Draft: Guidance document - sunscreen monograph
The Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) has changed its name to the Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate (NNHPD) subsequent to its recently expanded mandate to include the oversight of non-prescription and disinfectant drugs in addition to natural health products (NHPs). Please note that we are currently modifying documents to reflect this change.
Thank you for your patience and understanding.
Health Canada is pleased to announce the release of the revised Sunburn Protectants Monograph for stakeholder consultation. The document is now titled "Guidance Document Sunscreen Monograph", to reflect the common Canadian term for this category of drugs.
This draft Monograph is intended to replace the existing Sunburn Protectants Monograph of October 12, 2006. The proposed Monograph applies to drugs subject to the Food and Drug Regulations administered by the Therapeutic Products Directorate (TPD) and natural health products subject to the Natural Health Product Regulations administered by the Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD). It identifies the permitted ingredients, doses, directions and indications for use for these products, which will be required to appear on the product labels as well as the recommended supporting test methods.
The development of this Monograph is the result of a thorough survey of existing regulations, guidance documents, policies and current practices within Health Canada and other leading regulatory agencies.
Guidance documents are meant to provide assistance to industry and health care professionals on how to comply with governing statutes and regulations. Guidance documents also provide assistance to staff on how Health Canada mandates and objectives should be implemented in a manner that is fair, consistent and effective.
Guidance documents are administrative instruments not having force of law and, as such, allow for flexibility in approach. Alternate approaches to the principles and practices described in this document may be acceptable provided they are supported by adequate justification. Alternate approaches should be discussed in advance with the relevant program area to avoid the possible finding that applicable statutory or regulatory requirements have not been met.
As a corollary to the above, it is equally important to note that Health Canada reserves the right to request information or material, or define conditions not specifically described in this document, in order to allow the Department to adequately assess the safety, efficacy or quality of a therapeutic product. Health Canada is committed to ensuring that such requests are justifiable and that decisions are clearly documented.
This document should be read in conjunction with the accompanying notice and the relevant sections of other applicable guidance documents.
Table of contents
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Definitions and acronyms
- 3 Medicinal ingredients
- 4 Route(s) of administration
- 5 Dosage forms(s)
- 6 Indications
- 6.1 Acceptable indications
- 6.2 Unacceptable indications
- 7 Dosage directions
- 8 Cautions and warnings
- 9 Labelling
- 10 Specifications
- 11 Efficacy test methods
- 11.1 Sun protection factor (SPF) testing
- 11.2 Critical wavelength testing
- 11.3 Ultraviolet A: Ultraviolet B protection ratio measurement
- 11.4 Water and sweat resistance testing
- 12 Non-medicinal ingredients
- 13 References cited
- 14 References reviewed
- Appendix 1: Ultraviolet A and Ultraviolet B protection characteristics
- Appendix 2: Monograph submission disclosures
- Appendix 3: Labelling
- Appendix 4: Supplementary information related to nano ZnO and nano TiO2
This monograph describes the requirements necessary to receive marketing authorization, that is (i.e.) a Drug Identification Number (DIN) or a Natural Product Number (NPN), for topical sunscreen products generally regarded as safe and effective, without additional supporting scientific data. Sunscreens may include products for use only as sunscreens and products which provide sun protection in addition to a cosmetic attribute. Products which do not meet the criteria outlined in this document should apply outside of the monograph stream.
Sunscreens are classified as natural health products (NHPs) if they contain ingredients from Table 1. Applicants applying for a natural product number (NPN) can access the appropriate forms and guidance [Accessed 2012-09-10].
The requirements set forth in this guidance align with the United States Food and Drug Administration Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use: Final Rule (2011). As such, sunscreens meeting the requirements established by the US FDA Final Rule are also meeting the requirements outlined in this monograph.
2 Definitions and acronyms
Products that are intended to provide protection against sunburn and Ultraviolet (UV) rays. Sunscreen products are classified as drugs and must meet the requirements set out in Canada's Food and Drugs Act before they may be imported, advertised, or sold in Canada.
