Eugenol and Isoeugenol Derivatives Group - information sheet

Phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-
(Eugenol)

CAS Registry Number 97-53-0

Rose, Rosa canina, ext.
(Rosa Canina extract)
CAS Registry Number 84696-47-9

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Overview

About these substance

  • The screening assessment focused on 2 of 4 substances referred to collectively under the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) as the Eugenol and Isoeugenol Derivatives Group. The substances addressed are phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- and rose, Rosa canina, ext., also referred to as eugenol and Rosa canina extract, respectively.
  • 2 other substances in the group were determined to be of low concern to both human health and the environment, through other approaches. Conclusions for CAS RNs 120-11-6 and 120-24-1 are provided in the Screening Assessment for Substances Identified as Being of Low Concern using the Ecological Risk Classification of Organic Substances and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC)-based Approach for Certain Substances.
  • Eugenol is a naturally occurring substance that is found in various types of plants. It is a major component of the bud, leaf and stem of cloves, and is mainly found as a component in essential oils.
  • In Canada, eugenol is found in a range of products including cosmetics, natural health products, air fresheners and cleaning products (as a fragrance ingredient). It is a naturally-occurring component of food, and may be used as a food flavouring agent.
  • The Rosa canina plant is a naturally occurring wild rose species. The Rosa canina extract is obtained from different parts of the plant (for example, buds, fruits and flowers) and is used in a variety of cosmetics and natural health products.
  • The Government gathers information on substances, including details on sources and uses in Canada, to support the risk assessment and management of substances under the CMP.

Exposure of Canadians and the environment

  • Canadians may be exposed to eugenol through a range of products available to consumers including cosmetics, natural health products, air fresheners, and cleaning products. This exposure would primarily occur through skin contact (for example, in body cream), ingestion (for example, in mouthwash) or by being inhaled (for example, in a spray perfume).
  • Exposure to eugenol may also occur through food, from its possible use as a food flavouring agent and from its natural presence in some foods.
  • Exposure to Rosa canina extract may occur primarily through cosmetics and natural health products (for example, in body cream or plant-based remedies). This exposure would primarily occur through skin contact (for example, in body cream) or by being ingested (for example, colon cleanse product).
  • Both eugenol and Rosa canina extract were identified according to information considered under the Ecological Risk Classification of organic substances approach as having low ecological exposure potential.

Key health and ecological effects (hazard)

  • To identify effects of concern for human health, published literature and national and international reports of data on eugenol and Rosa canina extract were reviewed. The information was used to inform this screening assessment. For eugenol, the only health effect observed in laboratory studies is a decrease in body weight.
  • Since the composition of the Rosa canina extract is variable and complex, the health effects information for the main components of the Rosa canina flower extract, eugenol and 2-phenethyl alcohol (CAS RN 60-12-8), were considered in the assessment. Decreased weight gain was considered to be the "critical" or important health effects associated with dermal exposures to 2-phenethyl alcohol.
  • According to information considered under the Ecological Risk Classification of organic substances approach eugenol and Rosa canina extract were identified as having a low ecological hazard potential.

Risk assessment outcomes

Screening assessment conclusions

  • As a result of this assessment, the Government concluded that eugenol and Rosa canina extract are not harmful to human health at current levels of exposure.
  • The Government also concluded that eugenol and Rosa canina extract are not entering the environment at levels that are harmful to the environment.

Important to know

  • Eugenol and Rosa canina extract are found in certain products available to consumers. To protect themselves and the environment, Canadians should follow any safety warnings and directions on product labels and dispose of products responsibly.
  • Canadians who may be exposed to eugenol and Rosa canina extract in the workplace can consult with their employer and an occupational health and safety (OHS) representative about safe handling practices, applicable laws, and requirements under OHS legislation and the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
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