Recent Immigrants in Metropolitan Areas: Winnipeg—A Comparative Profile Based on the 2001 Census

Part E: Income

Sources and level of income

Sources of income vary by time in Canada

Seven in ten Canadian-born women and eight in ten Canadian-born men had earnings from employment in the year 2000. A larger share of recent immigrants than of the Canadian-born have income from employment.

Table E-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, 15 years of age and over—sources of income by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  No income Employment income Other private income Government transfers Total
Women
Canadian-born 8,930 151,650 78,030 153,590 221,220
Immigrants 1,570 32,020 17,440 39,960 52,420
 Immigrated before 1986 780 20,090 14,530 27,840 36,400
 Immigrated 1986-1995 550 9,310 2,170 9,410 12,380
 Immigrated 1996-1999 250 2,630 750 2,710 3,640
Men
Canadian-born 6,240 160,750 61,510 123,440 204,730
Immigrants 690 35,670 15,170 34,020 48,570
 Immigrated before 1986 60 22,760 13,050 23,540 33,270
 Immigrated 1986-1995 430 10,120 1,550 8,190 11,870
 Immigrated 1996-1999 210 2,800 570 2,300 3,430
Total
Canadian-born 15,170 312,400 139,530 277,020 425,950
Immigrants 2,260 67,680 32,630 73,980 101,000
 Immigrated before 1986 830 42,840 27,590 51,380 69,680
 Immigrated 1986-1995 980 19,420 3,730 17,590 24,250
 Immigrated 1996-1999 450 5,430 1,320 5,010 7,070
 
Women
Canadian-born 4% 69% 35% 69% 100%
Immigrants 3% 61% 33% 76% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 55% 40% 76% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 75% 17% 76% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 7% 72% 20% 74% 100%
Men
Canadian-born 3% 79% 30% 60% 100%
Immigrants 1% 73% 31% 70% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 68% 39% 71% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 85% 13% 69% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 6% 81% 17% 67% 100%
Total
Canadian-born 4% 73% 33% 65% 100%
Immigrants 2% 67% 32% 73% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 61% 40% 74% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 80% 15% 73% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 6% 77% 19% 71% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. A person may have income from one, two or all three sources. The three sources are defined in the Glossary.

The share of persons with employment income was generally higher in 2000 than in 1995. It increased by about four percentage points for the Canadian-born and recent immigrants.

Very recent immigrants are much more likely than the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants to have no income. Immigrants who landed during the 1986-1995 period are equally likely as the Canadian-born to have no income, and immigrants who landed before 1986 are less likely than the Canadian-born to have no income. The incidence of zero income among very recent immigrant women declined from 13% in 1995 to 7% in 2000 and remained the same for very recent immigrant men.

The share of recent immigrants with other private income—for example, income from investments or pension plans—is well below the share of the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants with other private income. Compared to 1995, the proportion of persons in the very recent immigrant cohort with private income has increased by five percentage points.

The incidence of transfer payment income is higher among immigrants than among the Canadian-born. The high proportion of earlier immigrants receiving transfer payments from government likely reflects the high share of seniors in this group, who generally receive Old Age Security and Canada or Quebec Pension Plan benefits. The incidence of transfer payment income has shifted markedly from men to women since 1995, as in 2000 child benefit payments were made to the mother of the child.

Average income higher for immigrants who have been in Canada longer

Considering only persons who reported income in the year 2000, the average income of immigrants who landed between 1996 and 1999 was lower than that of the Canadian-born. Those who immigrated before 1986 had approximately the same average income as the Canadian-born. For very recent immigrants, average income was two-thirds of the average income of the Canadian-born. Those who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period had an average income of about three-quarters the income of the Canadian-born.

