7332 Appliance servicers and repairers

7333 Electrical mechanics

7334 Motorcycle, all-terrain vehicle and other related mechanics

7335 Other small engine and small equipment repairers

7361 Railway and yard locomotive engineers

7362 Railway conductors and brakemen/women

7371 Crane operators

7372 Drillers and blasters - surface mining, quarrying and construction

7373 Water well drillers

7381 Printing press operators

7384 Other trades and related occupations, n.e.c. [2]

8231 Underground production and development miners

8232 Oil and gas well drillers, servicers, testers and related workers

8241 Logging machinery operators

8261 Fishing masters and officers

8262 Fishermen/women

9231 Central control and process operators, mineral and metal processing

9232 Central control and process operators, petroleum, gas and chemical processing

9235 Pulping, papermaking and coating control operators

9241 Power engineers and power systems operators

9243 Water and waste treatment plant operators

10. Clerical personnel

1411 General office support workers

1414 Receptionists

1415 Personnel clerks

1416 Court clerks

1422 Data entry clerks

1423 Desktop publishing operators and related occupations

1431 Accounting and related clerks

1432 Payroll administrators

1434 Banking, insurance and other financial clerks

1435 Collectors

1451 Library assistants and clerks

1452 Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks

1454 Survey interviewers and statistical clerks

1511 Mail, postal and related workers

1512 Letter carriers

1513 Couriers, messengers and door-to-door distributors

1521 Shippers and receivers

1522 Storekeepers and partspersons

1523 Production logistics co-ordinators

1524 Purchasing and inventory control workers

1525 Dispatchers

1526 Transportation route and crew schedulers

11. Intermediate sales and service personnel

3411 Dental assistants

3413 Nurse aides, orderlies and patient service associates

3414 Other assisting occupations in support of health services

4411 Home child care providers

4412 Home support workers, housekeepers and related occupations

4413 Elementary and secondary school teacher assistants

4421 Sheriffs and bailiffs

4422 Correctional service officers

4423 By-law enforcement and other regulatory officers, n.e.c. [2]

6411 Sales and account representatives - wholesale trade (non-technical)

6421 Retail salespersons

6511 Maîtres d'hôtel and hosts/hostesses

6512 Bartenders

6513 Food and beverage servers

6521 Travel counsellors

6522 Pursers and flight attendants

6523 Airline ticket and service agents

6524 Ground and water transport ticket agents, cargo service representatives and related clerks

6525 Hotel front desk clerks

6531 Tour and travel guides

6532 Outdoor sport and recreational guides

6533 Casino occupations

6541 Security guards and related security service occupations

6551 Customer services representatives - financial institutions

6552 Other customer and information services representatives

6561 Image, social and other personal consultants

6562 Estheticians, electrologists and related occupations

6563 Pet groomers and animal care workers

6564 Other personal service occupations

12. Semi-skilled manual workers

7441 Residential and commercial installers and servicers

7442 Waterworks and gas maintenance workers

7444 Pest controllers and fumigators

7445 Other repairers and servicers

7451 Longshore workers

7452 Material handlers

7511 Transport truck drivers

7512 Bus drivers, subway operators and other transit operators

7513 Taxi and limousine drivers and chauffeurs

7514 Delivery and courier service drivers

7521 Heavy equipment operators (except crane)

7522 Public works maintenance equipment operators and related workers

7531 Railway yard and track maintenance workers

7532 Water transport deck and engine room crew

7533 Boat and cable ferry operators and related occupations

7534 Air transport ramp attendants

7535 Other automotive mechanical installers and servicers

8411 Underground mine service and support workers

8412 Oil and gas well drilling and related workers and services operators

8421 Chain saw and skidder operators

8422 Silviculture and forestry workers

8431 General farm workers

8432 Nursery and greenhouse workers

8441 Fishing vessel deckhands

8442 Trappers and hunters

9411 Machine operators, mineral and metal processing

9412 Foundry workers

9413 Glass forming and finishing machine operators and glass cutters

9414 Concrete, clay and stone forming operators

9415 Inspectors and testers, mineral and metal processing

9416 Metalworking and forging machine operators

9417 Machining tool operators

9418 Other metal products machine operators

9421 Chemical plant machine operators

9422 Plastics processing machine operators

9423 Rubber processing machine operators and related workers

9431 Sawmill machine operators

9432 Pulp mill machine operators

9433 Papermaking and finishing machine operators

9434 Other wood processing machine operators

