Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Winnipeg—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part D: Participation in the Economy

Participation in the labour market

Labour force participation lower among very recent immigrants

Very recent immigrants participate in the labour market at lower rates than the Canadian-born. For men aged 45 to 64 years the difference in labour force participation between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born is very small, but for other men and for women there is a gap from six to sixteen percentage points. By contrast, immigrants 25 years of age and over who landed between 1986 and 1995 have the same or higher labour force participation rate as the Canadian-born. Earlier immigrants, both men and women, have higher rates of labour force participation than the Canadian-born.

Table D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 29,380 69,710 42,660 141,740
Immigrants 2,730 14,310 13,600 30,630
 Immigrated before 1986 510 6,800 11,120 18,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,540 5,320 2,010 8,860
 Immigrated 1996-2001 680 2,200 490 3,360
Men
Canadian-born 29,720 75,580 46,210 151,500
Immigrants 3,110 15,180 15,720 34,010
 Immigrated before 1986 770 7,180 12,720 20,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,660 5,580 2,350 9,580
 Immigrated 1996-2001 690 2,420 660 3,760
Total
Canadian-born 59,100 145,290 88,860 293,240
Immigrants 5,840 29,480 29,320 64,630
 Immigrated before 1986 1,290 13,980 23,820 39,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,190 10,890 4,350 18,430
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,360 4,620 1,150 7,130

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 71% 84% 70% 77% 141,740
Immigrants 67% 82% 70% 75% 30,630
 Immigrated before 1986 79% 86% 71% 76% 18,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 69% 84% 71% 78% 8,860
 Immigrated 1996-2001 55% 69% 64% 65% 3,360
Men
Canadian-born 74% 92% 81% 84% 151,500
Immigrants 68% 92% 84% 86% 34,010
 Immigrated before 1986 86% 94% 84% 87% 20,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 66% 92% 87% 85% 9,580
 Immigrated 1996-2001 60% 84% 80% 78% 3,760
Total
Canadian-born 73% 88% 75% 80% 293,240
Immigrants 68% 87% 77% 80% 64,630
 Immigrated before 1986 83% 90% 77% 82% 39,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 67% 88% 79% 81% 18,430
 Immigrated 1996-2001 58% 76% 73% 71% 7,130

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Comparing the 2001 Census with the 1996 Census, the Canadian-born experienced increases in labour force participation of two to five percentage points for women and zero to three percentage points for men, depending on the age group. Labour force participation increased more among older very recent immigrants, by eleven percentage points for women and seven percentage points for men. But participation by the most numerous age group of very recent immigrants, the 25 to 44 year olds, declined only marginally. Overall, taking the age groups together, there was little change in the relative rates of labour force participation of the Canadian-born and the three immigrant groups.

While young persons who recently immigrated are less active in the labour market than those born in Canada, young persons who immigrated before 1986 are significantly more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born of the same age. This is a very small group, accounting for only a small percentage of earlier immigrants.

Figure D-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Figure D-1, women
Figure D-1, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Pattern of adjustment similar for most levels of education

Generally speaking, the higher the level of education the greater the proportion of people who participate in the labour market. This observation holds for the Canadian-born as well as for all three groups of immigrants, with one major exception: men who immigrated between 5 to 15 years before the 2001 Census and had only attended elementary school had a higher participation rate than those with some high school.

Table D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 1,590 29,490 36,720 44,810 29,140 141,740
Immigrants 2,150 5,380 7,200 9,050 6,870 30,630
 Immigrated before 1986 1,490 3,470 4,030 5,850 3,600 18,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 490 1,430 2,300 2,600 2,040 8,860
 Immigrated 1996-2001 190 490 880 580 1,250 3,360
Men
Canadian-born 2,900 37,470 38,640 44,940 27,550 151,500
Immigrants 2,060 6,180 7,870 10,400 7,500 34,010
 Immigrated before 1986 1,400 3,700 4,300 6,990 4,280 20,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 550 1,880 2,590 2,560 2,020 9,580
 Immigrated 1996-2001 110 590 1,000 850 1,200 3,760
Total
Canadian-born 4,480 66,960 75,370 89,750 56,690 293,240
Immigrants 4,210 11,550 15,080 19,440 14,370 64,630
 Immigrated before 1986 2,880 7,160 8,310 12,850 7,870 39,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,030 3,320 4,890 5,160 4,060 18,430
 Immigrated 1996-2001 290 1,080 1,880 1,440 2,450 7,130

