1,4-Benzenediamine, N,N'-mixed phenyl and tolyl derivatives (BENPAT)
CAS Registry Number 68953-84-4
Updated June 26, 2019
The Final Screening Assessment for BENPAT was published on September 10, 2011 under the Challenge initiative of the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP). The assessment is summarized in this information sheet (formerly public summary) and has not changed. The section in this information sheet entitled "Preventive actions and reducing risk" communicates updates in risk management activities, namely:
- BENPAT was added to Schedule 1 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999).
On this page
- About this substance
- Human and ecological exposures
- Key health and ecological effects (hazard)
- Risk assessment outcomes
- Preventive actions and reducing risk
- Related information
- The Government of Canada conducted a science-based evaluation, called a screening assessment, of BENPAT, to address the potential for harm to Canadians and to the environment.
- Under CEPA 1999, the risk posed by a substance is determined by considering both its hazardous properties (its potential to cause adverse human health or ecological effects) and the amount of exposure there is to people or the environment. A substance may have hazardous properties; however, the risk to human health or to the environment may be low, depending on the level of exposure.
- The Government concluded that BENPAT is entering or may enter the environment at levels that are harmful to the environment, but not to human health, at levels of exposure current at the time of the assessment.
About this substance
- This screening assessment focused on the substance 1,4-Benzenediamine, N,N'-mixed phenyl and tolyl derivatives, also known as BENPAT. It was assessed as part of Batch 11 of the Challenge initiative of the CMP.
- BENPAT is a man-made chemical that does not occur naturally in the environment.
- It is used in Canada as an additive in rubber product manufacturing, including tires and hoses, to prevent degradation (break-down) and to increase durability.
Human and ecological exposures
- The assessment indicated that Canadians may be exposed to BENPAT through the environment; however, exposure was expected to be negligible.
- BENPAT may be released to the environment as a result of industrial processes, and during the use and disposal of products containing this substance.
Key health and ecological effects (hazard)
- The important or "critical" effects used to characterize risk to human health were reproductive and developmental effects.
- For the ecological assessment, BENPAT was considered to be highly hazardous to aquatic organisms, at low exposure concentrations.
Risk assessment outcomes
- Based on a comparison of levels to which Canadians may be exposed to BENPAT and levels associated with health effects, the risk to human health was considered to be low.
- Results of the final screening assessment indicate that BENPAT has the potential to remain in the environment for a long time and cause harm to organisms.
- Also, the screening assessment concluded that components of BENPAT meet the criteria for persistence, but not the bioaccumulation criteria as set out in the Persistence and Bioaccumulation Regulations of CEPA 1999.
- Considering all the information presented, it was determined that there is risk of harm to the environment from BENPAT.
- The Government of Canada published the Final Screening Assessment for BENPAT on September 10, 2011.
Screening assessment conclusions
- As a result of the assessment, the Government concluded that BENPAT is not harmful to human health at levels of exposure at the time of the assessment.
- However, the Government also concluded that BENPAT is entering or may enter the environment at levels that are harmful to the environment.
Preventive actions and reducing risk
- A Proposed Risk Management Approach for BENPAT was published on September 10, 2011 and had a 60-day public comment period.
- On June 26, 2019, BENPAT was added to Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999, also called the List of Toxic Substances.
- A preliminary method to measure components of BENPAT in municipal wastewater treatment systems was documented in a 2016 ECCC report. This method could be validated and used to measure releases of BENPAT to the environment in future.On August 25, 2018, a mandatory notice issued under Section 71 of CEPA 1999 was published to gather information that will further inform risk management decisions for BENPAT.
- Further information and updates on risk management actions for substances managed under the CMP can be found in the risk management actions table and the two year rolling risk management activities and consultations schedule.
- BENPAT may be found in products available to consumers. Canadians should follow any safety warnings and directions on product labels and dispose of products responsibly.
- Canadians who may be exposed to BENPAT in the workplace should consult with their employer and an occupational health and safety (OHS) representative about safe handling practices, applicable laws, and requirements under OHS legislation and the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
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