Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Winnipeg—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part B: Who Are the Recent Immigrants?

Origin, immigration category and religion

Asian origins are prevalent among recent immigrants

Winnipeg’s immigrants come from all over the world and represent a diversity of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Over the past several decades there has been a considerable change in the source countries of immigrants. In 2001, for example, there were 13,400 residents of Winnipeg who had landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001. The most common country of birth for these immigrants was the Philippines, accounting for 24% of these new residents, followed by India, which supplied 8%. The ten most common countries of birth, accounting for almost 60% of very recent immigrants, were the Philippines, India, China, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, Yugoslavia, Viet Nam and Ethiopia.

Table B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration—top ten countries of birth, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Share
All immigrants
1 Philippines 20,110 18%
2 United Kingdom 10,670 10%
3 Poland 7,470 7%
4 Germany 5,990 5%
5 Former U.S.S.R. 5,510 5%
6 Portugal 4,950 5%
7 India 4,920 4%
8 United States 4,390 4%
9 Italy 3,490 3%
10 China, People's Republic of 3,470 3%
Top ten countries 70,970 65%
All other countries 38,420 35%
Total 109,390 100%
Immigrated before 1986
1 United Kingdom 9,490 14%
2 Philippines 9,010 13%
3 Germany 5,630 8%
4 Poland 4,970 7%
5 Former U.S.S.R. 4,340 6%
6 Portugal 4,140 6%
7 Italy 3,400 5%
8 United States 3,080 4%
9 India 2,330 3%
10 Netherlands 2,070 3%
Top ten countries 48,460 70%
All other countries 21,220 30%
Total 69,680 100%
Immigrated 1986-1995
1 Philippines 7,960 30%
2 Poland 2,330 9%
3 India 1,470 6%
4 Viet Nam 1,390 5%
5 El Salvador 1,120 4%
6 China, People's Republic of 980 4%
7 United States 920 3%
8 Portugal 770 3%
9 United Kingdom 760 3%
10 Hong Kong 580 2%
Top ten countries 18,280 70%
All other countries 8,010 30%
Total 26,290 100%
Immigrated 1996-2001
1 Philippines 3,150 24%
2 India 1,130 8%
3 China, People's Republic of 990 7%
4 Bosnia and Herzegovina 500 4%
5 Ukraine 430 3%
6 United Kingdom 410 3%
7 United States 400 3%
8 Yugoslavia 340 3%
9 Viet Nam 300 2%
10 Ethiopia 300 2%
Top ten countries 7,950 59%
All other countries 5,470 41%
Total 13,420 100%

Among Winnipeg’s earlier immigrants—those arriving in Canada before 1986—the United Kingdom and the Philippines were the most common countries of birth, together accounting for 27% of this group.

In general, the birth origins of Winnipeg’s immigrant population vary in relation to the period of immigration. European birth origins are predominant among those who immigrated in the 1950s, the 1960s and, to a lesser extent, the 1970s, and Asian birth origins are more prevalent among those who immigrated in the 1980s and 1990s. Four of the top ten countries of birth of very recent immigrants and five of the top ten countries of birth of immigrants who landed during the 1986-1995 period are in Asia.

A favoured destination for immigrants from the Philippines

For some immigrant groups, Winnipeg is a top destination. For example, of the 161,100 Philippine-born individuals who immigrated after 1985 and were living in Canada in 2001, 11,110 or 7% were living in Winnipeg. Winnipeg is also home to a large share of recent immigrants from Ethiopia, El Salvador and Bosnia and Herzegovina. On average, 1.6% of recent immigrants chose Winnipeg as their place of residence.