9435 Paper converting machine operators

9436 Lumber graders and other wood processing inspectors and graders

9437 Woodworking machine operators

9441 Textile fibre and yarn, hide and pelt processing machine operators and workers

9442 Weavers, knitters and other fabric making occupations

9445 Fabric, fur and leather cutters

9446 Industrial sewing machine operators

9447 Inspectors and graders, textile, fabric, fur and leather products manufacturing

9461 Process control and machine operators, food and beverage processing

9462 Industrial butchers and meat cutters, poultry preparers and related workers

9463 Fish and seafood plant workers

9465 Testers and graders, food and beverage processing

9471 Plateless printing equipment operators

9472 Camera, platemaking and other prepress occupations

9473 Binding and finishing machine operators

9474 Photographic and film processors

9521 Aircraft assemblers and aircraft assembly inspectors

9522 Motor vehicle assemblers, inspectors and testers

9523 Electronics assemblers, fabricators, inspectors and testers

9524 Assemblers and inspectors, electrical appliance, apparatus and equipment manufacturing

9525 Assemblers, fabricators and inspectors, industrial electrical motors and transformers

9526 Mechanical assemblers and inspectors

9527 Machine operators and inspectors, electrical apparatus manufacturing

9531 Boat assemblers and inspectors

9532 Furniture and fixture assemblers and inspectors

9533 Other wood products assemblers and inspectors

9534 Furniture finishers and refinishers

9535 Plastic products assemblers, finishers and inspectors

9536 Industrial painters, coaters and metal finishing process operators

9537 Other products assemblers, finishers and inspectors

13. Other sales and service personnel

6611 Cashiers

6621 Service station attendants

6622 Store shelf stockers, clerks and order fillers

6623 Other sales related occupations

6711 Food counter attendants, kitchen helpers and related support occupations

6721 Support occupations in accommodation, travel and facilities set-up services

6722 Operators and attendants in amusement, recreation and sport

6731 Light duty cleaners

6732 Specialized cleaners

6733 Janitors, caretakers and building superintendents

6741 Dry cleaning, laundry and related occupations

6742 Other service support occupations, n.e.c. [2]

14. Other manual workers

7611 Construction trades helpers and labourers

7612 Other trades helpers and labourers

7621 Public works and maintenance labourers

7622 Railway and motor transport labourers

8611 Harvesting labourers

8612 Landscaping and grounds maintenance labourers

8613 Aquaculture and marine harvest labourers

8614 Mine labourers

8615 Oil and gas drilling, servicing and related labourers

8616 Logging and forestry labourers

9611 Labourers in mineral and metal processing

9612 Labourers in metal fabrication

9613 Labourers in chemical products processing and utilities

9614 Labourers in wood, pulp and paper processing

9615 Labourers in rubber and plastic products manufacturing

9616 Labourers in textile processing

9617 Labourers in food and beverage processing

9618 Labourers in fish and seafood processing

9619 Other labourers in processing, manufacturing and utilities

Footnotes

[1] Please note that management occupations are not assigned to a skill level category because factors other than education and training (e.g. previous experience, capital) are often more significant determinants for employment.

[2] n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

1. Senior managers

Employees holding the most senior positions in large firms or corporations. They are responsible for the corporation’s policy and strategic planning, and for directing and controlling the functions of the organization.

Examples: President, chief executive officer, vice-presidents, chief operating officer, senior government officials, general managers and divisional heads, and directors who have several middle managers reporting to them or are responsible for the direction of a critical technical function.

2. Middle and other managers

Middle and other managers receive instructions from senior managers and administer the organization’s policy and operations through subordinate managers or supervisors. Senior managers and middle and other managers comprise all managers.

Examples: Managers of transport operations, communications, finances, human resources, sales, advertising, purchasing, production, marketing, research and development, information systems, maintenance; commissioned police officers, commissioned officers in the armed forces.

3. Professionals

Professionals usually need either university graduation or prolonged formal training and often have to be members of a professional organization.

Examples: Engineers (civil, mechanical, electrical, petroleum, nuclear, aerospace), chemists, biologists, architects, economists, lawyers, teachers, doctors, accountants, computer programmers, registered nurses, physiotherapists, ministers of religion.

