Restoring the Great Lakes Areas of Concern

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The Great Lakes basin is Canada's most populated region. Its large population, together with the industry, agricultural and urban development it supports, places a strain on the ability of the lakes to support healthy ecosystems.

 

Results

Key results

  • Environmental quality in Canada's 17 Great Lakes Areas of Concern has improved since the restoration program began in 1987.
  • In 2017, 1 Impaired beneficial use was restored in the Bay of Quinte and the final impairment requiring assessment was resolved.

Progress on Canadian Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 1987 to 2017

Long description

The figure shows the number of beneficial uses classified as either Impaired or Requires further assessment in the initial assessment of Canada's 17 Great Lakes Areas of Concern in 2003 and in 2017. During this period, 3 Areas of Concern have been fully restored and 2 are classified as Areas of Concern in Recovery.

Data for this chart

Progress on Canadian Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 1987 to 2017

Lake

Area of Concern

Initial assessment

Impaired

Initial assessment

Requires further assessment

Initial assessment year

2003

Impaired

2003

Requires further assessment

2017

Impaired

2017

Requires further assessment

Superior

Thunder Bay

10

1

1991

9

0

5

5

Superior

Nipigon Bay

7

1

1991

5

0

4

1

Superior

Jackfish Bay

6

2

1991

6

1

3[A]

2[A]

Superior

Peninsula Harbour

5

1

1991

5

0

2

2

St. Marys River

9

1

1992

9

1

9

0

Huron

Spanish Harbour

5

4

1993

3[A]

0[A]

3[A]

0[A]

Huron

Severn Sound

6

2

1988

0[B]

0[B]

0[B]

0[B]

Huron

Collingwood Harbour

3

0

1989

2[B]

0[B]

0[B]

0[B]

St. Clair River

9

3

1991

9

3

6

3

Detroit River

8

0

1991

9

2

7

1

Erie

Wheatley Harbour

5

0

1998

5

1

0[B]

0[B]

Niagara River

8

2

1993

6

3

6

1

Ontario

Hamilton Harbour

11

1

1992

8

3

8

3

Ontario

Toronto and Region

8

1

1989

8

3

6

1

Ontario

Port Hope Harbour

1

0

2003

1

0

1

0

Ontario

Bay of Quinte

8

3

1990

10

1

9

0

St. Lawrence River

11

3

1992

7

3

5

2

[A] Area of Concern in Recovery.
[B] Restored.
Note: For the complete data set from 1987 to 2017, please see the data file.

Download data file (Excel/CSV; 2.74 kB)

Note: The initial assessments were published between 1988 and 1993, with the exception of Wheatley Harbour and Port Hope Harbour, which were produced in 1998 and 2003, respectively. The number of beneficial uses that are Impaired or Require further assessment for 2017 is based on progress reported as of March 31, 2017.
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada's Great Lakes Area of Concern Office.

More information

In 1987, the Canada–United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement identified 43 Areas of Concern around the Great Lakes. Of these Areas of Concern:

  • 26 were entirely in American waters and 4 have been restored: Oswego River (2006), Presque Isle Bay (2013), Deer Lake (2014) and White Lake (2014)
  • 12 were entirely in Canadian waters and 3 have been restored: Collingwood Harbour (1994), Severn Sound (2003) and Wheatley Harbour (2010)
  • 5 were shared by both countries

In addition, the Spanish Harbour (1999) and Jackfish Bay (2011) Areas of Concern in Canada have been designated as Areas of Concern in Recovery. To be considered in recovery, all restoration actions are complete and the area requires time to recover naturally.

Status of the Canadian Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 2017

Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada's Great Lakes Area of Concern Office.

Long description

The map shows the location and status of Canada's 17 Great Lakes Areas of Concern. Four Areas of Concern are located on Lake Superior, 3 on Lake Huron, 1 on Lake Erie and 4 on Lake Ontario. The remaining 5 are located on the channels connecting the lakes and are shared by Canada and the United States. As of March 31, 2017, there were 3 Restored Areas of Concern in Canada: Severn Sound and Collingwood Harbour on Lake Huron and Wheatley Harbour on Lake Erie. There were also 2 Areas of Concern in Recovery: Spanish Harbour on Lake Huron and Jackfish Bay on Lake Superior.

