HIV and AIDS: Symptoms and treatment

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV is a manageable chronic condition. With treatment, people living with HIV can have long and healthy lives. However, if left untreated, it can cause a weakened immune system or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Symptoms of HIV infection

Some people may not develop any symptoms after contracting HIV and could remain undiagnosed until the symptoms of AIDS appear. This could be up to 10 years later.

However, 50% or more of people living with HIV may develop mild flu-like symptoms within 2 to 4 weeks. Early symptoms may include:

The symptoms of HIV infection may last from a few days to weeks. They may go away on their own.

Misdiagnosis of early HIV infection is common. If you think you have HIV, speak with your health care provider about being tested.

Getting tested

HIV can be diagnosed using a blood test. Some tests may not be able to detect the virus during the first 2 to 4 weeks of HIV infection. However, you can still pass the virus to others during this highly infectious stage.

Your health care provider may ask you to repeat the test if it's negative and there's a possibility you have HIV.

HIV testing sites across Canada offer different services and testing options. Some sites offer:

When you request a test for HIV:

Learn more:

Treating HIV

Highly effective treatments are available to manage HIV infection. Starting treatment early for HIV can help you live a healthy life.

If you have HIV, you can be treated with antiretroviral medications as part of antiretroviral therapy. These medications:

HIV treatment improves the health of people living with HIV and can prevent HIV from being passed on through sex. "Undetectable = Untransmittable" (U=U) is a common message that communicates these benefits.

Undetectable = Untransmittable

Changing attitudes about HIV

When someone is diagnosed with HIV, other people may have negative attitudes and beliefs about that person's behaviour, lifestyle or circumstances in life. These negative associations form what's called stigma, an experience that can decrease quality of life because it includes:

These types of reactions to those living with HIV are based on misinformation about the infection. Stigma remains one of the greatest barriers for Canadians in accessing:

Efforts to end stigma will help to:

What you can do to reduce stigma

Reducing stigma includes challenging your own knowledge and beliefs about HIV, and educating yourself about the topic. For example, HIV is not passed through:

You can help reduce stigma by being respectful, compassionate and non-judgemental. Model this behaviour for others when you witness stigmatizing behaviours.

When talking about HIV, certain terms can be stigmatizing. Be thoughtful about the words you use when discussing the topic.

Getting support

CATIE is an online HIV resource that can:


Related links

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