4. Semi-professionals and technicians

Workers in these occupations have to possess knowledge equivalent to about two years of post‑secondary education, offered in many technical institutions and community colleges, and often have further specialized on-the-job training. They may have highly developed technical and/or artistic skills.

Examples: Technologists and technicians (broadcast, forestry, biological, electronic, meteorological, geological, surveying, drafting and design, engineering, library, medical, dental), specialized inspectors and testers (public and environmental health, occupational health and safety, engineering, industrial instruments), dental hygienists, midwives, ambulance attendants, paralegal workers, graphic designers and illustrating artists, announcers and other broadcasters, coaches.

5. Supervisors

Non-management first-line coordinators of white-collar (administrative, clerical, sales, and service) workers. Supervisors may, but do not usually, perform any of the duties of the employees under their supervision.

Examples: Supervisors of administrative and clerical workers such as general office clerks, secretaries, word processing operators, receptionists, and switchboard operators, computer operators, accounting clerks, letter carriers, tellers; supervisors of sales workers such as airline sales agents, service station attendants, grocery clerks and shelf stockers, cashiers; and supervisors of service workers such as food and beverage workers, canteen workers, hotel housekeeping, and cleaning workers, dry cleaning and laundry workers, janitors, groundspeople, tour guides, parking lot attendants.

6. Supervisors: crafts and trades

Non-management first-line coordinators of workers in manufacturing, processing, trades, and primary industry occupations. They supervise skilled crafts and trades workers, semi-skilled manual workers, and/or other manual workers. Supervisors may, but do not usually, perform any of the duties of the employees under their supervision.

Examples: Supervisors of workers in manufacturing (motor vehicle assembling, electronics, electrical, furniture, fabric, etc.), processing (mineral and metal, chemical, food and beverage, plastic and rubber, textiles, etc.), trades (carpentry, mechanical, heavy construction equipment, printing, etc.), and primary industry (forestry, logging, mining and quarrying, oil and gas, agriculture and farms, etc.).

7. Administrative and senior clerical personnel

Workers in these occupations carry out and coordinate administrative procedures and administrative services primarily in an office environment, or perform clerical work of a senior nature.

Examples: Administrative officers, executive assistants, personnel and recruitment officers, loan officers, insurance adjusters, secretaries, legal secretaries, medical secretaries, court recorders, property administrators.

8. Skilled sales and service personnel

Highly skilled workers engaged wholly or primarily in selling or in providing personal service. These workers have a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the processes involved in their work and usually have received an extensive period of training involving some post-secondary education, part or all of an apprenticeship, or the equivalent on-the-job training and work experience.

Examples: Sales – insurance agents and brokers, real estate agents, retail and wholesale buyers, technical sales specialists. Service – police officers, firefighters, chefs, cooks, butchers, bakers, funeral directors, and embalmers.

9. Skilled crafts and trades workers

Manual workers of a high skill level, having a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the processes involved in their work. They are frequently journeymen and journeywomen who have received an extensive period of training.

Examples: Sheet metal workers, plumbers, electricians, tool and die makers, carpenters, glaziers, welders, telecommunications line and cable, installation and repair technicians; mechanics (heavy duty, refrigeration, aircraft, elevator, motor vehicle), tailors, jewellers, oil and gas well drillers, fishing masters and officers, paper making control operators.

10. Clerical personnel

Workers performing clerical work, other than senior clerical work.

Examples: General office and other clerks (data entry, records and file, accounting, payroll, administrative, personnel, library, purchasing, storekeepers and parts, mail and postal, insurance clerks, customer service, statistics, purchasing and inventory clerks), typists and word processing operators, receptionists and switchboard operators, computer operators, typesetters, dispatchers and radio operators, couriers and messengers, letter carriers, tellers.

11. Intermediate sales and service personnel

Workers engaged wholly or primarily in selling or in providing personal service who perform duties that may require from a few months up to two years of on-the-job training, training courses, or specific work experience. Generally, these are workers whose skill level is less than that of skilled sales and service, but greater than that of elementary sales and service workers.

Examples: Sales – airline sales agents, non-technical wholesale sales representatives, retail salespersons. Service – dental assistants, nurses aides and orderlies, tour and travel guides, hotel front desk clerks, correctional service officers, sheriffs and bailiffs, bartenders, nannies, aestheticians, pet groomers.