Table B-2: Recent immigrants in Canada by country of birth and percentage residing in Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
Country of Birth Total recent immigrants to Canada Share residing in Winnipeg
Philippines 161,130 6.9%
Ethiopia 12,080 5.9%
El Salvador 29,680 4.4%
Bosnia and Herzegovina 23,170 3.7%
Ukraine 25,530 3.0%
Poland 91,140 2.7%
Croatia 11,380 2.6%
Portugal 34,120 2.4%
Viet Nam 72,330 2.3%
All Canadian-born 23,991,910 2.3%
Total population 29,639,000 2.2%
All immigrants 5,448,490 2.0%
Guatemala 10,580 1.9%
United States 73,860 1.8%
United Kingdom 69,660 1.7%
All recent immigrants 2,491,850 1.6%
Yugoslavia 35,860 1.6%
Germany 22,810 1.5%
Trinidad and Tobago 28,790 1.5%
Colombia 10,190 1.4%
Iraq 22,300 1.3%
India 197,680 1.3%
South Africa, Republic of 19,890 1.3%
Romania 43,200 1.2%
Jamaica 48,760 1.1%
Mexico 24,640 1.1%

Note: Table B-2 lists all countries that are the place of birth of at least 10,000 recent immigrants living in Canada in 2001, with Winnipeg’s share being 1% or more.

Share of economic immigrants increasing

Statistics published by Citizenship and Immigration Canada show that the number of immigrants who reported Winnipeg as their destination when they landed in Canada decreased by 3,000 between the second half of the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s, and by a further 5,200 in the second half of the 1990s. The decline was concentrated in the family and refugee classes, while the number of economic immigrants increased. One-half of very recent immigrants destined for Winnipeg entered through the economic category.

Table B-3: Recent immigrants by period of immigration—landings by immigration category, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 1986-2000 (number and percentage distribution)
  1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2000
Family class 8,700 36% 9,250 44% 4,570 29%
Economic immigrants 6,880 29% 6,980 33% 7,660 48%
Refugees 8,240 34% 4,520 22% 3,580 23%
Other immigrants 130 1% 250 1% 10 0%
Total 23,950 100% 21,000 100% 15,810 100%

Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Facts and Figures 2002 (data set).

Note: The 2001 Census did not ask immigrants about the immigration categories through which they were admitted to Canada. The information in Table B-3 was obtained from records at Citizenship and Immigration Canada and pertains to the time of landing. Immigration categories are described in the Glossary.

Within the family class, the number of spouses showed little change over the three five-year periods and in the latest 1996-2000 period amounted to more than one-half of this category. The number of other relatives—parents and grandparents, sons and daughters and fiancés—fell sharply from about 6,000 during the 1991-1995 period to 2,000 during the 1996-2000 period.

As for refugees, both government-assisted and privately-sponsored refugees became much less numerous. Five thousand government-assisted refugees were destined to Winnipeg when they landed during the 1986-1990 period, and one-half of that number headed to Winnipeg during each of the two halves of the 1990s. Less than 1,000 privately-sponsored refugees entered in the second half of the 1990s, only one-quarter of the number that entered in the second half of the 1980s.

Skilled workers and their dependants account for the lion’s share of economic immigrants, and there was a steady flow of new entrants in this category destined for Winnipeg throughout the 1986-2000 period. During the latest five years, the ranks of the economic category were boosted by 1,000 provincial nominees.

Religions changing with countries of origin

Recent immigrants have brought to Winnipeg several religions that were virtually absent before 1986. While the majority of very recent immigrants are Christians, the proportions adhering to the Muslim and Sikh faiths are higher than among earlier immigrants. Buddhists and Hindus make up a small and stable share of immigrants. Among the Canadian-born, each of these four non-Christian religions claims the allegiance of less than 1% of the population.