Sunscreens include products intended to be applied to the face or skin as makeup or some skincare products which also carry sunscreen claims. These may be foundations (in any form), facial moisturizers, lipsticks, lip gloss, makeup powder, and skin moisturizers (as long as it is clear that there is a primary moisturizing purpose).These do not include eye shadows (due to safety concerns regarding application to the area around the eye), or any product without an explicit primary cosmetic function included on the inner and outer panels of labelling. Acceptable cosmetic claims can be found in Health Canada's Guidelines for Cosmetic Advertising and Labelling Claims.
- Broad spectrum:
A critical wavelength of at least 370 nanometers (nm).
- Ultraviolet A ( UVA):
UV sun radiation in the spectrum of 320-400 nm; also referred to as "longer" rays. The UVA waveband has been further subdivided into UVA II (320-340 nm) and UVA I (340-400 nm)Footnote 1. UVA rays are the principle cause of long term skin damage due to sun but may also contribute to sunburn.
- Ultraviolet B ( UVB):
UV sun radiation in the spectrum of 290-320 nm; also referred to as "shorter" rays. UVB rays are the principle cause of sunburn due to sun exposure.
Sun Protection FactorFootnote 2
3 Medicinal ingredients
In order to provide adequate protection from UV rays, all broad spectrum sunscreen products are required toFootnote 3:
- Contain both a recognized UVA and a UVB absorber;
- Have a minimum of Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 15;
- Have a critical wavelength protection of at least 370 nmFootnote 4
3.1.1 Ultraviolet A: Ultraviolet B optional ratio formulation
Sunscreen products may provide a UVA: UVB ratio labelling claim of not less than 1:3Footnote 5.
3.2 Monograph ingredientsFootnote 6
protection Footnote 8
|Source material Table 1 footnote 1||Quantity|
Table 1 footnotes
|Titanium dioxide (TiO2)||
CAS No. 13463-67-7
|Zinc oxide (ZnO)||
CAS No. 1314-13-2
CAS No. 150-13-0
|Medicinal ingredient preferred name||Synonyms and other recognized names||UV
|Terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid||
3.3 Nano zinc oxide and/or nano titanium dioxide
Certain ingredients that are formulated as nanosize, such as titanium dioxide and/or zinc oxide are acceptable ingredients. Refer to Section 10.2.1.
4 Route(s) of administration
5 Dosage form(s)
5.1 Acceptable dosage forms
Balm, cream, emulsion, gel, lotion, mousse, oil, ointment, powders, paste, spray [including non-pressurized sprays, continuous (bag-on-valve) sprays, and aerosol [non-chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) based sprays]Footnote 9, stick, and suspension.
5.2 Unacceptable dosage forms
The following forms require review outside of the monograph (including but not limited to):
- Aerosols containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), shampoos, soaps, shower gels, sustained-release products, washes, wipes, and any non-topical delivery system.
The use of the generic form "Liquid" is also not acceptable. As sunscreens are mixtures of substances not in pure form, a more accurate dosage form should be employed to communicate the finished product delivered at time of use.Footnote 12
6.1 Acceptable indicationsFootnote 10
6.1.1 Required use(s) or purpose(s)Footnote 11
For all products
The principal display panel should clearly communicate the following information:
- Sun Protection Factor "X", or SPF "X";
- For broad spectrum products, SPF "X", or SPF ≥ 15;
All sunscreens providing broad spectrum protection with a SPF value ≥ 15, may use the following statement verbatim and bolded:
"The sun may cause sunburn, premature aging of the skin and skin cancer. Avoiding the sun, wearing protective clothing and regular use of sunscreens over the years reduces the chance of these harmful effects." [Adapted from the Canadian Cancer Society (2010) and the Canadian Dermatology Association (2011)].
The sun alert statement may not be broken down, displayed on separate locations on the labelling material and no substitution of words or phrases are permitted. This statement may not include a reference to the name of the product.
- SPF values greater than 50 are to be declared as SPF 50+
- Sun Protection Measures (optional): statement to the effect of (Alternative statements can be used such as those included in the Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use: Final Rule (2011))
Spending time in the sun increases your risk of skin cancer and early skin aging. To decrease this risk, regularly use a sunscreen with a Broad Spectrum SPF value of 15 or higher and other sun protection measures including:
- limit time in the sun, especially from 10 a.m.-2 p.m.
- wear long-sleeved shirts, pants, hats, and sunglasses.