12. Semi-skilled manual workers

Manual workers who perform duties that usually require a few months of specific vocational on-the-job training. Generally, these are workers whose skill level is less than that of skilled crafts and trades workers, but greater than that of elementary manual workers.

Examples: Truck drivers; railway yard workers; longshore workers; material handlers; foundry workers; machine operators (plastics processing, chemical plant, sawmill, textile, pulp mill, tobacco, welding); workers assembling, inspecting, or testing products (motor vehicles, boats, electrical motors, furniture).

13. Other sales and service personnel

Workers in sales and service jobs that generally require only a few days or no on-the-job training. The duties are elementary and require little or no independent judgement.

Examples: Sales – service station attendants, grocery clerks, and shelf stockers, cashiers. Service – security guards, janitors, kitchen and food service helpers, dry cleaning and laundry occupations, attendants in recreation and sport.

14. Other manual workers

Workers in blue-collar jobs which generally require only a few days or no on-the-job training or a short demonstration. The duties are manual, elementary, and require little or no independent judgement.

Examples: Helpers and labourers in construction and other trades (plumber assistants, carpenter helpers, refrigeration mechanic helpers, surveyor helpers), garbage collectors, road maintenance workers, railway labourers, tobacco or fruit pickers, landscape labourers, fish farm helpers, roustabouts, roughnecks, swampers, labourers in processing industry.

Appendix E: Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and their Census Subdivision Components

List of 35 Census Metropolitan Areas (2016 CMA Boundaries)

St. John's

  • St. John's
  • Conception Bay South
  • Mount Pearl
  • Paradise
  • Portugal Cove-St. Philip's
  • Torbay
  • Logy Bay-Middle Cove-Outer Cove
  • Pouch Cove
  • Flatrock
  • Witless Bay
  • Bay Bulls
  • Petty Harbour-Maddox Cove
  • Bauline

Halifax

  • Halifax
  • Cole Harbour 30
  • Sheet Harbour 36
  • Beaver Lake 17
  • Wallace Hills 14A
  • Shubenacadie 13

Moncton

  • Moncton, City
  • Dieppe
  • Riverview
  • Moncton, Parish
  • Memramcook
  • Coverdale
  • Salisbury
  • Hillsborough, Parish
  • Hillsborough, Village
  • Dorchester
  • Elgin
  • Saint-Paul
  • Hopewell
  • Dorchester
  • Fort Folly 1

Saint John

  • Saint John
  • Quispamsis
  • Rothesay
  • Grand Bay-Westfield
  • Hampton
  • Simonds
  • Kingston
  • Hampton, P
  • Westfield
  • Norton
  • Upham
  • Musquash
  • Saint Martins
  • Greenwich
  • Lepreau
  • Petersville
  • Rothesay
  • St. Martins

Montréal

  • Montréal
  • Laval
  • Longueuil
  • Terrebonne
  • Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu
  • Brossard
  • Repentigny
  • Saint-Jérôme
  • Blainville
  • Mirabel
  • Dollard-Des Ormeaux
  • Châteauguay
  • Mascouche
  • Saint-Eustache
  • Boucherville
  • Vaudreuil-Dorion
  • Côte-Saint-Luc
  • Pointe-Claire
  • Sainte-Julie
  • Chambly
  • Saint-Constant
  • Boisbriand
  • Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville
  • Sainte-Thérèse
  • La Prairie
  • Beloeil
  • L'Assomption
  • Saint-Lambert
  • Varennes
  • Candiac
  • Saint-Lin--Laurentides
  • Westmount
  • Mont-Royal
  • Kirkland
  • Saint-Lazare
  • Beaconsfield
  • Dorval
  • Mont-Saint-Hilaire
  • Sainte-Marthe-sur-le-Lac
  • Deux-Montagnes
  • Saint-Basile-le-Grand
  • Sainte-Catherine
  • Saint-Colomban
  • Pincourt
  • Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines
  • Rosemère
  • Lavaltrie
  • Mercier
  • Beauharnois
  • Saint-Amable
  • L'Île-Perrot
  • Notre-Dame-de-l'Île-Perrot
  • Bois-des-Filion
  • Carignan
  • Lorraine
  • Otterburn Park
  • Saint-Zotique
  • Delson
  • Coteau-du-Lac
  • Hampstead
  • Les Cèdres
  • Saint-Joseph-du-Lac
  • Pointe-Calumet
  • Saint-Philippe
  • Charlemagne
  • Verchères
  • McMasterville
  • L'Épiphanie
  • Les Coteaux
  • Richelieu
  • Hudson
  • Montréal-Ouest
  • Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue
  • Saint-Mathias-sur-Richelieu
  • Montréal-Est
  • Oka
  • Baie-D'Urfé
  • Saint-Sulpice
  • L'Épiphanie
  • Saint-Mathieu-de-Beloeil
  • Saint-Isidore
  • Léry
  • Saint-Mathieu
  • Terrasse-Vaudreuil
  • Gore
  • Saint-Placide
  • Pointe-des-Cascades
  • Vaudreuil-sur-le-Lac
  • Senneville
  • L'Île-Cadieux
  • L'Île-Dorval
  • Kahnawake
  • Kanesatake