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 33% 62% 81% 84% 88% 77%
Immigrants 53% 65% 78% 82% 83% 75%
 Immigrated before 1986 55% 69% 80% 81% 84% 76%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 54% 64% 82% 85% 86% 78%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 43% 51% 65% 71% 78% 65%
Men
Canadian-born 56% 74% 89% 90% 91% 84%
Immigrants 75% 77% 88% 90% 89% 86%
 Immigrated before 1986 75% 84% 92% 89% 89% 87%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 81% 72% 86% 93% 92% 85%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 54% 59% 81% 87% 85% 78%
Total
Canadian-born 45% 68% 85% 87% 89% 80%
Immigrants 62% 71% 83% 86% 86% 80%
 Immigrated before 1986 63% 76% 85% 85% 87% 82%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 66% 68% 84% 89% 89% 81%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 45% 55% 73% 80% 81% 71%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Compared to other immigrant cohorts and the Canadian-born, the labour force participation of very recent immigrants is the lowest of the various groups at all but the lowest level of education. Immigrants with only elementary schooling, regardless of their length of stay in Canada, are more active in the labour market than the Canadian-born with the same education. The one exception to this pattern is very recently immigrated men.

Figure D-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by level of education and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Figure D-2, women
Figure D-2, men

Note: Figures D-1 and D-2 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed, (actively looking for work).

Knowledge of English important for labour force participation

Most immigrants can converse in either English or French when they immigrate to Canada. As reported at the time of the 2001 Census, the large majority of both men and women who immigrated during the 1990s and settled in Winnipeg have knowledge of English. Those that do report having knowledge of English are not nearly as active in the labour market as those who do. The gap in labour force participation between those who speak English and those who do not speak English is larger for earlier immigrants than for recent immigrants and larger for women than for men.

Table D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—labour force 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Population Labour force
  No
English
No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 70 40 141,650 141,740
Immigrants 1,470 610 30,010 30,630
 Immigrated before 1986 510 200 18,220 18,420
 Immigrated 1986-1995 510 230 8,620 8,860
 Immigrated 1996-2001 470 180 3,180 3,360
Men
Canadian-born 60 20 151,440 151,500
Immigrants 700 460 33,510 34,010
 Immigrated before 1986 200 130 20,520 20,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 280 190 9,370 9,580
 Immigrated 1996-2001 230 150 3,610 3,760
Total
Canadian-born 110 50 293,090 293,240
Immigrants 2,170 1,070 63,490 64,630
 Immigrated before 1986 700 330 38,720 39,080
 Immigrated 1986-1995 790 420 18,000 18,430
 Immigrated 1996-2001 690 330 6,780 7,130

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—labour force participation rates, by knowledge of English and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Population share Labour force participation rate
  No
English
No English English Total
Women
Canadian-born 0% 54% 77% 77%
Immigrants 4% 41% 76% 75%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 40% 77% 76%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 45% 79% 78%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 39% 68% 65%
Men
Canadian-born 0% 27% 84% 84%
Immigrants 2% 66% 86% 86%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 63% 88% 87%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2% 67% 86% 85%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 64% 79% 78%
Total
Canadian-born 0% 41% 80% 80%
Immigrants 3% 49% 81% 80%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 46% 82% 82%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 53% 83% 81%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 47% 73% 71%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Unemployment higher for women during initial years

Immigrant women are more likely to experience unemployment during their initial years in Canada than those who have been in the country for a longer period of time. For instance, very recent immigrant women in Winnipeg experienced unemployment rates from 8% to 13%, depending on their age, as compared to 3% to 10% for their Canadian-born counterparts, also depending on age. Unemployment rates for other immigrant women are similar to those experienced by their Canadian-born counterparts, and even lower for the youngest age group.