- Watch for the UV index
- Use shade wisely
Sunscreens without broad spectrum protection or sunscreens with SPF value of < 15 must use the following statement verbatim:
"Skin Cancer/ Skin Aging Alert: Spending time in the sun increases your risk of skin cancer and early skin aging. This product has been shown only to help prevent sunburn, not skin cancer or early skin aging."
6.1.2 Additional use(s) or purpose(s)
Statement(s) to the effect ofFootnote 12:
- Sunburn protectant; helps prevent or protects from sunburn;
- Filters/screens harmful UVA/UVB rays;
- Absorbs throughout the UVA/UVB spectrum to provide sunburn protection.
6.1.3 Other product-related label claimsFootnote 13
The following claims may be used on the product label provided that there is scientific product-specific data on file to support the claim:
- For sensitive skin;
- Non-comedogenic (won't block pores);
- Paediatrician tested/recommended, dermatologist tested/recommended; "Water resistant" / "Sweat resistant" as long as testing has been performed according to the efficacy testing recommendations outlined in Section 11: Efficacy Test 286 Methods.
The following additional information may also be included on labelling:
- Logos from the Canadian Dermatology Association (CDA) may be used, provided that the application for a Drug Identification Number (DIN) or Natural Health Product (NPN) is accompanied by a letter from the CDA accepting this representation.Footnote 14
- For acceptability of cosmetic claims, please refer to the Guidelines for Cosmetic Advertising and Labelling Claims.
6.2 Unacceptable indications
6.2.1 Unacceptable use(s) or purpose(s) which are misleading or counterintuitive to the safety and efficacy of sunscreen use
- Statements to the effect of "sunblock", "sun shield", or any other term implying that the product either prevents UV ray penetration and/or provides total or complete protection;
- Provides X times your natural protection against sunburn;
- For sun-sensitive or fair-skinned persons, to prevent sunburn;
- For skin where exposure to UV light is contraindicated;
- Increases, perpetuates, or aids in the development of a tan;Footnote 15
- Allows you to stay longer in the sun;
- Waterproof, sweat proof;
- Representation that use of this product will repair or reverse any skin damage;
- Products for infants' scalps;
- Sunscreens with insect repellents.Footnote 16
- A "+" ("plus") indication next to the SPF value, with the exception of SPF 50+.
6.2.2 Unacceptable use(s) or purpose(s) which require assessment of supporting scientific data outside of the monographFootnote 17
- Sustained action/long-lasting (i.e. longer than 2 hours or longer than 80 minutes in water);
- Products for bald adult scalps
- Non-acnegenic (will not cause or contribute to acne);
- Representation for the prevention of cancer (only the complete Sun Alert statement may be used);
- Representation for the prevention of photoaging and/or related damage (i.e. age spots, wrinkles, etc.);
- Representation that the use of this product alone will prevent or minimize long term damage to the skin or skin cancer;
- UVC protection claims (or other UV rays apart from UVA/UVB);
- Claims that the product is photostable or photostabilized;
- Claims that the product can be applied directly to wet or sweaty skin;
- Claims that the product offers instant protection or protection immediately upon application.
7 Dosage directions
- For sunscreens providing broad spectrum protection with a SPF value ≥ 15: Adults and children older than 6 months of age.
7.2 Permitted combinations
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) reflects short UVA range (320-340 nm), which is referred to as UVA-2 (or UVA-II), and UVB.Footnote 18 As this range of protection does not meet the critical wavelength requirement of at least 370 nm if used as a single medicinal ingredient, it must always be used in combination with other acceptable sunscreen medicinal ingredients to meet the broad spectrum requirement of this monograph. See examples of combinations of Natural Health Products (NHPs) in Table 3.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) reflects both short (320-340 nm, UVA-II) and long (340-400 nm, UVA-I) UVA radiation as well as UVB; however, ZnO at 25% provides a maximum of SPF 7 as a single ingredient.Footnote 19 As this ingredient would not meet the minimum Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value of SPF 15 if used as a single medicinal ingredient, it must always be used in combination with other medicinal ingredients. See examples of combinations of Natural Health Products (NHPs) in Table 3.
|Concentration||Sun protection factor (SPF)|
|Titanium dioxide||Zinc oxide||Total|
|10%||13Table 3 footnote 1||3Table 3 footnote 1||16|
|25%||38Table 3 footnote 2||7Table 3 footnote 2||45|
Any combination of the ingredients listed in Table 1 and 2 is permitted in which case the product will be considered a drug. Combinations with active ingredients not included in this monograph will not be considered monograph applications.