Table B-4: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—religious affiliation, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Canadian-born Immigrants Immigrated before 1986 Immigrated 1986-1995 Immigrated 1996-2001
Roman Catholic 151,220 44,770 28,220 12,500 4,060
Protestant 211,390 26,140 20,430 3,540 2,100
Orthodox Christian 6,850 3,780 1,870 1,070 860
Other Christian 35,540 5,730 3,250 1,620 870
Muslim 1,200 3,230 810 910 1,510
Buddhist 1,740 3,460 1,870 1,240 360
Hindu 1,170 2,350 1,430 630 280
Sikh 1,880 3,390 1,410 1,130 860
Other 16,030 2,720 1,930 420 390
No religion 122,010 13,900 8,480 3,270 2,150
Total 548,980 109,390 69,690 26,290 13,420
 
Roman Catholic 28% 41% 40% 48% 30%
Protestant 39% 24% 29% 13% 16%
Orthodox Christian 1% 3% 3% 4% 6%
Other Christian 6% 5% 5% 6% 6%
Muslim 0% 3% 1% 3% 11%
Buddhist 0% 3% 3% 5% 3%
Hindu 0% 2% 2% 2% 2%
Sikh 0% 3% 2% 4% 6%
Other 3% 2% 3% 2% 3%
No religion 22% 13% 12% 12% 16%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Note: Religions are listed in order of their share of the population of Canada, from highest to lowest, with Christian religions grouped together.

Roman Catholics are relatively more numerous among the immigrant population than among the Canadian-born population of Winnipeg, although, in the case of very recent immigrants, only by a slight margin. Four in ten Canadian-born persons are Protestant, with the United Church having the largest following among the major Protestant churches, accounting for 15% of the population group. Only 1% of recent immigrants is affiliated with the United Church. The proportion of immigrants reporting an Orthodox Christian faith has increased somewhat with the arrival of more immigrants from Eastern Europe in recent years.

Age and gender

Nearly one-half of recent immigrants are adults 25 to 44 years old

The age distribution of the recent immigrant population (those arriving between 1996 and 2001) is markedly different from that of the Canadian-born population, with a larger proportion aged 25 to 44 and proportionally fewer seniors and children under 15 years of age. In 1996, nearly one-half of recent immigrants living in Winnipeg were between the ages of 25 and 44, compared to three-tenths of Canadian-born individuals. Children under 15 years of age accounted for the same share among very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born, 22%.

Table B-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 60,040 41,140 82,920 60,860 36,320 281,260
Immigrants 2,470 4,080 17,400 19,310 13,440 56,690
 Immigrated before 1986 0 650 7,880 15,730 12,160 36,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,020 2,220 6,350 2,820 1,000 13,400
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,450 1,220 3,170 770 280 6,890
Men
Canadian-born 62,990 40,310 82,210 57,000 25,230 267,720
Immigrants 2,510 4,560 16,520 18,670 10,450 52,700
 Immigrated before 1986 0 900 7,610 15,160 9,610 33,270
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,030 2,510 6,040 2,700 630 12,900
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,490 1,150 2,870 820 220 6,530
Total
Canadian-born 123,030 81,440 165,120 117,860 61,540 548,980
Immigrants 4,980 8,640 33,920 37,980 23,880 109,390
 Immigrated before 1986 0 1,550 15,500 30,880 21,760 69,680
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,050 4,730 12,380 5,520 1,630 26,290
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,940 2,360 6,040 1,580 500 13,420
 
Canadian-born 22% 15% 30% 21% 11% 100%
Immigrants 5% 8% 31% 35% 22% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 2% 22% 44% 31% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 8% 18% 47% 21% 6% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 22% 18% 45% 12% 4% 100%
Total population 19% 14% 30% 24% 13% 100%

These differences in age structure are to some degree a result of how we define immigrants and the Canadian-born. The immigrant population grows older like the Canadian population but does not renew itself in the same way, as children born in Canada to immigrants are not considered immigrants. Thus, there are no persons under 15 years of age among immigrants who landed before 1986, and the older age groups are over-represented among these earlier immigrants. By the same token, the share of children among the Canadian-born is large as it includes children born to immigrant parents.

The age structure of very recent immigrants closely resembles age at arrival. Immigrants tend to arrive in Canada during their prime working-age years. This was the case among immigrants who landed more than 30 years ago, and it is still the case today. It is therefore not surprising that a large share of very recent immigrants were in the 25 to 44 age group.