Table D-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 2,970 3,710 1,300 7,970
Immigrants 240 660 470 1,360
 Immigrated before 1986 40 270 290 590
 Immigrated 1986-1995 110 220 100 420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 90 180 70 330
Men
Canadian-born 3,390 3,630 1,830 8,840
Immigrants 310 830 640 1,780
 Immigrated before 1986 40 410 540 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 210 310 80 590
 Immigrated 1996-2001 70 120 30 210
Total
Canadian-born 6,350 7,330 3,130 16,800
Immigrants 540 1,490 1,100 3,130
 Immigrated before 1986 90 670 840 1,590
 Immigrated 1986-1995 310 530 170 1,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 290 110 550

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 10% 5% 3% 6% 7,970
Immigrants 9% 5% 3% 4% 1,360
 Immigrated before 1986 7% 4% 3% 3% 590
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 4% 5% 5% 420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 8% 13% 10% 330
Men
Canadian-born 11% 5% 4% 6% 8,840
Immigrants 10% 5% 4% 5% 1,780
 Immigrated before 1986 5% 6% 4% 5% 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 6% 3% 6% 590
 Immigrated 1996-2001 9% 5% 5% 6% 210
Total
Canadian-born 11% 5% 4% 6% 16,800
Immigrants 9% 5% 4% 5% 3,130
 Immigrated before 1986 7% 5% 4% 4% 1,590
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10% 5% 4% 5% 1,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 11% 6% 9% 8% 550

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The unemployment rate was significantly lower in the 2001 Census than in the 1996 Census for most groups shown in Table D-8. Recent immigrant women of various ages experienced a greater improvement (three to six percentage points) than their Canadian-born counterparts (one to three percentage points). For men, very recent immigrants saw great improvements (six to eleven percentage points), compared to about three percentage points for those who had been in the country from six to fifteen years and the Canadian-born. Although not all groups saw a decrease in unemployment, the unemployment numbers for the immigrant population as a whole have improved markedly.

Table D-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—level of education and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 260 2,310 2,150 2,150 1,120 7,970
Immigrants 90 280 300 330 360 1,360
 Immigrated before 1986 40 90 120 220 160 590
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20 130 120 90 100 420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 30 80 60 60 120 330
Men
Canadian-born 360 3,250 2,360 1,990 880 8,840
Immigrants 110 490 470 490 220 1,780
 Immigrated before 1986 60 260 230 320 120 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 70 200 200 140 50 590
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20 50 70 60 40 210
Total
Canadian-born 620 5,560 4,510 4,140 1,990 16,800
Immigrants 200 780 770 830 580 3,130
 Immigrated before 1986 100 350 330 520 290 1,590
 Immigrated 1986-1995 60 310 300 210 150 1,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 50 120 120 100 160 550

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

For immigrant women at all levels of education, unemployment is lower the longer the stay in Canada of the cohort. For instance, women who immigrated after 1995 and who have a university degree have an unemployment rate of 9%. The rate drops to 5% for those who landed between 1986 and 1995.

Immigrant men with only an elementary education follow a similar pattern, with lower unemployment levels for earlier cohorts. In other education categories, recent immigrant men experience much the same levels of unemployment as immigrants who have been in Canada longer and the Canadian-born.

Table D-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by level of education and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 16% 8% 6% 5% 4% 6%
Immigrants 4% 5% 4% 4% 5% 4%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 2% 3% 4% 4% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 9% 5% 3% 5% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 15% 6% 9% 9% 10%
Men
Canadian-born 12% 9% 6% 4% 3% 6%
Immigrants 5% 8% 6% 5% 3% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 4% 7% 5% 5% 3% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13% 10% 8% 5% 2% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 18% 8% 7% 6% 3% 6%
Total
Canadian-born 14% 8% 6% 5% 4% 6%
Immigrants 5% 7% 5% 4% 4% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 5% 4% 4% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 9% 6% 4% 4% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 11% 6% 7% 6% 8%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Generally there was less unemployment in 2001 than in 1996. The unemployment rate declined more for recent and very recent immigrants than for earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born.

Recent immigrants who do not speak English are more likely to be unemployed than those that do. The difference in unemployment rates between those who speak English and those who do not varies depending on gender and period of immigration and is much greater for women than for men.