The upper limit for use as a single ingredient also applies when the ingredient is used in combinations.
7.3 Directions for useFootnote 20
Statement(s) to the effect of (Alternative statements can be used such as those included in the Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use: Final Rule (2011)):
7.3.1 For sunscreen products with broad spectrum protection and SPF ≥ 15
Adults and children > 6 months old:
- Apply generously 15 minutes prior to sun exposure.
- For non-water resistant products only:
Reapply every 2 hours or after swimming, towel drying, perspiring heavily, washing, or in the case of products applied to the lips, after eating or drinking.
- For "water resistant" or "sweat resistant" products onlyFootnote 21:
Reapply at least every 2 hours or [insert 40/80 minutes as appropriate] after swimming or perspiring heavily or immediately after towel drying or washing,
- In the case of products applied to the lips:
Reapply after eating or drinking.
7.3.2 For sunscreen products that are not broad spectrum or with SPF< 15
- Apply 15 minutes prior to sun exposure; and either:
- Reapply every 2 hours for sun protection; OR
- Sun protection lasts for up to 2 hours unless rubbed off.
7.3.3 For all spray products (aerosol and non-aerosol)
- Do not spray directly onto the face. Spray into hands, and apply to the face. Rub into skin.
7.4 Duration of use
No additional statement is required.
8 Cautions and warnings
8.1 For all suncreens
- Stop use and ask a doctor if rash occurs.
- Do not use on broken or damaged skin.
- When using this product keep out of eyes. Rinse with water to remove.
- For external use only.
- Keep out of reach of children. If swallowed, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center right away.
- Children under 6 months: Ask a doctor.
- For spray products only: Avoid inhaling, using in an enclosed space or exposing others to spray.
8.2 For all sunscreens with alpha-hydroxy acids and/or retinol
For all products containing the non-medicinal ingredient(s) alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA), such as glycolic acid and lactic acidFootnote 22, at concentrations ranging from 3-10 % and/or retinol (or its acceptable derivatives, such as retinal acetate and retinal palmitate) at concentrations ranging from 0.1-1.0 %:
"This product contains [insert as appropriate: an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) and/or retinol] that may increase your skin's sensitivity to the sun and particularly the possibility of sunburn. Please limit sun exposure while using this product and for a week afterwards."
9.1 Drug product labelling
All drug products are subject to labelling requirements outlined in the Food and Drugs ActFootnote 23 and the Food and Drug RegulationsFootnote 24 (including but not limited to C.01.004, C.01.005, etc.). See Appendix 3 for some detailed examples.
Legibility of labels:
Although no specific type size is mentioned in the Regulations, Section A.01.016 specifies that all information required to appear on a label must be:
- Clearly and prominently displayed; and
- Readily discernible to the purchaser or consumer under the customary conditions of purchase and use.
A person with normal vision, or those with corrective glasses that restore normal vision, should be able to read the information without straining. The colour, contrast, the position, and the spacing of the information are all to be taken into consideration in complying with these requirements. A type size of 10 point for text and 9 point minimum for tables are recommended for any sunscreen product package inserts, in keeping with section 2.2 of Health Canada's Guidance to Industry: Product Monograph. It is recommended that sunscreen product labels have a minimum of font size 9.
9.2 Natural health products labelling
All Natural Health Products (NHPs) are subject to labelling requirements outlined in the Natural Health Product Regulations (including but not limited to sections 86(1) to 97).
This monograph describes those requirements that are specific to this class of drugs and to NHPs. Note that requirements described in the Food and Drug Regulations or the Natural Health Products Regulations (as applicable) must be met.
10.1 General specifications
For products containing Table 1 medicinal ingredients only:
The finished product must comply with the minimum specifications outlined in the current Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) Compendium of Monographs.