To date, considerable progress has been made towards the restoration of the remaining 7 Canadian and 5 shared Areas of Concern. At these sites, 63 beneficial uses have been restored to a Not impaired status since the beginning of the program. Efforts continue to confirm the impairment status of 21 beneficial uses identified as Requires further assessment and to restore the remaining 74 Impaired beneficial uses.

About the indicator

About the indicator

What does the indicator measure

This indicator assesses progress towards the restoration of Canada's 12 Areas of Concern and the 5 Areas of Concern shared with the United States.

An Area of Concern is a region in the Great Lakes that has experienced a high level of environmental damage from human activity. There are 14 beneficial uses that are considered in order to decide whether an area should be classified as an Area of Concern. An Impaired beneficial use has experienced enough changes to the chemical, physical or biological integrity of the area to restrict human use or to restrict the area's ability to support plants and animals. A beneficial use that is listed as Requires further assessment is one that requires scientific study to determine whether it is impaired or not. When all objectives for the Impaired beneficial uses listed in the remedial action plan have been achieved, the Area of Concern is restored and removed from the list. An Area of Concern in Recovery is an area where, on the basis of consensus, all reasonable actions have been carried out and time is required for the environment to recover.

The status of a beneficial use is determined by monitoring and conducting scientific studies in the Area of Concern. The study results are compared to the findings for reference sites and targets listed in the site's remedial action plan and other update reports. For more information about the reports that have been published for an Area of Concern, please see the Data sources and methods.

Why is this indicator important

This indicator tracks the work done to repair the environment at 17 Areas of Concern in Canada. In these areas, the degraded environment has disrupted fisheries, tourism and agriculture.

This indicator is used to provide information about the state of the Great Lakes and the Canadian environment. It is used to assess progress towards the implementation of the 2016–2019 Federal Sustainable Development Strategy.

What are the related indicators

Phosphorus levels in the offshore waters of the Great Lakes reports on the state of and trends in total phosphorus concentrations in the open waters of the Canadian Great Lakes.

Freshwater quality in rivers provides a summary of the state of and trends in water quality in Canada at a national and regional level.

Pristine lakes and rivers

This indicator supports the measurement of progress towards the following 2016–2019 Federal Sustainable Development Strategy long-term goal: Clean and healthy lakes and rivers support economic prosperity and the well-being of Canadians.

Data sources and methods

Data sources and methods

What are the data sources

Environment and Climate Change Canada's Great Lakes: Areas of Concern program tracks the status of all beneficial uses in Canada's 17 Areas of Concern. This information is taken from progress reports, remedial action plans and stage reports published for each area. The most recent data available for each Area of Concern are used to calculate this indicator.

More information

The 2017 data were obtained from Environment and Climate Change Canada's Areas of Concern Office. Since 2003, progress reports summarizing the status of all beneficial uses for all Canadian Areas of Concern have been compiled every 1 to 2 years. Prior to 2003, beneficial use classifications were taken from remedial action plans and update reports.

Data coverage for this indicator begins with Severn Sound's Stage 1 report published in 1988 and includes data up to March 31, 2017. The other Areas of Concern released their Stage 1 reports between 1989 and 1993, with the majority being released in 1991. Wheatley Harbour released a combined Stage 1 and 2 report in 1998.

The Port Hope Harbour Area of Concern does not have a remedial action plan. It follows a separate program under the guidance of Natural Resources Canada because of the nature of the beneficial use impairment at this site. Only the progress reports compiled since 2003 were considered for Port Hope Harbour.

Description of the Areas of Concern process

The 1987 revision of the Canada–United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement identified 43 Areas of Concern in Canadian and American waters of the Great Lakes. All Canadian Areas of Concern, except the Port Hope Harbour Area of Concern, have a remedial action plan to guide restoration and protection efforts targeting specific beneficial uses.Footnote 1  These plans are developed and implemented in 3 stages.