Table D-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—unemployed 15 to 64 years of age—knowledge of English and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Labour force Unemployed Total
  No English No English English
Women
Canadian-born - - 7,980 7,970
Immigrants 630 70 1,290 1,360
 Immigrated before 1986 210 0 600 590
 Immigrated 1986-1995 250 40 390 420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 180 40 310 330
Men
Canadian-born - - 8,840 8,840
Immigrants 520 40 1,750 1,780
 Immigrated before 1986 150 20 980 990
 Immigrated 1986-1995 210 10 570 590
 Immigrated 1996-2001 160 20 210 210
Total
Canadian-born - - 16,810 16,800
Immigrants 1,130 110 3,010 3,130
 Immigrated before 1986 360 20 1,550 1,590
 Immigrated 1986-1995 460 40 960 1,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 340 40 500 550

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Table D-12: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—unemployment rates, by knowledge of English and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Share of labour force Unemployment rate Total
  No English No English English
Women
Canadian-born - - 6% 6%
Immigrants 2% 11% 4% 4%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 0% 3% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3% 14% 4% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 22% 10% 10%
Men
Canadian-born - - 6% 6%
Immigrants 2% 8% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 10% 5% 5%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2% 5% 6% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 4% 10% 6% 6%
Total
Canadian-born - - 6% 6%
Immigrants 2% 10% 5% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 4% 4% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2% 9% 5% 5%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 12% 7% 8%

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

Share of men and women with jobs lower only for very recent immigrants

Six in ten very recent immigrant women aged 15 to 64 are employed, compared to more than seven in ten Canadian-born women. For men the difference is smaller: seven in ten very recent immigrants are employed compared to eight in ten Canadian-born men. As shown in the previous pages, these differences in employment rates reflect mainly differences in labour force participation rates.

Table D-13: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 15 to 64 years of age—age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 26,410 66,010 41,350 133,770
Immigrants 2,490 13,650 13,140 29,280
 Immigrated before 1986 480 6,530 10,810 17,810
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,420 5,090 1,910 8,420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 590 2,020 430 3,030
Men
Canadian-born 26,330 71,960 44,380 142,670
Immigrants 2,800 14,350 15,080 32,230
 Immigrated before 1986 720 6,780 12,180 19,680
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,470 5,270 2,270 9,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 620 2,310 630 3,550
Total
Canadian-born 52,750 137,960 85,730 276,430
Immigrants 5,300 28,000 28,220 61,510
 Immigrated before 1986 1,210 13,310 22,990 37,500
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,880 10,370 4,190 17,430
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,210 4,320 1,050 6,580

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

In 2001, employment was generally higher than in 1996. The changes were greater for younger and older men than for those at prime working age. For immigrant women, the greatest gains were made among older women.

Table D-14: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—employment rates, by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 64% 80% 68% 72% 133,770
Immigrants 61% 78% 68% 72% 29,280
 Immigrated before 1986 74% 83% 69% 73% 17,810
 Immigrated 1986-1995 64% 80% 68% 74% 8,420
 Immigrated 1996-2001 48% 64% 56% 59% 3,030
Men
Canadian-born 65% 88% 78% 79% 142,670
Immigrants 62% 87% 81% 81% 32,230
 Immigrated before 1986 80% 89% 80% 83% 19,680
 Immigrated 1986-1995 58% 87% 84% 80% 9,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 54% 80% 76% 73% 3,550
Total
Canadian-born 65% 84% 73% 76% 276,430
Immigrants 61% 83% 74% 76% 61,510
 Immigrated before 1986 78% 86% 74% 78% 37,500
 Immigrated 1986-1995 61% 84% 76% 77% 17,430
 Immigrated 1996-2001 51% 72% 66% 66% 6,580

Note: Tables D-1 to D-14 describe labour force participation, employment and unemployment in the week before the 2001 Census, May 6-12, 2001. A person is in the labour force if he/she is employed or unemployed (actively looking for work).

The jobs of recent immigrants

Incidence of part-time work similar

The proportion of employed persons who work part-time varies considerably by age and gender, both for immigrants and the Canadian-born. About half of employed young adults work part-time. One-tenth to one-quarter of employed women aged 25 to 64 work part-time, varying by cohort, while for men the share is 5% to 9%, again varying by cohort.

The proportion of very recent immigrants who work part-time is similar to the proportion of the Canadian-born who work part-time, but part-time employment rates fall below those of the Canadian-born for immigrants who have been in the country longer.

The share of jobs that was part-time was somewhat greater in 2000 than in 1995. The largest decline occurred among very recent immigrant women aged 45 to 64, a reduction of 20 percentage points.