Ottawa - Gatineau

  • Ottawa
  • Gatineau
  • Clarence-Rockland
  • Russell
  • North Grenville
  • Val-des-Monts
  • Cantley
  • La Pêche
  • Chelsea
  • Pontiac
  • L'Ange-Gardien
  • Thurso
  • Val-des-Bois
  • Lochaber-Partie-Ouest
  • Notre-Dame-de-la-Salette
  • Bowman
  • Mayo
  • Denholm
  • Lochaber

Québec

  • Québec
  • Lévis
  • Saint-Augustin-de-Desmaures
  • L'Ancienne-Lorette
  • Stoneham-et-Tewkesbury
  • Lac-Beauport
  • Sainte-Catherine-de-la-Jacques-Cartier
  • Boischatel
  • Sainte-Brigitte-de-Laval
  • Saint-Lambert-de-Lauzon
  • Shannon
  • Saint-Henri
  • Neuville
  • Château-Richer
  • L'Ange-Gardien
  • Saint-Gabriel-de-Valcartier
  • Beaumont
  • Wendake
  • Saint-Pierre-de-l'Île-d'Orléans
  • Fossambault-sur-le-Lac
  • Saint-Antoine-de-Tilly
  • Saint-Laurent-de-l'Île-d'Orléans
  • Saint-Jean-de-l'Île-d'Orléans
  • Sainte-Pétronille
  • Sainte-Famille
  • Lac-Delage
  • Saint-François-de-l'Île-d'Orléans
  • Notre-Dame-des-Anges
  • Lac-Saint-Joseph

Sherbrooke

  • Sherbrooke
  • Magog
  • Orford
  • Saint-Denis-de-Brompton
  • Ascot Corner
  • Compton
  • Stoke
  • Waterville
  • Hatley
  • Val-Joli
  • North Hatley

Saguenay

  • Saguenay
  • Saint-Honoré
  • Saint-David-de-Falardeau
  • Saint-Fulgence
  • Larouche
  • Saint-Félix-d'Otis
  • Bégin
  • Saint-Charles-de-Bourget
  • Sainte-Rose-du-Nord

Trois-Rivières

  • Trois-Rivières
  • Bécancour
  • Saint-Maurice
  • Yamachiche
  • Champlain
  • Saint-Luc-de-Vincennes
  • Wôlinak

Toronto

  • Toronto
  • Mississauga
  • Brampton
  • Markham
  • Vaughan
  • Richmond Hill
  • Oakville
  • Ajax
  • Milton
  • Pickering
  • Newmarket
  • Caledon
  • Halton Hills
  • Aurora
  • Whitchurch-Stouffville
  • Georgina
  • Bradford West Gwillimbury
  • New Tecumseth
  • Orangeville
  • King
  • East Gwillimbury
  • Uxbridge
  • Mono
  • Chippewas of Georgina Island First Nation

Hamilton

  • Hamilton
  • Burlington
  • Grimsby

Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo

  • Kitchener
  • Cambridge
  • Waterloo
  • Woolwich
  • Wilmot
  • North Dumfries

London

  • London
  • St. Thomas
  • Strathroy-Caradoc
  • Middlesex Centre
  • Thames Centre
  • Central Elgin
  • Southwold
  • Adelaide-Metcalfe

St. Catharines - Niagara

  • St. Catharines
  • Niagara Falls
  • Welland
  • Fort Erie
  • Lincoln
  • Thorold
  • Port Colborne
  • Niagara-on-the-Lake
  • Pelham
  • Wainfleet