  • Stage 1 identifies which of 14 beneficial uses identified in the Canada–United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement are classified as Impaired, Requires further assessment or Not impaired, as well as the sources and causes of the problem
  • Stage 2 establishes the goals, objectives and actions required to restore the ecosystem to a healthy state

Once all recommended actions have been implemented, the Area of Concern either becomes an Area of Concern in Recovery or enters Stage 3 to move toward being declared Restored. An Area of Concern in Recovery is an area originally identified as an Area of Concern where, on the basis of community and government consensus, all scientifically-feasible and economically-reasonable actions have been implemented and additional time is required for the environment to recover. When monitoring confirms an area achieves the criteria for the beneficial use to be considered Restored, it enters Stage 3.

  • During Stage 3, progress toward restoration and protection efforts in the Area of Concern is measured against the objectives outlined in the Stage 2 report to ensure the local goals and targets have been met. When the beneficial uses are considered unimpaired, Stage 3 is complete and the Area of Concern is declared Restored.

Under the 2012 Canada–United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, remedial action plans will be periodically updated to reflect restoration progress. Canada:

  • will remove an Impaired beneficial use designation when established criteria have been met
  • may elect to identify an Area of Concern as an Area of Concern in Recovery when all actions identified in a remedial action plan have been implemented and monitoring shows recovery is progressing as anticipated
  • will remove the Area of Concern or Area of Concern in Recovery designation when environmental monitoring confirms beneficial use restoration criteria have been met

The reports prepared for each Area of Concern with their reference and release date are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Canada's 17 Areas of Concern and their associated remedial action plan reports

Areas of Concern names

Report

Reference

Notes

Bay of Quinte

Stage 1

Environment Ontario, Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (1990)

Released July 1990

Bay of Quinte

Stage 2

Bay of Quinte Remedial Action Plan Coordinating Committee, Bay of Quinte Public Advisory Committee (1993)

Released September 1993

Bay of Quinte

Update

Murray German Consulting (2006)

Released September 2006

Collingwood Harbour

Stage 1

Environment Ontario, Environment Canada (1989)

Released March 1989

Collingwood Harbour

Stage 2

Collingwood Harbour Remedial Action Plan Team, Public Advisory Committee (1992)

Released August 1992

Collingwood Harbour

Stage 3

Collingwood Harbour Action Team, Public Advisory Committee (1994)

Released June 1994

Detroit River

Stage 1

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1991)

Released 1991

Detroit River

Update

Leney J and Haffner GD (2006) Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research

Released December 2006

Detroit River

Stage 2

Green ND et al. (2010) Detroit River Canadian Cleanup

Released 2010

Detroit River

Beneficial use impairment re-designation report

Detroit River Canadian Cleanup (2011)

Released 2011

Hamilton Harbour

Stage 1

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Royal Botanical Gardens, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (1992)

Released October 1992

Hamilton Harbour

Stage 2

Hamilton Harbour Remedial Action Plan Technical Team and Stakeholders, Public Advisory Committee (1992)

Released November 1992

Hamilton Harbour

Update

Hamilton Harbour Remedial Action Plan Stakeholder Forum (2002)

Released 2003

Jackfish Bay

Stage 1

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (1991a)

Released September 1991

Jackfish Bay

Stage 2

Jackfish Bay Remedial Action Plan Team, Jackfish Bay Public Advisory Committee (1998)

Released February 1998

Jackfish Bay

Update

Jackfish Bay Remedial Action Plan Stage 2 Update: Area in Recovery Status Report 1 for Jackfish Bay (2010)

Released May 2011

Niagara River

Stage 1

Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (1993)

Released September 1993

Niagara River

Stage 2

Ministry of Environment and Energy, Niagara River Restoration Council (1995)

Released April 1995

Niagara River

Update

Niagara River (Ontario) Remedial Action Plan Coordinating Committee (2009)

Released December 2009

Nipigon Bay

Stage 1

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (1991b)

Released September 1991

Nipigon Bay

Stage 2

Nipigon Bay Remedial Action Plan Team, Nipigon Bay Public Advisory Committee (1995)

Released October 1995

Peninsula Harbour

Stage 1

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (1991c)