Many of the characteristics and circumstances described in this profile vary with age. Differences between immigrants or groups of immigrants and the Canadian-born often are at least in part a reflection of differences in the age structure.

Figure B-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, by age, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage distribution)
Figure B-1

More women than men

The proportion of women in the recent immigrant population in Winnipeg is the same as that of the Canadian-born population. More than 60% of recent immigrants from Croatia and Guyana are women, but the number of immigrants from these countries is relatively small.

Table B-6: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage of women, by age, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Canadian-born 49% 51% 50% 52% 59% 51%
Immigrants 50% 47% 51% 51% 56% 52%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 42% 51% 51% 56% 52%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 50% 47% 51% 51% 62% 51%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 49% 52% 52% 49% 57% 51%

There are 800 more women than men among the 39,700 recent immigrants in Winnipeg. The number of women is particularly high among recent immigrants from the Philippines (700 more women than men out of 11,110 recent immigrants) and India (220 more women than men out of 2,600 recent immigrants).

As women on average live longer than men, they make up a large share of persons aged 65 years and over. But the higher proportion of women among recent immigrants is not related to age. For instance, among recent immigrants from the Philippines, women outnumber men by more than 400 in the 25-44 age group. Some of them have obtained permanent resident status after a period of employment as live-in caregivers.

At the opposite end of the spectrum of gender mix are the United Kingdom, Romania and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Fifty-five percent or more of recent immigrants from these countries are men. Men outnumber women by 180 among recent immigrants from the United Kingdom and by 80 in the case of Romania and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The gender balance, by country of origin, has not changed greatly since 1996.

Language and education

More than nine in ten very recent immigrants speak English or French

A large majority of Winnipeg’s immigrants of 15 years of age and over reported being able to carry on a conversation in at least one of Canada’s two official languages. Even among very recent immigrants, who landed in Canada from 1996 to 2001, nine in ten (94% of men and 89% of women) reported being able to speak an official language in May 2001. Only one in ten of these very recent immigrants could not speak either official language. Knowledge of official languages is somewhat more widespread among those who immigrated in earlier periods: 94% of those arriving between 1986 and 1995 and 97% of those arriving before 1986 indicated that they were able to speak an official language.

Table B-7: Very recent immigrants (immigrated between 1996 and 2001)—15 years of age and over —knowledge of official languages, by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  English only French only English and French Neither English nor French Total
Women
15 to 24 years 1,140 - 50 40 1,230
25 to 44 years 2,850 10 120 200 3,180
45 to 64 years 530 - 20 230 770
65 years and over 120 - 10 150 280
15 years and over 4,640 - 190 620 5,440
Men
15 to 24 years 1,050 - 70 30 1,140
25 to 44 years 2,610 10 180 80 2,870
45 to 64 years 650 - 50 130 820
65 years and over 130 - - 80 210
15 years and over 4,430 10 300 310 5,050
Total
15 to 24 years 2,190 - 120 70 2,370
25 to 44 years 5,460 10 300 280 6,040
45 to 64 years 1,170 - 70 350 1,590
65 years and over 250 - 20 230 490
15 years and over 9,060 20 490 920 10,480
 
Women
15 to 24 years 93% 0% 4% 3% 96%
25 to 44 years 90% 0% 4% 6% 96%
45 to 64 years 69% 0% 3% 30% 75%
65 years and over 43% 0% 4% 54% 41%
15 years and over 85% 0% 3% 11% 91%
Men
15 to 24 years 92% 0% 6% 3% 100%
25 to 44 years 91% 0% 6% 3% 100%
45 to 64 years 79% 0% 6% 16% 100%
65 years and over 62% 0% 0% 38% 100%
15 years and over 88% 0% 6% 6% 100%
Total
15 to 24 years 92% 0% 5% 3% 100%
25 to 44 years 90% 0% 5% 5% 100%
45 to 64 years 74% 0% 4% 22% 100%
65 years and over 51% 0% 4% 47% 100%
15 years and over 86% 0% 5% 9% 100%