Oshawa

  • Oshawa
  • Whitby
  • Clarington

Windsor

  • Windsor
  • Lakeshore
  • LaSalle
  • Tecumseh
  • Amherstburg

Barrie

  • Barrie
  • Innisfil
  • Springwater

Greater Sudbury

  • Greater Sudbury / Grand Sudbury
  • Markstay-Warren
  • Whitefish Lake 6
  • Wahnapitei 11

Kingston

  • Kingston
  • South Frontenac
  • Loyalist
  • Frontenac Islands

Guelph

  • Guelph
  • Guelph/Eramosa
  • Puslinch

Brantford

  • Brantford
  • Brant
  • Six Nations (Part) 40

Peterborough

  • Peterborough
  • Selwyn
  • Cavan Monaghan
  • Douro-Dummer
  • Otonabee-South Monaghan
  • Curve Lake First Nation 35
  • Hiawatha First Nation

Thunder Bay

  • Thunder Bay
  • Oliver Paipoonge
  • Shuniah
  • Neebing
  • Fort William 52
  • Conmee
  • O'Connor
  • Gillies

Belleville

  • Belleville
  • Quinte West
  • Stirling-Rawdon
  • Tyendinaga

Winnipeg

  • Winnipeg
  • Springfield
  • Taché
  • St. Clements
  • East St. Paul
  • Macdonald
  • Ritchot
  • West St. Paul
  • Headingley
  • St. François Xavier
  • Rosser
  • Brokenhead 4

Saskatoon

  • Saskatoon
  • Warman
  • Martensville
  • Corman Park No. 344
  • Vanscoy No. 345
  • Dundurn No. 314
  • Blucher No. 343
  • Dalmeny
  • Langham
  • Aberdeen No. 373
  • Osler
  • Delisle
  • Allan
  • Asquith
  • Aberdeen
  • Dundurn
  • Vanscoy
  • Colonsay
  • Whitecap
  • Clavet
  • Shields
  • Colonsay No. 342
  • Bradwell
  • Thode
  • Meacham

Regina

  • Regina
  • Edenwold No. 158
  • White City
  • Pilot Butte
  • Lumsden No. 189
  • Lumsden
  • Balgonie
  • Lajord No. 128
  • Regina Beach
  • Sherwood No. 159
  • Grand Coulee
  • Buena Vista
  • Pense
  • Pense No. 160
  • Edenwold
  • Belle Plaine
  • Disley
  • Lumsden Beach

Calgary

  • Calgary
  • Airdrie
  • Rocky View County
  • Cochrane
  • Chestermere
  • Crossfield
  • Tsuu T'ina Nation 145 (Sarcee 145)
  • Irricana
  • Beiseker

Edmonton

  • Edmonton
  • Strathcona County
  • St. Albert
  • Spruce Grove
  • Parkland County
  • Leduc
  • Fort Saskatchewan
  • Sturgeon County
  • Beaumont
  • Stony Plain
  • Leduc County
  • Morinville
  • Devon
  • Gibbons
  • Calmar
  • Redwater
  • Stony Plain 135
  • Wabamun 133A
  • Bon Accord
  • Legal
  • Bruderheim
  • Alexander 134
  • Thorsby
  • Warburg
  • Spring Lake
  • Wabamun
  • Seba Beach
  • Golden Days
  • Sundance Beach
  • Wabamun 133B
  • Lakeview
  • Itaska Beach
  • Betula Beach
  • Kapasiwin
  • Point Alison

Lethbridge

  • Lethbridge
  • Lethbridge County
  • Coaldale
  • Coalhurst
  • Picture Butte
  • Nobleford
  • Barons

Vancouver

  • Vancouver
  • Surrey
  • Burnaby
  • Richmond
  • Coquitlam
  • Langley
  • Delta
  • North Vancouver
  • Maple Ridge
  • New Westminster
  • Port Coquitlam
  • North Vancouver
  • West Vancouver
  • Port Moody
  • Langley
  • White Rock
  • Pitt Meadows
  • Greater Vancouver A
  • Bowen Island
  • Capilano 5
  • Anmore
  • Burrard Inlet 3
  • Musqueam 2
  • Lions Bay
  • Tsawwassen
  • Belcarra
  • Mission 1
  • Matsqui 4
  • Katzie 1
  • Seymour Creek 2
  • Semiahmoo
  • McMillan Island 6
  • Coquitlam 1
  • Barnston Island 3
  • Katzie 2
  • Musqueam 4
  • Coquitlam 2
  • Langley 5
  • Whonnock 1