Table D-15: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, employed mostly part-time—age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 17,860 17,720 10,910 46,480
Immigrants 1,510 2,710 2,670 6,880
 Immigrated before 1986 290 1,330 2,280 3,890
 Immigrated 1986-1995 970 940 350 2,260
 Immigrated 1996-1999 250 450 40 730
Men
Canadian-born 15,320 5,110 3,590 24,010
Immigrants 1,490 790 1,000 3,280
 Immigrated before 1986 290 370 840 1,490
 Immigrated 1986-1995 910 270 130 1,310
 Immigrated 1996-1999 290 160 40 480
Total
Canadian-born 33,170 22,830 14,490 70,490
Immigrants 2,990 3,500 3,660 10,150
 Immigrated before 1986 580 1,700 3,120 5,400
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,870 1,210 480 3,550
 Immigrated 1996-1999 540 600 70 1,200

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Table D-16: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed working mostly part-time, by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years Total
Women
Canadian-born 57% 25% 24% 31%
Immigrants 57% 19% 19% 22%
 Immigrated before 1986 55% 19% 19% 20%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 60% 17% 17% 25%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 47% 27% 11% 29%
Men
Canadian-born 48% 7% 7% 15%
Immigrants 46% 5% 6% 10%
 Immigrated before 1986 36% 5% 6% 7%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 49% 5% 5% 13%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 54% 9% 7% 18%
Total
Canadian-born 53% 15% 16% 23%
Immigrants 51% 12% 12% 16%
 Immigrated before 1986 44% 12% 12% 13%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 54% 11% 11% 19%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 50% 18% 8% 23%

Note: Tables D-15 and D-16 do not include immigrants who landed in 2000 or 2001. Only persons who landed before 2000 are included among immigrants and very recent immigrants. Part-time employment is defined as having worked less than 30 hours per week during most of the weeks worked in the year 2000.

Many recent immigrants in processing occupations

Employed immigrants are more likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to work in sales and service occupations and processing jobs. Nearly one half of employed immigrants living in Winnipeg who have been in the country for up to 15 years are employed in sales and service occupations and processing jobs, compared to one quarter of the Canadian-born in these occupations. The differences between recent immigrants and the Canadian-born are greater for women than for men. By contrast, management and social occupations, which are favoured by the Canadian-born, account for a smaller share of the jobs of earlier and recent immigrants.

Figure D-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)
Figure D-3, women
Figure D-3, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Table D-17: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—occupation groups by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Sales and services Pro-
cessing
Adminis-
trative
Manage-
ment and social sciences
Trades, transport Health, science Total
Women
Canadian-born 22,930 2,930 37,520 26,710 1,700 15,580 107,360
Immigrants 6,530 4,850 5,760 4,210 970 4,480 26,790
 Immigrated before 1986 4,030 2,690 4,080 3,050 660 2,810 17,330
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,890 1,550 1,290 820 210 1,250 7,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 610 600 380 340 90 430 2,440
Men
Canadian-born 20,470 9,810 14,690 28,010 29,280 14,080 116,340
Immigrants 4,840 5,480 2,320 5,190 7,720 3,900 29,420
 Immigrated before 1986 3,000 2,760 1,630 3,930 5,250 2,380 18,960
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,340 1,930 520 900 1,860 1,010 7,550
 Immigrated 1996-2001 490 790 180 350 600 510 2,920
Total
Canadian-born 43,390 12,740 52,210 54,710 30,980 29,660 223,690
Immigrants 11,360 10,320 8,070 9,390 8,690 8,380 56,210
 Immigrated before 1986 7,040 5,450 5,720 7,000 5,910 5,190 36,290
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,240 3,480 1,800 1,690 2,080 2,250 14,550
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,100 1,390 560 710 690 950 5,370
 
Women
Canadian-born 21% 3% 35% 25% 2% 15% 100%
Immigrants 24% 18% 21% 16% 4% 17% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 23% 16% 24% 18% 4% 16% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 27% 22% 18% 12% 3% 18% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 25% 24% 16% 14% 3% 18% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 18% 8% 13% 24% 25% 12% 100%
Immigrants 16% 19% 8% 18% 26% 13% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 16% 15% 9% 21% 28% 13% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 18% 26% 7% 12% 25% 13% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 17% 27% 6% 12% 21% 17% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 19% 6% 23% 24% 14% 13% 100%
Immigrants 20% 18% 14% 17% 15% 15% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 19% 15% 16% 19% 16% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 22% 24% 12% 12% 14% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 20% 26% 10% 13% 13% 18% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

The distribution of occupations of very recent immigrants in 2001 is similar to that of the comparable cohort in 1996 with two major exceptions: a higher share of occupations is in the health and science field, especially for women, and a significantly lower share of jobs is in sales and services. The share of jobs in sales and service occupations among very recent immigrants was lower than in 1996 by 18 percentage points for women and 10 percentage points for men.