Table E-2: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, with income —average income and sources of average income, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  Sources of average income
  Average income of persons with income Employment
income
Other private income Government transfers Total
Women
Canadian-born $23,210 72% 12% 15% 100%
Immigrants $21,030 66% 12% 21% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 $22,650 62% 15% 23% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $17,930 80% 5% 16% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $14,800 80% 5% 16% 100%
Men
Canadian-born $35,280 81% 11% 8% 100%
Immigrants $33,850 77% 11% 11% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 $37,250 73% 14% 13% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $26,470 90% 3% 7% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $25,000 88% 4% 7% 100%
Total
Canadian-born $29,040 77% 12% 11% 100%
Immigrants $27,250 73% 12% 15% 100%
 Immigrated before 1986 $29,700 69% 14% 17% 100%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $22,130 86% 4% 10% 100%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $19,760 85% 4% 11% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Compared to 1995, average income of very recent immigrants increased more than that of other cohorts, by 60% for men and by 40% for women. For the Canadian-born, the increase was 20% for women and 16% for men. The other immigrant cohorts showed gains from 17% to 23%.

The average income of women is between 60% and 68% of that of men for the Canadian-born and the three immigrant cohorts.

Earnings from employment account for the bulk of income of all groups and make up a larger proportion of income of recent immigrants than of persons born in Canada. The share of income from employment was much the same as in 1995, except for among very recent immigrant men, who experienced an increase of six percentage points.

The share of other private income was much lower for recent immigrants than for the Canadian-born, while transfer payments from government made up a similar portion of the income of both groups.

Earnings of recent immigrants who worked mostly full-time lower than average

The wages and salaries earned by recent immigrants who worked mostly full-time in 2000 are well below the Winnipeg average. By contrast, earlier immigrants had slightly higher average wages and salaries than the Canadian-born.

Table E-3: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—15 years of age and over, employed mostly full-time—average earnings from wages and salaries, and earnings as percentage of overall average, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  Amount Percentage of overall average
Canadian-born $35,280 102%
Immigrants $32,030 92%
 Immigrated before 1986 $35,580 103%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 $26,100 75%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 $24,150 70%
All who worked mostly full-time $34,670 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

The relative level of wages and salaries of very recent immigrants in Winnipeg, at 70% of the average, was higher in 2000 than in 1995 by 17 percentage points. For those who had been in the country from five to 15 years, it did not change.

Transfer payments a larger share of income of households of non-seniors

In the year 2000, the large majority of households received transfer payments from government. Recent immigrant households were more likely to receive transfer payments from government than other households. On average, however, the payments received were lower, both in dollar terms and relative to income.

Transfer payments vary considerably with the age of the oldest person in the household, and so do differences between recent immigrant, earlier immigrant and Canadian-born households. Recent immigrant households of the very young receive lower amounts than their Canadian-born and earlier immigrant counterparts. As for households of persons aged 25 to 44 and 45 to 64, recent immigrant households were both more likely to receive transfer payments and to receive larger amounts than the Canadian-born.

Table E-4: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—percentage of households receiving transfer payments, average amount of government transfer payments, and transfer payments as a share of income, by age of older parent in family or oldest person in non-family household, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  15 to 24 years 25 to 44 years 45 to 65 years 65 years and over Total
Share of households receiving government transfer payments
Canadian-born households 89% 86% 80% 100% 87%
Earlier immigrant households 93% 86% 83% 100% 90%
Recent immigrant households 86% 93% 93% 100% 94%
 1986-1995 immigrants 90% 93% 92% 100% 94%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others 83% 93% 96% 100% 93%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 67% 96% 95% 92% 94%
Average amount of transfer per receiving household
Canadian-born households $2,870 $3,110 $3,280 $16,250 $5,970
Earlier immigrant households $2,230 $3,420 $3,880 $17,020 $8,660
Recent immigrant households $2,280 $3,880 $4,460 $15,680 $5,050
 1986-1995 immigrants $2,640 $3,820 $4,190 $15,980 $5,010
 1996-1999 immigrants with others - $4,140 $5,180 $15,790 $5,840
 1996-1999 immigrants only $920 $3,900 $5,810 $9,370 $4,470
Transfers as a share of income, all households
Canadian-born households 12% 5% 4% 41% 10%
Earlier immigrant households 8% 5% 4% 40% 13%
Recent immigrant households 11% 7% 7% 29% 9%
 1986-1995 immigrants 12% 7% 7% 29% 9%
 1996-1999 immigrants with others - 7% 7% 36% 9%
 1996-1999 immigrants only 6% 10% 11% 12% 10%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Transfer payments to households without seniors generally reflect benefits of Employment Insurance, Workers Compensation, social assistance, student assistance or other programs. Included in these transfer payments are tax credits such as the Canada Child Benefit, GST tax credits and provincial tax credits. The somewhat greater incidence and amounts of transfer payments for recent immigrant households of persons 25 to 64 years old in relation to earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born may have to do with the larger average number of children in families and with differences in labour market participation and unemployment reviewed in Part D.