Released September 1991

Peninsula Harbour

Stage 2

Taillon K (2010) Environment Canada, personal communication

Draft report; not released. Status of each beneficial use is from 2000

Port Hope Harbour

 

Not applicable

The evolution of the beneficial use impairment is reported in the 2003, 2010, 2012 and 2014 progress reports

St. Clair River

Stage 1

St. Clair River Remedial Action Plan Team, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1991)

Released December 1991

St. Clair River

Stage 2

St. Clair River Remedial Action Plan Team, St. Clair River Bi-National Public Advisory Council, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1995)

Released March 1995

St. Clair River

Update

Geomatics International Inc. (1997)

Released February 1997

St. Clair River

Summary

Mayne G (2005) Environment Canada

Summary table with data from 3 previous reports.
Released 2005

St. Clair River

Update

Briggs T, Kok S, Lafrance C and White A (2012) St. Clair River Area of Concern Canadian Remedial Action Plan Implementation Committee Work Plan 2007–2010: Summary of Accomplishments

Released June 2012

St. Lawrence River

Stage 1

St. Lawrence Remedial Action Plan Team (1992)

Released August 1992

St. Lawrence River

Stage 2

Dreier, SI, J Anderson, J Biberhofer, M Eckersley, R Helliar, MBC Hickey, L Richman, F Stride, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall) Remedial Action Plan Public Advisory Committee (1997)

Report released 1997

St. Lawrence River

Update

Raisin Region Conservation Authority (2010)

Draft of Remedial Action Plan Stage 3, Section 3. Report not available online

St. Marys River

Stage 1

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1992)

Released March 1992

St. Marys River

Stage 2

Environment Canada, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Ontario Ministry of Environment, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (2002)

Released December 2002

Severn Sound

Stage 1

Environment Ontario, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Huronia District, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (1988)

Released September 1988

Severn Sound

Stage 2

Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Department of Fisheries and Oceans (1993)

Released April 1993

Severn Sound

Stage 3

Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy (2002)

Released June 2002

Spanish Harbour

Stage 1

Taillon K (2010) Environment Canada, personal communication

Released 1993

Spanish Harbour

Stage 2

Taillon K (2010) Environment Canada, personal communication

Released 1999

Thunder Bay

Stage 1

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries and Oceans (1991)

Released September 1991

Thunder Bay

Stage 2

Vander Wal J, Cullis K, Chase M. Morash M, Cano T (2004) Lake Superior Programs Office

Released May 2004

Thunder Bay

Update

Lakehead University RAP Office (2012)

Released 2012

Toronto and Region

Stage 1

Environment Canada, Environment Ontario, Ministry of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Area (1989)

Released May 1989

Toronto and Region

Stage 2

Metro Toronto and Region Remedial Action Plan Team (1994)

Released 1994

Toronto and Region

Update

Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (2010)

Beneficial use status in report is from 2007. Released 2010

Wheatley Harbour

Stage 1 and 2

Zaranko Environmental Assessment Services, The Citizens of Wheatley Harbour (1998)

Released March 1998

Wheatley Harbour

Update

Zaranko (2002)

Released November 2002

Wheatley Harbour

Stage 3

Wheatley Harbour Implementation Team (2010)

Released January 2010

All Areas of Concerns

Progress Report

Environment Canada (2003)

Released 2003

All Areas of Concerns

Progress Report

Environment Canada (2010)

Released 2011

All Areas of Concerns

Progress Report

Environment and Climate Change Canada, personal communication

Beneficial use status as of end of the Government of Canada's 2011-2012, 2013-2014, 2015-2016, 2016-2017 fiscal years

How is this indicator calculated

The number of beneficial uses listed as Impaired or Requires further assessment was counted for all Stage 1 reports and all update reports conducted up to the end of March 2017. The results include the beneficial uses for Canada's 12 Areas of Concern, covering the 4 Canadian Great Lakes and their connecting channels, as well as the 5 Areas of Concern shared with the United States.