Many recent immigrants in manufacturing

In Winnipeg, relative to the Canadian-born, a large proportion of employed recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 work in manufacturing industries. By contrast, construction and transportation industries and the public sector account for a smaller share of jobs of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born.

Figure D-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)
Figure D-4, women
Figure D-4, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Table D-18: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—industry sector, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Manu-
facturing
Construc-
tion and Transpor-
tation
Trade Busi-
ness services
Public
sector
Hospitality and other services Total
Women
Canadian-born 7,550 7,760 15,480 16,570 47,710 12,300 107,400
Immigrants 6,400 1,080 2,960 2,470 9,990 3,900 26,800
 Immigrated before 1986 3,720 780 1,950 1,600 6,870 2,470 17,300
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,980 220 750 610 2,370 1,120 7,000
 Immigrated 1996-2001 750 80 290 250 760 320 2,400
Men
Canadian-born 20,160 27,250 20,590 15,230 23,200 9,890 116,300
Immigrants 9,980 5,140 3,300 2,350 5,050 3,620 29,400
 Immigrated before 1986 5,490 3,730 2,380 1,490 3,630 2,190 19,000
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,200 1,040 630 570 1,050 1,050 7,500
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,290 380 300 270 350 370 2,900
Total
Canadian-born 27,700 35,020 36,070 31,800 70,910 22,180 223,700
Immigrants 16,380 6,210 6,260 4,820 15,030 7,510 56,200
 Immigrated before 1986 9,220 4,490 4,310 3,120 10,530 4,670 36,300
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5,170 1,250 1,380 1,180 3,410 2,150 14,500
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,030 450 580 520 1,100 690 5,400
 
Women
Canadian-born 7% 7% 14% 15% 44% 11% 100%
Immigrants 24% 4% 11% 9% 37% 15% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 21% 4% 11% 9% 40% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 28% 3% 11% 9% 34% 16% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 31% 3% 12% 10% 31% 13% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 17% 23% 18% 13% 20% 9% 100%
Immigrants 34% 17% 11% 8% 17% 12% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 29% 20% 13% 8% 19% 12% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 42% 14% 8% 7% 14% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 44% 13% 10% 9% 12% 13% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 12% 16% 16% 14% 32% 10% 100%
Immigrants 29% 11% 11% 9% 27% 13% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 25% 12% 12% 9% 29% 13% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 36% 9% 9% 8% 23% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 38% 8% 11% 10% 21% 13% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Compared to 1996, employment in business services industries among the very recent immigrant cohort was more prevalent, and employment in hospitality and other services industries was less prevalent. The presence of very recent immigrant women in the public sector was eight percentage points higher than five years earlier.

Skill requirements of jobs of recent immigrants lower

The jobs of recent immigrants require lower skills than the jobs of the Canadian-born. Three in ten jobs of Canadian-born women require the highest level of skill, a university education. For women who landed after 1995, only two in ten jobs require a university education.

Table D-19: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 7,800 39,980 26,510 33,080 107,360
Immigrants 3,430 12,000 5,930 5,440 26,790
 Immigrated before 1986 1,840 7,510 4,130 3,850 17,340
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,220 3,380 1,300 1,110 7,010
 Immigrated 1996-2001 370 1,100 500 500 2,440
Men
Canadian-born 9,730 33,830 36,380 36,400 116,340
Immigrants 2,870 10,290 9,010 7,270 29,430
 Immigrated before 1986 1,500 6,080 6,240 5,150 18,960
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,010 3,010 2,050 1,480 7,540
 Immigrated 1996-2001 360 1,210 720 650 2,920
Total
Canadian-born 17,520 73,810 62,880 69,490 223,690
Immigrants 6,290 22,280 14,940 12,710 56,210
 Immigrated before 1986 3,340 13,580 10,370 9,010 36,300
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,220 6,400 3,360 2,590 14,550
 Immigrated 1996-2001 720 2,310 1,210 1,130 5,370
 
