Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: About, causes and co-occurring conditions

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Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder describes the impacts on the brain and body of someone exposed to alcohol in the womb. It's a lifelong disability, but is preventable with the right services and supports.

People with the disorder may need support with:

Everyone with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is unique and has areas of both strengths and challenges.

The number of people with the disorder is unknown. This is because it's difficult to diagnose and often goes undetected. Recent studies from Canada estimate that between 0.1% and 3% of children and youth have been diagnosed with the disorder.


Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is caused by exposure to alcohol in the womb. It is not hereditary.

Alcohol harms cell development. If the birthing parent consumes alcohol during pregnancy, it passes into the developing fetus. This can cause harm to the developing fetus's brain and body.

The impact of alcohol on a developing fetus depends on:

Other factors can affect fetus development, such as:

Co-occurring health conditions

More than 400 other health conditions are related to or commonly occur together with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. They can affect almost all systems in the body. The most common co-occurring health conditions can impact:

Early and appropriate support can improve outcomes for people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. People who don't receive support are more likely to face difficulties such as:

Accurate diagnosis is important for effective treatment. The signs and symptoms of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder are often mistaken for other conditions.

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