Pigment and Dyes Group - information sheet

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Overview

  • The Government of Canada conducted a science-based evaluation, called a screening assessment, to address the potential for harm to Canadians and to the environment from 6 substances in the Pigments and Dyes Group.
  • Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), the risk posed by a substance is determined by considering both its hazardous properties (its potential to cause adverse human health or ecological effects) and the amount of exposure there is to people and the environment. A substance may have hazardous properties; however, the risk to human health or to the environment may be low depending upon the level of exposure.
  • The ecological hazard and exposure potentials of these substances were classified using the Ecological Risk Classification of Organic Substances (ERC) Approach.
  • As a result of the screening assessment, the Government concluded that the 6 substances in the Pigments and Dyes Group are not harmful to human health or to the environment, at levels of exposure considered in the assessment. Although substances in this group may be associated with human health or ecological effects, the risk is considered to be low given the levels of exposure.

About these substances

Human and ecological exposures

  • Canadians may be exposed to substances in the Pigments and Dyes Group through the use of products available to consumers, such as hair products, make-up, clothing, crayons and chalk.
  • Some of these substances may be used in certain food packaging materials in Canada; however, exposure to substances in this group from food is not expected.
  • According to the information considered under the ERC Approach, D&C Orange 5, Pigment Violet 1, Acid Black 2, Pigment Red 81, CAS RN 26694-69-9, and Basic Red 29 were identified as having low ecological exposure potential.

Key health and ecological effects (hazard)

  • No effects of concern for human health have been identified for D&C Orange 5, Acid Black 2 and Basic Red 29.
  • Based upon data available on its dye component, Pigment Violet 1 is associated with adverse health effects, including carcinogenicity (potential to cause cancer).
  • Adverse health effects, including decreased body weight, were also identified for Pigment Red 81 and CAS RN 26694-69-9, based upon data available on their respective dye components.
  • According to information considered under the ERC Approach, D&C Orange and Pigment Red 81 were initially identified as having a low ecological hazard potential; however, these have been revised and are now identified as having high hazard potential due to their higher ecotoxicity and bioaccumulation potential. Pigment Violet 1, Acid Black 2, CAS RN 26694-69-9 and Basic Red 29 were also identified as having a high ecological hazard potential, based on their higher level of ecotoxicity and bioaccumulation potential.

Risk assessment outcomes

  • A comparison of levels to which Canadians may be exposed to these substances and levels associated with health effects, along with the information presented in this screening assessment, determined that the risk to human health from D&C Orange 5, Pigment Violet 1, Acid Black 2, Pigment Red 81, CAS RN 26694-69-9, and Basic Red 29 is low.
  • Based upon the outcome of the ERC Approach, these 6 substances are considered unlikely to be causing ecological harm.
  • The Government of Canada published the Final Screening Assessment for the Pigments and Dyes Group on August 1, 2020.

Screening assessment conclusions

  • The Government concluded that D&C Orange 5, Pigment Violet 1, Acid Black 2, Pigment Red 81, CAS RN 26694-69-9, and Basic Red 29 are not harmful to human health at levels of exposure considered in the assessment.
  • The Government also concluded that these substances are not entering the environment at levels that are harmful to the environment.

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