The proportion of Winnipeg’s immigrants able to carry on a conversation in English or French decreases with age. Among immigrants under age 45 who landed in Canada between 1996 and 2001, almost all are able to speak an official language, and there is little difference between men and women in this regard. Among those aged 45 to 64, however, the percentage that can speak English or French is lower, and more so for women than for men. For both men and women, seniors aged 65 and over are least likely to have conversational ability in English or French.

Ability to converse in either or both official languages has improved with the very recent immigrant cohort: 2% more men and 2% more women had this ability in 2001 compared to a similar cohort (those who landed within the five years prior to the census) in 1996. This may reflect changes in countries of origin, the increase in the number of economic immigrants and perhaps also greater awareness among immigrants of the need to speak Canada’s languages before and after arrival.

Nearly two in three very recent immigrants speak a foreign language at home

For the majority of Winnipeg’s recent immigrants, the language spoken most often at home is one other than English or French. Six in ten immigrants who landed between 1996 and 2001 most often speak a foreign language in their homes.

Figure B-2 : Immigrants by period of immigration—15 years of age and over—use of a foreign language at home, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (percentage)
wpg_figb2

The use of foreign languages is also high among other immigrant cohorts. Over half of those who immigrated between 1986 and 1995 and three in ten of those who immigrated prior to 1986 most often spoke a foreign language at home.

The use of foreign languages in the home, for a given length of stay in Canada, was much the same in 2001 as in 1996.

Very high level of education among very recent immigrants

The share of recent immigrants with a minimal education is larger than the share of the Canadian-born with a minimal education. The Canadian-born are more likely than immigrants to have some high school or to have completed college or a trade diploma. Very recent immigrants, however, boast a large number of university graduates, accounting for twice as large a share of persons 15 years of age and over than in the case of the Canadian-born.

When education levels are compared by age group, the younger generation has a much higher level of education than older groups, whether born inside or outside Canada. One in five persons under 45 years of age born in Canada has not completed high school, compared to three in five seniors. Nearly six in ten Canadian-born persons under 45 years of age have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to one-third of Canadian-born men and one-quarter of women over 65 years of age. A similar difference in educational qualifications is observed among immigrants.

Table B-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over—highest level of education, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Less than grade 9 Some high school High school diploma College or trade diploma University degree Total
Women
Canadian-born 12,690 62,000 50,930 60,330 35,270 221,220
Immigrants 9,740 11,800 10,820 12,950 8,920 54,230
 Immigrated before 1986 7,670 8,360 6,570 8,980 4,850 36,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,530 2,430 2,880 3,120 2,430 12,370
 Immigrated 1996-2001 550 1,010 1,380 860 1,650 5,440
Men
Canadian-born 10,960 58,890 46,390 55,240 33,270 204,730
Immigrants 6,160 10,250 10,000 14,230 9,560 50,190
 Immigrated before 1986 5,010 6,460 5,600 10,390 5,820 33,270
 Immigrated 1986-1995 890 2,790 3,100 2,810 2,280 11,880
 Immigrated 1996-2001 270 1,020 1,290 1,010 1,460 5,040
Total
Canadian-born 23,660 120,890 97,320 115,570 68,530 425,950
Immigrants 15,890 22,050 20,820 27,190 18,470 104,410
 Immigrated before 1986 12,670 14,810 12,170 19,370 10,670 69,690
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,410 5,220 5,980 5,940 4,700 24,250
 Immigrated 1996-2001 820 2,030 2,670 1,870 3,110 10,480
 