Victoria

  • Saanich
  • Victoria
  • Langford
  • Oak Bay
  • Esquimalt
  • Colwood
  • Central Saanich
  • Sooke
  • Sidney
  • North Saanich
  • View Royal
  • Metchosin
  • Juan de Fuca (Part 1)
  • Highlands
  • New Songhees 1A
  • East Saanich 2
  • South Saanich 1
  • Cole Bay 3
  • T'Sou-ke
  • Becher Bay 1
  • Union Bay 4
  • Esquimalt

Kelowna

  • Kelowna
  • West Kelowna
  • Lake Country
  • Tsinstikeptum 9
  • Peachland
  • Central Okanagan
  • Central Okanagan J
  • Duck Lake 7
  • Tsinstikeptum 10

Abbotsford - Mission

  • Abbotsford
  • Mission
  • Upper Sumas 6
  • Matsqui Main 2

List of the eight Designated Census Metropolitan Areas as stipulated by the Employment Equity Regulations, Schedule I, Subsection 1(1)

  • Calgary, Alberta
  • Edmonton, Alberta
  • Halifax, Nova Scotia
  • Montréal, Quebec
  • Regina, Saskatchewan
  • Toronto, Ontario
  • Vancouver, British Columbia
  • Winnipeg, Manitoba

Appendix F: Data Variables

Geography

Canada

Provinces/Territories

  • Newfoundland and Labrador
  • Prince Edward Island
  • Nova Scotia
  • New Brunswick
  • Quebec
  • Ontario
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Yukon Territory
  • Northwest Territories
  • Nunavut

Census Metropolitan Areas

  • St.John’s
  • Halifax
  • Moncton
  • Saint John
  • Saguenay
  • Québec
  • Sherbrooke
  • Trois-Rivières
  • Montréal
  • Ottawa-Gatineau
  • Kingston
  • Peterborough
  • Oshawa
  • Toronto
  • Hamilton
  • St. Catharines–Niagara
  • Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo
  • Brantford
  • Guelph
  • London
  • Windsor
  • Barrie
  • Greater Sudbury
  • Thunder Bay
  • Bellville
  • Winnipeg
  • Regina
  • Saskatoon
  • Calgary
  • Edmonton
  • Lethbridge
  • Kelowna
  • Abbotsford–Mission
  • Vancouver
  • Victoria

Employment Equity Occupational Groups (2016 NOC)

  • 1) Total – All occupations
  • 2) Senior managers
  • 3) Middle and other managers
  • 4) Professionals
  • 5) Semi-professionals and technicians
  • 6) Supervisors
  • 7) Supervisors: crafts and trades
  • 8) Administrative and senior clerical personnel
  • 9) Skilled sales and service personnel
  • 10) Skilled crafts and trades workers
  • 11) Clerical personnel
  • 12) Intermediate sales and service personnel
  • 13) Semi-skilled manual workers
  • 14) Other sales and service personnel
  • 15) Other manual workers

Appendix G: References

Introduction

Employment Equity Act: Annual Report 2017

Grad,L., Maselli, I., & Steemers, F. (2018). Global Labour Market Outlook 2018: Finding Ways to Counteract Worker Shortages. New York, Conference Board Research Report 1657.

World Economic Forum (2016). The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Geneva, World Economic Forum.

Women

Canada-United States Council for Advancement of Women as Entrepreneurs and Business Leaders (2018). Advancing Women as Leaders in the Private Sector.

Canada-United States Council for Advancement of Women as Entrepreneurs and Business Leaders (2018). Increasing the Number of Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics.

Catalyst (2018). Why Diversity and Inclusion Matter: Financial Performance; Catalyst.

The Conference Board of Canada (2018); Measuring Up: Benchmarking Diversity and Inclusion in Canadian Organizations. The Conference Board of Canada.

Edge, Jessica, Eleni Kachulls and Matthew McKean (2018). Gender Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion: Business and Higher Education Perspectives. The Conference Board of Canada.

McKinsey and Company (2018). Women in the Workplace 2018; Boston.