The medicinal ingredients from Table 1 may comply with the specifications outlined in the appropriate monograph from the following Food and Drugs Act, Schedule B list of standards:
- Pharmacopée française;
- Pharmacopoeia Internationalis;
- The British Pharmacopoeia;
- The Canadian Formulary;
- The European Pharmacopoeia;
- The National Formulary;
- The Pharmaceutical Codex: Principles and Practices of Pharmaceuticals;
- The United States Pharmacopeia.
For products containing Table 2 medicinal ingredients:
All ingredient (medicinal and non-medicinal) and finished product specifications should, as a minimum, meet the standards described in the publications referred to in Schedule B of the Food and Drugs Act, or equivalent standards. Where no Schedule B monograph exists for the dosage form, specifications should be similar to those of a comparable compendial dosage form. In the absence of a Schedule B standard for any dosage form, testing must be adequate to demonstrate the product's identity, potency, purity and quality.
Manufacturers are reminded that sunscreens, like all drugs, are subject to Division 1A and 2 of the Food and Drug Regulations, so must ensure that their products are safe, effective, and of high quality. Further, all products must have established stability and are required to display the lot number and expiry date on packaging (C.01.004).
10.2 Manufacturing process
Any change to the manufacturing process, requires supporting data concerning the manufacturing information, specification and the identity that will be submitted outside the monograph. This applies to both active and non-medicinal ingredients, in terms of the final finished formulation.
10.2.1 Nano zinc oxide and/ or titanium dioxide
Nanomaterials vary widely in composition, morphology, and other characteristics and cannot be considered a uniform group of substances. These substances may have physical, chemical, or biological properties that are different from those of their larger counterparts.
Nanomaterials and nano-enabled products continue to enter the Canadian marketplace in a variety of health products and food. Examples of current nanotechnology applications include food packaging, diagnostics and therapeutic products. While recognizing the potential health benefits of nanomaterials, it is important to ensure they are used safely and that their potential risks to the environment and human health are well understood and managed.
Therefore, licence holders are expected to continue monitoring and collecting new safety data as it emerges.
Applicants are required to keep information for record-keeping purposes when nano zinc oxide and/or nano titanium dioxide are used in sunscreen products. This information is required to be made available upon request. See Appendix 4 for a listing of the supplementary information related to nano ZnO and nano TiO2.
11 Efficacy test methods
The recommended testing outlined in this section is expected to be performed on the finished formulation for each product.
11.1 Sun protection factor testing
The degree of Sun Protection Factor (SPF) protection should be measured using standardised, reproducible testing methods. Health Canada will accept SPF testing performed using any of the following in vitro or in vivo test methods:
- a) United States FDA. Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration. Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use: Final Rule. 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310 [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0018] Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 117 / Friday, June 17, 2011/Rules and Regulations 35661-35664. [Accessed 2012-09-10]
- b) International Organization for Standardization. Cosmetics- Sun Protection test methods -In vivo determination of the sun protection factor (SPF) ISO 24444:2010. Geneva, 2010.Footnote 25. [Accessed 2012-09-10]
To ensure that at least 95% confidence that a sunscreen has a true SPF equal to or greater than that claimed on the label and that any potential retesting of the formulation will not yield a mean SPF lower than that claimed on the label, it is recommended that the claimed SPF should be calculated as recommended in the United States FDA method, regardless of the employed testing protocol.
Values obtained from SPF testing may be rounded down if so desired by a manufacturer. However the converse does not hold true and SPF values may not be rounded up, as this misrepresents the level of protection offered by a sunscreen.
11.2 Critical wavelength testing
The degree of UVA protection should be measured using standardised, reproducible testing methods. Health Canada will accept the critical wavelength testing performed using any of the following test methods:
11.2.1 In Vitro critical wavelength assessment/ In vitro method for the determination for the UVA protection factor
In order to establish that the product has met the 370 nm critical wavelength to establish the breadth of protection offered by a given product, the following test methods may be used:
- a) Colipa. The European Cosmetics Association. In vitro method for the determination for the UVA protection factor and "critical wavelength" values of sunscreen products. Guideline, Prepared by the COLIPA In vitro UV Protection Method Task Force, June 2009.