Women
Canadian-born 6% 28% 23% 27% 16% 100%
Immigrants 18% 22% 20% 24% 16% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 21% 23% 18% 25% 13% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 12% 20% 23% 25% 20% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 10% 18% 25% 16% 30% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 5% 29% 23% 27% 16% 100%
Immigrants 12% 20% 20% 28% 19% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 15% 19% 17% 31% 17% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 7% 23% 26% 24% 19% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 5% 20% 26% 20% 29% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 6% 28% 23% 27% 16% 100%
Immigrants 15% 21% 20% 26% 18% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 18% 21% 17% 28% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 10% 22% 25% 24% 19% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 8% 19% 25% 18% 30% 100%
Table B-9: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—25 years of age and over, with no high school diploma or with post-secondary diploma or degree—by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  No high school diploma With post-secondary diploma or degree
  25 to 44
years
45 to 65
years
65 years and over 25 to 44 years 45 to 65 years 65 years and over
Women
Canadian-born 15,680 18,960 22,180 47,950 29,850 8,790
Immigrants 3,870 6,840 9,280 9,590 8,890 2,530
 Immigrated before 1986 2,030 5,570 8,320 4,090 7,230 2,340
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,300 930 810 3,620 1,360 120
 Immigrated 1996-2001 560 360 160 1,900 310 100
Men
Canadian-born 18,720 17,320 13,800 43,930 29,900 8,370
Immigrants 3,660 5,080 5,640 8,950 10,480 3,760
 Immigrated before 1986 1,830 4,210 5,150 3,940 8,550 3,530
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,430 670 390 3,140 1,500 140
 Immigrated 1996-2001 390 200 90 1,880 430 80
Total
Canadian-born 34,390 36,290 35,980 91,870 59,750 17,160
Immigrants 7,530 11,910 14,910 18,540 19,370 6,280
 Immigrated before 1986 3,870 9,760 13,480 8,010 15,780 5,860
 Immigrated 1986-1995 2,730 1,610 1,180 6,750 2,860 260
 Immigrated 1996-2001 950 550 240 3,770 740 170
 
Women
Canadian-born 19% 31% 61% 58% 49% 24%
Immigrants 22% 35% 69% 55% 46% 19%
 Immigrated before 1986 26% 35% 68% 52% 46% 19%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 20% 33% 81% 57% 48% 12%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 18% 46% 57% 60% 41% 34%
Men
Canadian-born 23% 30% 55% 53% 52% 33%
Immigrants 22% 27% 54% 54% 56% 36%
 Immigrated before 1986 24% 28% 54% 52% 56% 37%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 24% 25% 61% 52% 56% 21%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 14% 24% 42% 65% 53% 35%
Total
Canadian-born 21% 31% 58% 56% 51% 28%
Immigrants 22% 31% 62% 55% 51% 26%
 Immigrated before 1986 25% 32% 62% 52% 51% 27%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 22% 29% 72% 55% 52% 16%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 16% 34% 47% 62% 46% 34%

Two-thirds of men aged 25-44 who immigrated during the 1996-2001 period have a post-secondary diploma or degree, compared to just over one-half of Canadian-born men. In the same age group, three-fifths of both very recent immigrant women and Canadian-born women, respectively, have post-secondary diplomas or degrees. By the same token, the share of women with less than high school is the same for very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born in the 25-44 age group, while for men it is smaller among very recent immigrants. This very high education level of very recent immigrants is something new. In 1996, immigrants who had landed in the five years prior to the census were not as well educated as very recent immigrants in 2001.

Overall, the education levels of immigrants and the Canadian-born are similar, with immigrant women having somewhat less and immigrant men somewhat more schooling than their Canadian-born counterparts.

Recent immigrants add to Winnipeg’s pool of scientists and engineers

Approximately two in three men who immigrated after 1995 and have a post-secondary diploma or degree majored in physical sciences, engineering or trades. This compares to one in two Canadian-born men. Among women with a post-secondary diploma or degree, about one in four very recent immigrants have studied some physical science or technology, compared to one in nine Canadian-born women with similar education levels.