More information

The number of beneficial uses listed as Impaired or Requires further assessment varies through time for many reasons:

  • a beneficial use listed as Not impaired in a report can be reclassified as Requires further assessment on the basis of subsequent monitoring and research.
  • an Impaired beneficial use can be classified as Restored if all delisting requirements for that beneficial use impairment have been met, or if the assessment determines the beneficial use was never impaired.
  • a beneficial use can be delisted if the impairment is found lake-wide and not solely within the geographic extent of the Area of Concern, and sources within the Area of Concern are controlled. The impairment can also be delisted if the conditions are shown to be the result of natural conditions and not human influences. As a result, it is possible for an Area of Concern to be delisted and still have Impaired beneficial uses.

What has recently changed

No methodological changes have been made to the indicator since its last publication in 2016.

What are the caveats and limitations

This indicator does not show the continuous nature of the rehabilitation process for each Area of Concern because the status for each beneficial use impairment can only change when new reports are published. With progress reports being updated annually, the staggered change is less evident.

The reporting process is different for each Area of Concern and, as a result, data availability differs among Areas of Concern.

Port Hope Harbour follows a separate program under the guidance of Natural Resources Canada.

Resources

Resources

References

Adams M (2010) Jackfish Bay Remedial Action Plan Stage 2 Update: Area in Recovery Status Report 1 for Jackfish Bay.

Bay of Quinte Remedial Action Plan Coordinating Committee, Bay of Quinte Public Advisory Committee (1993) Bay of Quinte Stage 2 Report: Time to Act.

Brigg T, Kok S, Lafrance C and White A (2012) St. Clair River Area of Concern Canadian Remedial Action Plan Implementation Committee Work Plan 2007–2010 Report of Accomplishments. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, and St. Clair Region Conservation Authority.

Collingwood Harbour Action Team, Public Advisory Committee (1994) Collingwood Harbour Remedial Action Plan Stage 3 Document: Right on Target.

Collingwood Harbour Remedial Action Plan Team, Public Advisory Committee (1992) Collingwood Harbour Remedial Action Plan Stage 2 Report – A Strategy for Restoring the Collingwood Ecosystem and Delisting Collingwood Harbour as an Area of Concern.

Detroit River Canadian Cleanup (2011) Re-designation Report: Assessment of the Tainting of Fish and Wildlife Flavour (Beneficial Use Impairments #2) in the Detroit River Canadian Area of Concern. Windsor, Ontario, Canada.

Dreier, SI, J Anderson, J Biberhofer, M Eckersley, R Helliar, MBC Hickey, L Richman, F Stride, St. Lawrence River (Cornwall) Remedial Action Plan Public Advisory Committee (1997) Remedial Action Plan for the St. Lawrence River (Cornwall) Area of Concern Stage 2 Report: The Recommended Plan.

Environment Canada (2003) Canada's Remedial Action Plan Progress Report 2003.

Environment Canada (2011) Canadian Great Lakes Areas of Concern – Status of Beneficial Use Impairments Overview.

Environment Canada, Environment Ontario, Ministry of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Area (1989) Toronto and Region Stage 1: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definition (Reprint).

Environment Canada, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Ontario Ministry of Environment, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (2002) St. Marys River Stage 2: Remedial Strategies for Ecosystem Restoration.

Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy (2002) Severn Sound Remedial Action Plan Stage 3 Report The Status of Restoration and Delisting of Severn Sound as an Area of Concern.

Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Department of Fisheries and Oceans (1993) Severn Sound Remedial Action Plan Stage 2 Report – A Strategy for Restoring the Severn Sound Ecosystem and Delisting Severn Sound as an Area of Concern.

Environment Ontario, Environment Canada (1989) Stage 1 Collingwood Harbour Remedial Action Plan: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definition.

Environment Ontario, Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ontario Ministry of the Natural Resources, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (1990) Bay of Quinte Remedial Action Plan Stage 1: Environmental Setting and Problem Definition.

Environment Ontario, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Huronia District, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (1988) Severn Sound Remedial Action Plan Part 1: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definition.

Geomatics International Inc. (1997) St. Clair River Stage 1 1997 Update.