Almost all households with persons 65 years of age and over received transfer payments from government: Old Age Security, the Guaranteed Income Supplement, or Canada or Quebec Pension Plan benefits. Recent immigrant households of seniors on average received nearly the same amount, but households consisting only of immigrants who landed very recently received much less. These immigrants are not entitled to Old Age Security and have not built up large credits under the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan.

The distribution of income

Personal income reaches parity and similar distribution with longer stay

Of very recent immigrants, nearly five in ten women and three in ten men reported no income or income of less than $10,000 in the year 2000. The share reporting no income is lower for persons who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period, and the share of persons without income is even lower for earlier immigrants, who also report income below $10,000 in much smaller proportions than recent immigrants.

At the high end of the income scale, recent immigrants and especially very recent immigrants are underrepresented. The proportion of $50,000 and over is less than half as large among immigrants who landed during the periods of 1986-1995 and 1996-1999 as among the Canadian-born.

The income distribution of very recent immigrants was more favourable in 2000 than in 1995. The incomes of earlier immigrants are distributed more or less like those of the Canadian-born, with a smaller share having no income or income of less than $10,000 and a higher concentration in the lower middle range of $10,000 to $30,000.

Table E-5: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born, 15 years of age and over—income levels, by gender (number and percentage distribution) and average income, by gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
  Without
income
$1 to
$9,999
$10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $49,999 $50,000 and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 8,940 54,670 97,640 41,800 18,200 221,220
Immigrants 1,570 11,760 28,210 8,060 2,850 52,420
 Immigrated before 1986 780 6,760 20,110 6,370 2,430 36,410
 Immigrated 1986-1995 550 3,620 6,460 1,400 350 12,380
 Immigrated 1996-1999 250 1,380 1,650 300 80 3,640
Men
Canadian-born 6,240 35,240 65,260 55,610 42,390 204,730
Immigrants 700 6,370 20,010 13,640 7,880 48,580
 Immigrated before 1986 60 3,030 13,430 10,150 6,610 33,280
 Immigrated 1986-1995 440 2,540 4,960 2,920 1,030 11,880
 Immigrated 1996-1999 210 810 1,620 570 240 3,430
Total
Canadian-born 15,170 89,900 162,900 97,400 60,600 425,950
Immigrants 2,260 18,120 48,220 21,680 10,720 101,000
 Immigrated before 1986 830 9,780 33,540 16,500 9,030 69,680
 Immigrated 1986-1995 990 6,150 11,420 4,320 1,370 24,250
 Immigrated 1996-1999 450 2,190 3,260 860 320 7,070
  Without
income
$1 to
$9,999
$10,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $49,999 $50,000 and over Total Average income
Women
Canadian-born 4% 25% 44% 19% 8% 100% $22,270
Immigrants 3% 22% 54% 15% 5% 100% $20,410
 Immigrated before 1986 2% 19% 55% 17% 7% 100% $22,170
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 29% 52% 11% 3% 100% $17,140
 Immigrated 1996-1999 7% 38% 45% 8% 2% 100% $13,820
Men
Canadian-born 3% 17% 32% 27% 21% 100% $34,200
Immigrants 1% 13% 41% 28% 16% 100% $33,360
 Immigrated before 1986 0% 9% 40% 31% 20% 100% $37,190
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 21% 42% 25% 9% 100% $25,490
 Immigrated 1996-1999 6% 23% 47% 17% 7% 100% $23,470
Total
Canadian-born 4% 21% 38% 23% 14% 100% $28,000
Immigrants 2% 18% 48% 21% 11% 100% $26,640
 Immigrated before 1986 1% 14% 48% 24% 13% 100% $29,340
 Immigrated 1986-1995 4% 25% 47% 18% 6% 100% $21,230
 Immigrated 1996-1999 6% 31% 46% 12% 5% 100% $18,520