- b) Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use: Final Rule. 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310 [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0018] Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 117 / Friday, June 17, 2011/Rules and Regulations35664-35665.(Critical Wavelength only) [Accessed 10-09-2012]
11.2.2 In vitro/In vivo UVA protection measurement
In order to establish the magnitude of UVA protection offered by a given product, the following test methods may be used:
- a) International Organization for Standardization. Cosmetics- Sun Protection test methods -In vivo determination of Sunscreen Ultraviolet A Protection ISO 24442-2009. Geneva, December 2008;
- b) JCIA Japan Cosmetic Industry Association. Japan Cosmetic Industry Association Measurement Standards for Ultraviolet A Protection Efficacy. Tokyo: November 15, 1995.Footnote 26
11.3 Ultraviolet A: Ultraviolet B protection ratio measurement
To establish that the product meets the optional claim for the ratio of Ultraviolet A: UVB protection of 1:3, the following test method may be used:
Colipa.The European Cosmetics Association.In vitro method for the determination for the Ultraviolet A protection factor and "critical wavelength" values of sunscreen products.Guideline, Prepared by the COLIPA In vitro UV Protection Method Task Force, June 2009.
11.4 Water and sweat resistance testing
The terms "water resistant (40 minutes/ 80 minutes)", are acceptable provided data is available to show that the product meets the testing requirements for these terms outlined in the following documents:
- a) United States FDA. Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration. Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use: Final Rule.Footnote 27 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310 [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0018] Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 117 / Friday, June 17, 2011/Rules and Regulations 35664. [Accessed 10-09-2012]
- b) Colipa. The European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association.Guidelines for Evaluating Sun Product Water Resistance. December 2005Footnote 28
Similarly, products may carry a "sweat resistant" or "very sweat resistant" claim if the parameters for "water resistance" or "very water resistant" testing (respectively) have been met.
12 Non-medicinal ingredients
12.1 For drug products
Non-medicinal ingredients: Nomenclature using recognized proper, common, or international names from a valid scientific reference may be used on drug packaging.
Non-medicinal ingredients must be restricted to those substances necessary for the formulation of the dosage form. Their concentration must not exceed the minimum required to provide their intended effect. They must be harmless in the amounts used, their presence must not affect the bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy or safety of the medicinal ingredients and they must not interfere with assays and tests for the medicinal ingredients and, if present, antimicrobial preservatives. Manufacturers are reminded that the presence of an ingredient in a published scientific reference [e.g. International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) Dictionary] does not convey acceptability in a drug formulation, and should be relied on for nomenclature purposes only.
Ingredients of botanical origin added as non-medicinal ingredients must comply with the Drugs Directorate Policy, Herbs Used as Non-medicinal Ingredients in Non-prescription Drugs for Human UseFootnote 29.
All non-medicinal ingredients must also respect the limitations set out in the Food and Drug RegulationsFootnote 30, the Cosmetics HotlistFootnote 31 and the New Drug ListFootnote 32. Colourants are restricted to those outlined in Section C.01.040.2 of the Food and Drug RegulationsFootnote 33.
12.2 For Natural health products
For products containing Table 1 medicinal ingredients only:
Ingredients must be chosen from the current Natural Health Product Ingredients Database (NHPID)Footnote 34 and must meet the limitations outlined in that database.
13 References cited
- Beasley DG, Meyer TA. Characterization of the UVA protection provided by avobenzone, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide in broad-spectrum sunscreen products. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 2010; 11(6):413-421.
- APhA 2002: Berardi RR, DeSimone EM, Newton GD, Oszko MA, Popovich NG, Rollins CJ, Shimp LA, Tietze KJ, editors. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to Self-Care, 13th edition. Washington (DC): American Pharmaceutical Association; 2002.
- Canadian Cancer Society. Sun and UV. [Last modified 21-12-2010; Accessed 20-05-2011]
- Canadian Dermatology Association. Sun Safety. [Last updated 2011; Accessed 20-05-2011].
- Colipa. The European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association.Guidelines for Evaluating Sun Product Water Resistance. December 2005.
- Colipa. The European Cosmetics Association. In vitro method for the determination for the UVA protection factor and "critical wavelength" values of sunscreen products. Guideline, Prepared by the COLIPA In vitro UV Protection Method Task Force, June 2009.