Women
Canadian-born 7% 37% 25% 31% 100%
Immigrants 13% 45% 22% 20% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 11% 43% 24% 22% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 17% 48% 19% 16% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 15% 45% 20% 20% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 8% 29% 31% 31% 100%
Immigrants 10% 35% 31% 25% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 8% 32% 33% 27% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 13% 40% 27% 20% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 12% 41% 25% 22% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 8% 33% 28% 31% 100%
Immigrants 11% 40% 27% 23% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 9% 37% 29% 25% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 15% 44% 23% 18% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 13% 43% 22% 21% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

For both men and women, the skill requirements of jobs of immigrants who landed before 1986 are closer to that of the Canadian-born. Immigrants who landed between 1986 and 1995 have jobs that on average require somewhat less skill than the jobs of very recent immigrants.

The information presented in Table D-19 does not directly indicate whether the skills of recent immigrants are fully or less than fully employed in the economy. To determine this, one has to compare the skill levels of jobs of employed recent immigrants with the level of education of employed recent immigrants. This is done in Table D-20 for persons holding a university degree.

Figure D-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)
Figure D-5, women
Figure D-5, men

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

Education of recent immigrants not fully utilized

The jobs of recent immigrants with a university degree do not require the same level of skill as the jobs of Canadian-born persons with a university degree. Two in three employed Canadian-born women with a university degree have a job requiring a university degree. But only 38% of employed women who immigrated after 1995 have a job that requires a university degree. Seven in ten Canadian-born men with a university degree but only four in ten very recent immigrant men have a job requiring a university education.

Table D-20: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—employed university graduates, 25 to 64 years of age—skill requirements of jobs, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  No formal education High school plus job training College or trade apprenticeship University Total
Women
Canadian-born 330 3,510 4,320 16,910 25,070
Immigrants 230 1,670 1,340 3,060 6,290
 Immigrated before 1986 50 670 710 1,950 3,380
 Immigrated 1986-1995 100 610 430 700 1,830
 Immigrated 1996-2001 80 390 210 410 1,080
Men
Canadian-born 500 2,640 4,300 17,920 25,340
Immigrants 330 1,400 1,190 4,270 7,180
 Immigrated before 1986 140 580 630 2,790 4,120
 Immigrated 1986-1995 140 470 330 1,000 1,920
 Immigrated 1996-2001 70 370 220 500 1,140
Total
Canadian-born 830 6,150 8,610 34,820 50,410
Immigrants 550 3,070 2,530 7,330 13,470
 Immigrated before 1986 180 1,240 1,340 4,740 7,500
 Immigrated 1986-1995 240 1,070 750 1,690 3,750
 Immigrated 1996-2001 140 750 430 900 2,220
 
Women
Canadian-born 1% 14% 17% 67% 100%
Immigrants 4% 26% 21% 49% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 20% 21% 58% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 5% 33% 23% 38% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 7% 36% 19% 38% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 2% 10% 17% 71% 100%
Immigrants 5% 20% 17% 60% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 3% 14% 15% 68% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 24% 17% 52% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 32% 19% 43% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 2% 12% 17% 69% 100%
Immigrants 4% 23% 19% 54% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 17% 18% 63% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 6% 28% 20% 45% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 6% 34% 19% 41% 100%

Note: Job characteristics presented in Tables D-17 to D-20 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

For very recent immigrant men, the skill level of jobs of university graduates decreased between 1996 and 2001, in the form of a shift from jobs requiring a university education to jobs requiring a high school diploma. Women experienced an opposite change. Very recent immigrant women held proportionately more jobs that required a post-secondary education than their counterparts did five years before.

Figure D-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 to 64 years of age—percentage of employed university graduates with jobs requiring university education, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Figure D-6

Note: Job characteristics presented in Figures D-3 to D-6 relate to jobs held at the time of the census or the job of longest duration from January 2000 to May 15, 2001. The information pertains to persons 25 to 64 years of age. Younger people are not included here since many of them are still in school, and their jobs tend to be short-term and part-time and less likely to be related to their education and career choices than the jobs of older adults. Occupation groups are defined in the Glossary.

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