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year.

Average household income somewhat higher

In 2000, recent immigrant households had an average income of $54,600, somewhat more than the average income of Canadian-born households. The income of households consisting only of very recent immigrants was three-quarters of the income of households of the Canadian-born.

Table E-6: Immigrant households (by period of immigration) and Canadian-born households—household income levels (number and percentage distribution) and average household income, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
Households $0 to $19,999 $20,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $59,999 $60,000 to $79,999 $80,000 and over Total Average income
Canadian-born 42,570 50,300 42,570 30,470 39,220 205,120 $53,470
21% 25% 21% 15% 19% 100%
Earlier immigrants 7,700 10,990 9,520 7,280 10,340 45,820 $58,820
17% 24% 21% 16% 23% 100%
Recent immigrants 2,590 3,920 4,060 2,760 2,660 15,980 $54,640
19% 24% 24% 17% 16% 100%
 1986-1995 immigrants 1,890 2,730 2,980 2,200 2,150 11,960 $56,340
16% 23% 25% 18% 18% 100%
 1996-1999 immigrants
 with others
170 580 600 380 390 2,100 $57,380
11% 24% 28% 18% 18% 100%
 1996-1999 immigrants
  only
530 610 480 190 130 1,920 $41,070
40% 28% 19% 8% 5% 100%
All households 54,250 65,840 56,640 40,780 52,480 269,990 $54,230
20% 24% 21% 15% 19% 100%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. The total “All households” includes households of non-permanent residents not shown in the table. For definitions of household and related concepts, see the Glossary.

The income distribution of recent immigrant households is more compact than that of the households of the Canadian-born, with a larger share of households in the middle ranges.

One in four very recent immigrants has low income

Recent immigrants are more likely than earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born to live in families with incomes that fall below the overall median or, if they do not live in families, to have income below the median for unattached individuals. They are also more likely to live in families with incomes that fall below one-half of the median income—that is, to have low income. The percentage of immigrants with income in the bottom half or quarter of the income distribution declines in relation to their length of stay in Canada of the cohort.

The income situation of very recent immigrants was somewhat better in 2000 than five years earlier. Sixty-nine percent of incomes of very recent immigrants were below the median income, compared to 73% in 1995, and 25% were below one-half of the median income, compared to 31% in 1995. Similar improvement occurred among immigrants who landed five to fifteen years before the census, while earlier immigrants and the Canadian-born experienced little change.

Figure E-1: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born—percentage with family or individual income below the median and below one-half of the median, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000
Figure E-1

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all figures in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

Table E-7: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born —family or individual income below the median by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 30,320 19,740 59,430 23,160 132,650
Immigrants 1,230 1,970 16,890 8,850 28,930
 Immigrated before 1986 - 310 10,030 8,290 18,620
 Immigrated 1986-1995 570 1,190 5,000 440 7,210
 Immigrated 1996-1999 660 470 1,860 120 3,100
Men
Canadian-born 32,670 15,800 51,000 15,230 114,710
Immigrants 1,240 2,280 14,050 6,780 24,360
 Immigrated before 1986 - 400 8,240 6,400 15,030
 Immigrated 1986-1995 570 1,290 4,230 310 6,420
 Immigrated 1996-1999 670 600 1,580 70 2,920
Total
Canadian-born 62,980 35,530 110,430 38,390 247,360
Immigrants 2,470 4,240 30,930 15,620 53,280
 Immigrated before 1986 - 710 18,270 14,690 33,650
 Immigrated 1986-1995 1,140 2,470 9,230 750 13,620
 Immigrated 1996-1999 1,330 1,070 3,440 180 6,020
 