- Couteau C, Chammas R, Alami-El Boury S, Choquenet B, Paparis E, Coiffard LJ. Combination of UVA-filters and UVB-filters or inorganic UV filters-Influence on the sun protection factor (SPF) and the PF-UVA determined by in vitro method. Journal of Dermatological Science 2008;50(2):159-161.
- Diffey BL. When should sunscreen be reapplied? Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2001;45(6):882-885.
- El-Boury S, Couteau C, Boulande L, Paparis E, Coiffard LJM. Effect of the combination of organic and inorganic filters on the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) determined by in vitro method. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2007;340:1-5.
- CTFA 2008: Gottschalck TE, Bailey JE, editors. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook. Twelfth edition, Volume 3. Washington (DC): The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association; 2008.
- Health Canada 2011. Health Canada. Consumer Product Safety. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients.
- Health Canada 1999. Health Canada. Drugs and Health Products. Listing of Drugs Currently Regulated as New Drugs.
- Health Canada 1995. Health Canada. Drugs Directorate. Drugs Directorate Policy on Herbals used as Non-medicinal Ingredients in Non-prescription Drugs in Human Use. September 22, 1995. [Accessed 26-05-2011 ].
- Health Canada 2010. Health Canada. Interim Policy Statement on Health Canada's Working Definition for Nanomaterials.
- ISO 2010: International Organization for Standardization. Cosmetics- Sun protection test methods - In vivo determination of the sun protection factor (SPF) ISO 24444:2010. Geneva, 2010.
- ISO 2008: International Organization for Standardization. Cosmetics- Sun Protection test methods - In vivo determination of Sunscreen UVA Protection ISO/FDIS 24442. Geneva, 2008.
- JC 2008: Justice Canada. Food and Drugs Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. F-27). [Current to 2011-05-17; Last amended 16-06-2008; Accessed 26-05-2011].
- JC 2011: Justice Canada.Food and Drug Regulations (C.R.C., c. 870). [Current to 2011-05-17; Last amended 01-04-2011; Accessed 26-05-2011].
- JCIA 1995: Japan Cosmetic Industry Association. Japan Cosmetic Industry Association Measurement Standard for UVA Protection Efficacy. Tokyo (JP): 21-11-1995.
- Merck 2012: The Merck Index Version 14.1 [Internet]. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck & Co., Inc. Copyright © 2006, 2011 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. [Accessed 20-05-2011].
- Nash JF, Tanner PR, Matts PJ. Ultraviolet A radiation: testing and labeling for sunscreen products. Dermatologic Clinics 2006; 24:63-74.
- Ph. Eur. 2012: European Pharmacopoeia. 8th edition. Strasbourg (FR): Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare of the Council of Europe (EDQM). 2012.
- Shaath NA, editor. Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development. 3rd edition. White Plains (NY): Taylor & Francis Group; 2005.
- USP 34: United States Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary (USP 34 - NF 29). Rockville (MD): The United States Pharmacopeial Convention; 2010.
- United States FDA. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. CDER Data Standards Manual Definitions for Topical Dosage Forms. 2006. [Accessed 20-05-2011 ]
- United States FDA. Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration. 21 CFR Parts 347 and 352. Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph; Proposed Rule; 2007. [Accessed 26-05-2011].
- United States FDA. Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration. Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use: Final Rule. 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310 [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0018] Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 117 / Friday, June 17, 2011/Rules and Regulations 35620-35665.
- Wang SQ, Balagula Y, OsterwalderU. Photoprotection: a review of the current and future technologies. Dermatologic Therapy 2010; 23(1):31-47.
14 References reviewed
- Australia Therapeutic Goods Administration. Proposed Revisions to Chapter 10 "Sunscreens" in the Australian Regulatory Guidelines for over-the-counter (OTC) Medicines (ARGOM). Australia, May 2010.
- British Pharmacopoeia 2009.Volume II. London (Great Britain): The Stationary Office on behalf of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA); 2008.
- Colipa Guidelines: International Sun Protection Factor Test Method. May 2006.
- European Union. Commission recommendation of 22 September 2006 on the efficacy of sunscreen products and the claims made relating thereto. Official Journal of the European Union L 265/39, Brussels; September 29, 2006.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention: Sunscreens (Volume 5). World Health Organization, Lyon 2001.