Table B-10: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, with a post-secondary diploma or degree—major field of study, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage distribution)
  Physical sciences, engineering and trades Social sciences, education and arts Commerce, management and business administration Health professions and related technologies Total
Women
Canadian-born 10,790 38,320 26,730 19,680 95,520
Immigrants 3,810 7,550 5,680 4,800 21,840
 Immigrated before 1986 1,180 1,610 1,580 1,190 5,550
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,980 5,170 3,540 3,130 13,810
 Immigrated 1996-2001 670 760 580 500 2,500
Men
Canadian-born 44,130 23,800 16,230 4,280 88,440
Immigrants 14,010 5,100 2,910 1,730 23,740
 Immigrated before 1986 3,150 840 660 440 5,090
 Immigrated 1986-1995 9,220 3,840 2,020 1,140 16,210
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,630 450 230 170 2,480
Total
Canadian-born 54,920 62,120 42,970 23,960 183,950
Immigrants 17,810 12,650 8,590 6,530 45,580
 Immigrated before 1986 4,310 2,450 2,230 1,620 10,600
 Immigrated 1986-1995 11,210 9,000 5,560 4,250 30,010
 Immigrated 1996-2001 2,310 1,210 810 670 4,980
 
Women
Canadian-born 11% 40% 28% 21% 100%
Immigrants 17% 35% 26% 22% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 21% 29% 28% 21% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 14% 37% 26% 23% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 27% 30% 23% 20% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 50% 27% 18% 5% 100%
Immigrants 59% 21% 12% 7% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 62% 17% 13% 9% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 57% 24% 12% 7% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 66% 18% 9% 7% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 30% 34% 23% 13% 100%
Immigrants 39% 28% 19% 14% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 41% 23% 21% 15% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 37% 30% 19% 14% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 46% 24% 16% 13% 100%

By contrast, very recent immigrants are represented in significantly smaller proportions than the Canadian-born in the social sciences, education and the arts (taken as a group) and in commerce, management and business administration (taken as a group). The several immigrant cohorts and the Canadian-born are more alike with respect to the proportion that specialize in health professions and technologies. The educational choices of immigrants, recent immigrants and the Canadian-born remain much the same as in 1996.

Recent immigrants more likely to attend school

Very recent immigrants are relatively likely to be in school. School attendance is at least twice as high among very recent immigrants as among the Canadian-born, in both the 25-44 and 45-64 age groups.

Table B-11: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 to 64 years of age, attending school—by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2001 (number and percentage)
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 64 years
Women
Canadian-born 24,330 12,210 2,840 59% 15% 5%
Immigrants 2,600 3,060 940 64% 18% 5%
 Immigrated before 1986 410 1,070 600 63% 14% 4%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,430 1,070 220 64% 17% 8%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 760 920 130 62% 29% 16%
Men
Canadian-born 22,770 10,130 1,760 56% 12% 3%
Immigrants 2,800 2,590 620 61% 16% 3%
 Immigrated before 1986 430 950 360 47% 12% 2%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,610 830 150 64% 14% 6%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 770 810 120 67% 28% 14%
Total
Canadian-born 47,110 22,330 4,600 58% 14% 4%
Immigrants 5,400 5,640 1,570 62% 17% 4%
 Immigrated before 1986 830 2,030 980 53% 13% 3%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 3,030 1,900 370 64% 15% 7%
 Immigrated 1996-2001 1,530 1,720 230 65% 28% 15%

School attendance, of course, is much higher in the youngest age group, persons of 15 to 24 years of age, than in older age groups. Here we find a much higher rate for men who immigrated very recently than for the Canadian-born and a somewhat higher rate in the case of women. The latter is just as noteworthy as the former, as educational participation of young Canadian-born women is very high by international standards.

School attendance is also high among young earlier immigrants. For this group, language is not likely to be an issue, since they landed as young children.

School attendance rates for immigrant men are similar to those in 1996, but very recent immigrant women were more likely to be in school in 2001 than in 1996.

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