Green ND, Cargnelli L, Briggs T, Drouin R, Child M, Esbjerg J, Valiante M, Henderson T, McGregor D, Munro D (Eds.) (2010) Detroit River Canadian Remedial Action Plan: Stage 2 Report. Detroit River Canadian Cleanup, Publication No. 1, Essex, Ontario, Canada.

Hamilton Harbour Remedial Action Plan Stakeholder Forum (2002) Remedial Action Plan for Hamilton Harbour Report Stage 2 Update.

Hamilton Harbour Remedial Action Plan Technical Team and Stakeholders, Public Advisory Committee (1992) Remedial Action Plan for Hamilton Harbour – Goals, Options and Recommendations, Volume 2 – Main Report.

International Joint Commission (2011) Restoring Beneficial Uses in Areas of Concern.

Jackfish Bay Remedial Action Plan Team, Jackfish Bay Public Advisory Committee (1998) Jackfish Bay Stage 2: Remedial Strategies for Ecosystem Restoration.

Lakehead University RAP Office. 2012. Thunder Bay Remedial Action Plan Update 2009 – 2012.

Leney J, Haffner GD, Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (2006) 2006 Status of Beneficial Use Impairments in the Detroit River.

Mayne G, Environment Canada (2005) St. Clair River Volume 1 – Synthesis Report Environmental Conditions and Implementation Actions (1998–2003).

Metro Toronto and Region Remedial Action Plan Team (1994) Toronto and Region Stage 2: Clean Waters, Clear Choices – Recommendations for Actions.

Ministry of Environment and Energy, Niagara River Restoration Council (1995) Niagara River Stage 2 Report – The Cleanup Connection.

Murray German Consulting (2006) Bay of Quinte Remedial Action Plan Restoration Council Work Plan: 2006–2010.

Niagara River (Ontario) Remedial Action Plan Coordinating Committee (2009) Niagara River Remedial Action Plan Stage 2 Update.

Nipigon Bay Remedial Action Plan Team, Nipigon Bay Public Advisory Committee (1995) Nipigon Bay Stage 2: Remedial Strategies for Ecosystem Restoration.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Royal Botanical Gardens, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (1992) Hamilton Harbour Stage 1 Report: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definition.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (1991a) Jackfish Bay Remedial Action Plan Stage 1: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definition.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (1991b) Nipigon Bay Remedial Action Plan Stage 1: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definition.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (1991c) Peninsula Harbour Remedial Action Plan Stage 1: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definition.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1991) Detroit River Remedial Action Plan Stage 1.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1992) St. Marys River Remedial Action Plan Stage 1: Environment Conditions and Problem Definitions.

Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (1993) Niagara River Remedial Action Plan Stage 1: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definitions.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Department of Fisheries and Oceans (1991) Thunder Bay Area of Concern Remedial Action Plan Stage 1: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definition.

Raisin Region Conservation Authority (2010) St. Lawrence River (Cornwall) Area of Concern Remedial Action Plan Draft Reports Section 3: Restoration and Rehabilitation Status.

St. Clair River Remedial Action Plan Team, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1991) St. Clair River Environmental Conditions and Problem Definitions: Remedial Action Plan Stage 1.

St. Clair River Remedial Action Plan Team, St. Clair River Bi-National Public Advisory Council, Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1995) St. Clair River Water Use Goals, Remedial Measures and Implementation Strategy (Stage 2).

St. Lawrence Remedial Action Plan Team (1992) St. Lawrence River Remedial Action Plan for the Cornwall–Lake St. Francis Area Stage 1 Report: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definitions.

Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (2010) Toronto and Region Update on Actions: 2007–2010.

Vander Wal J, Cullis K, Chase M, Morash M, Cano T (2004) Thunder Bay Stage 2: Remedial Strategies for Ecosystem Restoration.

Wheatley Harbour Implementation Team (2010) Wheatley Harbour Remedial Action Plan Stage 3 Report (Final Draft).

Zaranko Environmental Assessment Services, The Citizens of Wheatley Harbour (1998) Wheatley Harbour Stage 1/Stage 2 Final Report: Environmental Conditions and Problem Definition – Delisting Strategy.

Zaranko, DT (2002) Wheatley Harbour Remedial Action Plan Progress Report: Working toward Stage 3. November 2002.

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