Women
Canadian-born 51% 48% 41% 64% 47%
Immigrants 66% 55% 48% 66% 53%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 48% 43% 68% 51%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 55% 54% 55% 44% 54%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 78% 63% 69% 62% 69%
Men
Canadian-born 52% 39% 37% 61% 43%
Immigrants 66% 54% 42% 66% 48%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 44% 36% 67% 45%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 56% 52% 49% 49% 50%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 76% 73% 64% 45% 68%
Total
Canadian-born 51% 44% 39% 63% 45%
Immigrants 66% 54% 45% 66% 51%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 45% 40% 68% 48%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 56% 53% 52% 46% 52%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 77% 68% 67% 55% 69%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

The proportion of people with income below the median varies with age. For the Canadian-born and earlier immigrants, the highest proportions are found among seniors. But this is not so for very recent immigrants, among whom incomes below the median are more common at younger ages. Persons who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period occupy a middle ground.

In all age and gender groups except women and men 65 years of age and over, the proportion of persons with income below the overall median is higher among very recent immigrants and those who immigrated during the 1986-1995 period, than among the Canadian-born.

Table E-8: Immigrants by period of immigration and Canadian-born —family or individual income below one-half of the median by age and gender, Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area, 2000 (number and percentage)
  Under 15 years 15 to 24 years 25 to 64 years 65 years and over Total
Women
Canadian-born 11,370 8,750 20,350 3,780 44,250
Immigrants 470 730 5,000 1,950 8,140
 Immigrated before 1986 - 100 2,790 1,770 4,670
 Immigrated 1986-1995 200 450 1,560 110 2,310
 Immigrated 1996-1999 280 190 650 70 1,170
Men
Canadian-born 11,940 5,820 15,290 3,670 36,720
Immigrants 530 860 3,670 2,040 7,100
 Immigrated before 1986 - 120 2,160 1,920 4,190
 Immigrated 1986-1995 250 530 1,030 80 1,910
 Immigrated 1996-1999 280 210 480 40 1,000
Total
Canadian-born 23,310 14,570 35,640 7,450 80,970
Immigrants 1,000 1,590 8,670 3,980 15,240
 Immigrated before 1986 - 220 4,950 3,690 8,850
 Immigrated 1986-1995 450 980 2,590 190 4,220
 Immigrated 1996-1999 560 400 1,130 110 2,170
 
Women
Canadian-born 19% 21% 14% 10% 16%
Immigrants 25% 20% 14% 15% 15%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 15% 12% 15% 13%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 19% 20% 17% 11% 17%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 32% 25% 24% 38% 26%
Men
Canadian-born 19% 15% 11% 15% 14%
Immigrants 28% 20% 11% 20% 14%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 13% 10% 20% 13%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 25% 21% 12% 13% 15%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 32% 26% 19% 24% 23%
Total
Canadian-born 19% 18% 13% 12% 15%
Immigrants 27% 20% 13% 17% 15%
 Immigrated before 1986 - 14% 11% 17% 13%
 Immigrated 1986-1995 22% 21% 15% 11% 16%
 Immigrated 1996-1999 32% 25% 22% 32% 25%

Note: Incomes are for the year 2000. In all tables in Part E, immigrants and very recent immigrants include only those who landed before the year 2000 and could have had income the entire year. For a definition of median income and details about the calculations, see the Glossary.

One in four very recent immigrants has low income or lives in a family with low income—that is, income below one-half of the median. Among other immigrant cohorts and the Canadian-born, the incidence of low income is about 15%. A difference between very recent immigrants and the Canadian-born in the incidence of low income is present among men and women of all ages.

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