Triclosan - information sheet
CAS Registry Number 3380-34-5
Updated October 10, 2020:
The Final Assessment for Triclosan was published in November 2016, as part of the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP). The assessment is summarized in this information sheet and has not changed. The section in this information sheet entitled "Preventive actions and reducing risk" communicates risk management activities, namely:
- Publication of the final pollution prevention planning notice for triclosan in certain products
On this page
- About this substance
- Human and ecological exposures
- Key health and ecological effects (hazard)
- Risk assessment outcomes
- Preventive actions and reducing risk
- Related information
- The Government of Canada conducted a science-based evaluation, called an assessment, to address the potential for harm to Canadians and the environment from triclosan.
- Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999), the risk posed by a substance is determined by considering both its hazardous properties (its potential to cause adverse human health or ecological effects) and the amount of exposure there is to people or to the environment. A substance may have hazardous properties; however, the risk to human health or to the environment may be low depending upon the level of exposure.
- More information on assessing risk can be found in the Overview of Risk Assessment and related fact sheets, particularly on Types of Risk Assessment Documents and the Risk Assessment Toolbox.
- As a result of the assessment, the Government concluded that triclosan is entering or may enter the environment at levels that are harmful to the environment, but not to human health, at levels of exposure considered in the assessment.
About this substance
- The assessment focused on phenol, 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy), also known as triclosan. Triclosan was identified as a potential concern to the environment. As a result, triclosan was assessed under CEPA 1999.
- Triclosan is a chemical that does not occur naturally in the environment. It is used as an antimicrobial agent and preservative in a variety of products to stop the growth of bacteria, fungus and mildew, and to deodorize.
- It could be used in cosmetics, drugs, natural health products, and cleaning products.
- Triclosan is not manufactured in Canada but is imported into the country in products, and as a pure substance to manufacture products in Canada.
- Triclosan as a pest control product was scheduled for re-evaluation by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Pest control products containing triclosan were voluntarily discontinued as of December 31, 2014. Triclosan is no longer registered in Canada as a pest control product.
Human and ecological exposures
- Canadians can be exposed to triclosan by using various products, including cosmetics, drugs, and natural health products.
- Other sources could include drinking water and house dust.
- Use of products containing triclosan results in release of the substance to wastewater systems. Triclosan is not fully removed from wastewater during treatment; it can be released to surface water thus exposing aquatic organisms.
- Application of organic matter from wastewater treatment systems to agricultural soil can result in releases of triclosan to soil in these locations.
Key health and ecological effects (hazard)
- Available information from laboratory studies indicates that triclosan may have effects on liver function. This was considered to be the important or critical effect used for determining the risk to human health in this assessment. Effects on the endocrine system, specifically on the thyroid, were also considered.
- A review of available information on the potential for triclosan to cause antimicrobial resistance was conducted. Based on available information, there is no clear link between products containing triclosan and increased antimicrobial resistance.
- Triclosan is highly toxic to a variety of aquatic organisms, such as algae and fish. Adverse effects observed include reduced growth, reproduction and survival, and there is evidence of effects on the endocrine system of aquatic organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations. This substance is also highly toxic to certain soil organisms.
Risk assessment outcomes
- A comparison of levels to which Canadians can be exposed to triclosan and the levels associated with health effects was completed to determine the risk of harm to human health.
- Exposure of the general population to triclosan was determined using the available Canadian biomonitoring data for triclosan from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 2 (2009-2011), the Plastic and Personal-Care Product Use in Pregnancy (P4) Study, and the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) and MIREC-Child Development Plus (MIREC-CD Plus) studies, which take into account exposures to triclosan from all sources. Exposure to children under the age of 3 years old was determined using a combination of Canadian biomonitoring data (for infants and children 3-5 years old) and additional estimates to account for potential exposures through breast milk, household dust and mouthing of triclosan-treated plastic products. At levels of exposure considered in the assessment, triclosan is not harmful to human health.
- Results of the assessment indicated that triclosan can adversely affect aquatic organisms, even at very low concentrations. Considering its continuous release from wastewater treatment systems to water courses, triclosan may cause harm to freshwater organisms.
- The Government of Canada published the Final Assessment for Triclosan on November 26, 2016.
- As a result of the assessment, the Government concluded that triclosan is not harmful to human health at levels of exposure current at the time of the assessment.
- However, the Government also concluded that triclosan is entering or may enter the environment at levels that are harmful to the environment.
Preventive actions and reducing risk
- The Proposed Risk Management Approach for Triclosan was published on November 26, 2016 and had a 60-day public comment period.
- Triclosan was added to Schedule 1 of CEPA 1999, also called the List of Toxic Substances. To address ecological concerns:
- In December 2017, the Government published the Final Federal Environmental Quality Guidelines for Triclosan to provide a benchmark for freshwater quality in the Canadian environment (for example, rivers and lakes).
- On November 24, 2018 a proposed pollution prevention planning notice requiring companies to prepare and implement pollution prevention plans under CEPA 1999 for triclosan in certain products was published. The notice had a 60-day public comment period ending on January 23, 2019.
- On October 10, 2020, the Government published the final notice requiring the preparation and implementation of pollution prevention plans with respect to triclosan in certain products.This was published in the Canada Gazette, and applies to manufacturers and importers of cosmetics, natural health products, and drugs containing triclosan. Public comments received on the proposed notice were considered in the development of the final notice.
- For human health protection, Health Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist includes concentration limits for triclosan in mouthwash (equal to or less than 0.03%) and in other cosmetic products (equal to or less than 0.3%).
- Drugs that contain triclosan as an active ingredient are regulated under the Food and Drugs Act which states that the permitted concentration can range from 0.1 to 1.0%.Health Canada's Natural Health Products Ingredients Database also indicates concentration limits for triclosan when used as a non-medicinal ingredient in mouthwashes (0.03%), dentifrices (0.3%), or topical products (0.3%) for licensing as natural health products.
- The Government will continue to build upon current efforts to develop policies to address concerns related to the use of antimicrobials.
- Triclosan is included in the CMP Monitoring and Surveillance Program, which monitors concentration levels of different chemicals in the environment. Levels of triclosan found in the blood and urine of Canadians are being measured through the Canadian Health Measures Survey.
- Canadian companies voluntarily discontinued the sale of pest control products containing triclosan for use as a material preservative in textiles (including leather), paper, plastic, and rubber materials. Consequently, as of December 31, 2014, triclosan is no longer registered in Canada as a pest control product.
- Further information and updates on risk management actions for substances managed under the CMP can be found in the risk management actions table and the two year rolling risk management activities and consultations schedule.
- Triclosan is not a concern for the health of the general population in Canada at levels of exposure considered in the assessment.
- Canadians concerned about environmental releases of triclosan from hand and body soaps can wash with water and soap that does not contain triclosan. Further information for Canadians can be found on the triclosan (for consumers) page.
- Triclosan should be identified on the list of ingredients of any cosmetics, drugs, and natural health products that contain it.
- Canadians should always follow any safety warnings and directions related to the product and dispose of products responsibly.
- The screening assessment focused on potential risks from exposure of the general population of Canada, rather than occupational exposure. Hazards related to chemicals used in the workplace are defined within the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. For information concerning workplace health and safety and what steps to take in the workplace, Canadians should consult their employer and/or the Occupational Health and Safety Regulator in their jurisdiction.
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