OECD (2018); Education at a Glance. Paris, OECD.

Wall, Katherine, John Zhao, Sarah-Jane Ferguson and Carlos Rodriguez (2018). “Results from the 2016 Census: Is field of study a factor in the pay-off of a graduate degree?”; Statistics Canada, Insights on Canadian Society.

Aboriginal peoples

MacLaine, Cameron, Melissa Lalonde and Adam Fiser (2019); Working Together: Indigenous Recruiting and Retention in Remote Canada; Ottawa, The Conference Board of Canada.

Members of visible minorities

Annen, Silvia (2018); “Recognition and Utilization of Foreign Qualification and Skills in the Canadian Labour Market; The International Journal of Community Diversity, Vol. 18, Issue 1.

Organization for International Co-operation and Development (2018); Education at a Glance; Paris, OECD.

Organization for International Co-operation and Development (2018); International Migration Review; Paris, OECD.

Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P., and Giovanni Peri (2003), “The Economic Value of Cultural Diversity”; CESifo Working Paper 1117.

Schwab, Klaus, ed. (2018); World Competitiveness Report; World Economic Forum, Geneva.

Recent trends in workplace practices

Boell, Sebastian K., Dubravka Cecez-Kecmanovic and John Campbell (2016); “Telework Paradoxes and Practices: The Importance of the Nature of the work”; New Technology, Work and Employment 31:2.

Levanon, Gad, Elizabeth Crofoot and Brian Schaitkin (2018); “Contrary to the Hype: Real Trends in Non-Traditional Work”; The Conference Board, Research Report 1673-18.

Messenger, Jon C., and Lutz Gschwind (2016); “Three Generations of Telework: New ICTs and the (R) evolution from Home Office to Virtual Office”; New Technology, Work and Employment, 31(3).

John A. Pearce II (2008); “Successful Corporate Telecommuting with Technology Considerations for Late Adopters”; Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 38, No. 1.

The value of inclusion and diversity

Ali, Muhammad, Isabel Metz and Carol T. Kulik (2015); Retaining a diverse workforce: the impact of gender‐focused human resource management; Human Resource Management Journal.

Angele, Susan M. (2018); “Leverage Diversity for Better Decisions”; KPMG, New York.

Buttner, E. Holly, and Kevin B. Lowe (2017); “Addressing Internal Stakeholders’ Concerns: The Interactive Effect of Perceived Pay Equity and Diversity Climate on Turnover Intentions”; Journal of Business Ethics, Volume 143, Issue 3, pp 621–633

Conference Board of Canada (2018); Measuring Up: Benchmarking Diversity and Inclusion in Canadian Organizations; Ottawa, The Conference Board of Canada.

Galinsky, Adam D., Andrew R. Todd, Astrid C. Homan, Katherine W. Phillips, Evan P. Apfelbaum, Stacey J. Sasaki, Jennifer A. Richeson, Jennifer B. Olayon, and William W. Maddux (2015); “Maximizing the Gains and Minimizing the Pains of Diversity: A Policy Perspective”; Perspectives on Psychological Science, Vol. 10(6).

Hewlett, Sylvia Ann, Melinda Marshall, Laura Sherbin and Tara Gonzalves (2013); Diversity, Innovation and Market Growth; New York, Center for Talent Innovation.

Hofhuis, Joep, Pernill G. A. van der Rijt and Martijn Vlug (2016); “Diversity climate enhances work outcomes through trust and openness in workgroup communication ”; Springer Plus.

Hunt, Vivian, Sara Prince, Sundiafu Dixon-Fyle and Loreina Lee (2015); Delivering Through Diversity (PDF, 6.52 MB), McKinsey & Company, New York.

Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P., and Giovanni Peri (2003), “The Economic Value of Cultural Diversity”; CESifo Working Paper 1117.

Rocío, Lorenzo, Nicole Voigt, Karin Schetelig, Annika Zawadzki, Isabell M. Welpe, and Prisca Brosi (2017); The Mix That Matters: Innovation Through Diversity; Boston, The Boston Consulting Group.

Sujin Jang (2017) “Cultural Brokerage and Creative Performance in Multicultural Teams”; Organization Science 28(6):993-1009.

Williams, Maxine (2017); “Numbers Take Us only So Far”; Harvard Business Review, November-December 2017.

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