- United States of America Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration. 21 FR Part 352. Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Tentative Final Monograph; Proposed Rule; 1993. [Accessed 13-01-2006].
- World Health Organization. Ultraviolet radiation and the INTERSUN Programme. [Accessed August 2012].
Appendix 1: Ultraviolet A and Ultraviolet B protection characteristics
Sunscreen products should be sufficiently effective against UVB and UVA radiation to ensure a high protection of public health. To this end, a sunscreen product should provide a minimum UVB and UVA protection.
An increased sun protection factor (i.e. mainly UVB protection) should include an increase in the UVA protection as well. Therefore, the protection against UVA and UVB radiation should be related. Scientific findings show that certain biological damage to the skin can be prevented and reduced if the ratio of the protection factor measured in the persistent pigment darkening test (i.e. addressing mainly UVA radiation) is at least 1/3 of the factor measured by the sun protection factor testing method (i.e. addressing mainly UVB radiation).
Moreover, in order to ensure abroad protection, dermatologists recommend a critical wavelength of at least 370 nm. As such, in order to ensure that sunscreens offer sufficient protection for the user, all sunscreens must adhere to the following:
|Labelled category||Sun protection factor range
[UVB protection measurement]
|Recommended minimum UVA protection factor||Required minimum critical wavelength|
|Medium protection||15-29.9||Not less than 1/3 of sun protection factor||370 nm|
|Very high protection||SPF 50+ (plus)|
Appendix 2: Monograph submission disclosures
A. Drug applications:
The following information must accompany the cover letter and other standard documentation provided with a Sunscreen Monograph Drug Submission Application for a Drug Identification Number(DIN):
- The actual test value, and the test method used to determine the:
- Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value;
- Critical wavelength.
- If zinc oxide or titanium dioxide is used in the product, the trade name of the ingredient, and specification including the particle size distribution of the raw material.
- If applicable, confirmation that data determined in accordance with the test methods outlined in this monograph is on file with the manufacturer to support any claim under Section 6.1.3.
Note that the evidence provided as requested may be audited during the course of the monograph review. In the course of an audit of the file or product, Health Canada may request additional specific test data (adhering to the test recommendations specific in this monograph) in support of the application.
B. Natural health product applications:
For a Natural Health Product Licence Application for a Natural Product Number (NPN), by submitting a compendial application according to this monograph, the attestation covers the above noted points for drug applications in Appendix 2, Section A. Additional evidence or documentation does not need to be submitted, but must be made available to Health Canada upon request.
Appendix 3: Labelling
All drug products are subject to labelling requirements outlined in the Food and Drugs Act and the Food and Drug Regulations (Justice Canada 2008 and 2011) (including but not limited to C.01.004, C.01.005, etc,).
Manufacturers are reminded that drug labelling must include the following information in addition to the information outlined in this monograph:
- Brand name (note that the brand name must be continuous and uninterrupted by translation wherever it appears);
- Drug Identification Number (DIN);
- Lot #/expiry date;
- Storage conditions;
- Medicinal ingredient declaration;
- Non-medicinal ingredients;
- Proper or common name of the finished drug product (including delivered dosage form);
- Name and address of the Canadian DIN owner, or if the DIN owner is international, the name and address of the international DIN owner and the name and address of the Canadian distributor.
- Flammability warning, if applicable;
- Pressurized container warning, if applicable;
- Net quantity declaration.
Manufacturers of sunscreen products are reminded that small packaging labelling exemptions do not usually apply to products presented in > 5 millilitre volumes (as a rough guide).
Appendix 4: Supplementary information related to nano ZnO and nano TiO2
The following information must be made available upon request:
- Specification or certificate of analysis
- Elemental composition including:
- Degree of purity
- Any known impurities or additives
- Surface chemistry, including:
- Zeta potential/surface charge and surface coating
- Morphology including:
- Surface area
- Surface topology
- Characterization of the nanomaterials used in the formulation:
- Chemical name, e.g., zinc oxide
- Commercial name (form), e.g., Z-Cote® HP1
- Manufacturer name (source), e.g., BASF
- Crystal structure
- Primary particle size, e.g., 20 nm
- Particle size distribution
- Aggregation/ agglomeration characteristics
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