Achenbach, T.M., & Rescoria, L.A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms and Profiles. Burlington, Ver.: Research Center for Children, Youth and Families.
Adnams, C.M., Kodituwakku, P.W., Hay, A., Molteno, C.D., Viljoen, D., & May, P.A. (2001). Patterns of cognitive-motor development in children with fetal alcohol syndrome from a community in South Africa. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25(4), 557–562.
Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission (AADAC). (2004). Windows of Opportunity: A Statistical Profile of Substance Use Among Women in Their Childbearing Years in Alberta. Edmonton: AADAC.
Ashford, J., van Lier, P.A.C., Timmermans, M., Cuijpers, P., & Koot, H.M. (2008). Prenatal smoking and internalizing and externalizing problems in children studied from childhood to late adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 779–787.
Bailey, B.N., Delaney-Black, V., Covington, C.Y., Ager, J., Janisse, J., Hannigan, J.H., et al. (2004). Prenatal exposure to binge drinking and cognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 7 years. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 191, 1037–1043.
Bhutta, A.T., Cleves, M.A., Casey, P.H., Cradock, M.M, & Anand, K.J.S. (2002). Cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm: A meta-analysis. JAMA, 288, 728–737.
Brown, R.T., Coles, C.D., Smith, I.E., Platzman, K.A., Silverstein, J., Erickson, S., et al. (1991). Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure at school age: II. Attention and behavior. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 13(4), 369–376.
Carmichael-Olson, H., O'Connor, M.J., & Fitzgerald, H.E. (2001). Lessons learned from study of the developmental impact of prenatal alcohol use. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(3), 271–290.
Carmichael-Olson, H., Streissguth, A.P., Sampson, P.D., Barr, H.M, Bookstein, F.L., & Theide, K. (1997). Association of prenatal alcohol exposure with behavioural and learning problems in early adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1187–1194.
Chudley, A.E., Conry, J., Cook, J.L., Loock, C., Rosales, T., & LeBlanc, N. (2005). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Canadian guidelines for diagnosis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 172, S1–S21.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cornelius, M.D., & Day, N.L. (2007). The effects of tobacco use during and after pregnancy on exposed children. Alcohol Research & Health, 24(4), 242–249.
Cornelius, M.D., Goldschmidt, L., DeGenna, N., & Day, N.L. (2007). Smoking during teenage pregnancies: Effects of behavioural problems of offspring. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9, 739–750.
Cornelius, M.D., Taylor, P., Geva, D., & Day, N.L. (1995). Prenatal tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents: Effects on offspring gestational age, growth and morphology. Pediatrics, 95, 438–443.
Day, N., Cornelius, M., & Goldschmidt, L. (1992). The effects of prenatal tobacco and marijuana use on offspring growth from birth through age 3 years. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 14, 407–414.
Day, N., & Richardson, G.A. (2000). The teratogenic model of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In H.E. Fitzgerald, B.M. Lester, & B. Zuckerman (Eds.), Children of Addiction: Research, Health and Public Policy Issues (pp. 91–108). New York: Falmer Press.
D'Onofrio, B.M., Van Hulle, C.A., Waldman, I.D., Rodgers, J.L., Harden, K.P., Rathouz, P.J., et al. (2008). Smoking during pregnancy and offspring externalizing problems: An exploration of genetic and environmental confounds. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 139–164.
Encyclopaedia on Early Childhood Education. (2007). Synthesis on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Retrieved March 2, 2009, from http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/en-ca/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder/key-messages.html
Eskenazi, B., & Trupin, L. (1995). Passive and active maternal smoking during pregnancy as measured by serum cotinine and postnatal smoke exposure: II. Effect on neurodevelopment at age 5 years. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, S19–S29.
Ewing, J.A. (1984). Detecting alcoholism. The CAGE questionnaire. JAMA, 252, 1905–1907.
Fergusson, D.M., Woodward, L.J., & Horwood, L.J. (1998). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 721–727.
Fitzgerald, H.E., Davies, W.H., & Zucker, R.A. (2002). Growing up in an alcoholic family: Structuring pathways for risk aggregation and theory-driven intervention. In R.J. McMahon & R.D. Peters (Eds.), The Effects of Parental Dysfunction on Children (pp. 127–146). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Fried, P.A., O'Connell, C.M., & Watkinson, B. (1992). 60- and 72-month follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol: Cognitive and language assessment. Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics, 13(6), 383–391.
Fried, P.A., & Watkinson, B. (1990). 36- and 48-month neurobehavioural follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 11(2),49–58.
Gijsen, V., Fulga, N., Garcia-Bourmissen, F., & Koren, G. (2008). Does light drinking during pregnancy improve pregnancy outcome? A critical commentary. Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 15(3), 782–786.
Goldschmidt, L., Richardson, G.A., Stoffer, D.S., Geva, D., & Day, N.L. (1996). Prenatal alcohol exposure and academic achievement at age six: A nonlinear fit. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 20(4),763–770.
Government of Canada. (2007). Monitoring the well-being of Canada's young children. In The Wellbeing of Canada's Children: Government of Canada Report 2006 (Chapter 7). Retrieved September 9, 2009.
Huizink, A.C., & Mulder, A.J. (2006). Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(1), 24–41.
Jacobson, S.W., & Jacobson, J.L. (1994). Effects of fetal alcohol exposure on infant reaction time. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 18, 1125–1132.
Jacobson J.L., & Jacobson S.W. (2002). Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on child development. Alcohol Research & Health, 26, 282–286.
Jacobson, S.W., Chiodo, L.M., Sokol, R.J., & Jacobson, J.L. (2002). Validity of maternal report of prenatal alcohol, cocaine, and smoking in relation to neurobehavioral outcome. Pediatrics, 109(5), 815–825.
Jacobson, S.W., Jacobson, J.L., Sokol, R.J., Chiodo, L.M., & Corobana, R. (2004). Maternal age, alcohol abuse history, and quality of parenting as moderators of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on 7.5-year intellectual function. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(11), 1732–1745.
Janus, M., & Offord, D. (2000). Readiness to learn at school. Isuma, The Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 1(2), 71–75.
Jones, K.L., & Smith, D.W. (1973). Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy. Lancet, 2, 999–1001.
Joschko, M.A., Dreosti, I.E., & Tulsi, R.S. (1991). The teratogenic effects of nicotine in vitro in rats: A light and electron microscope study. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 13(3), 307–316.
Kelly, Y., Sacker, A., Gray, R., Kelly, J., Wolke, D., & Quigley, M.A. (2009). Light drinking in pregnancy, a risk for behavioural problems and cognitive deficits at 3 years of age? International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, 129–140.
Kitzmann, K.M., Gaylord, N., Holt, A., & Kenny, E. (2003). Child witnesses to domestic violence: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 271, 339–352.
Lévesque, R. (2007). SPSS Programming and Data Management: A.G. SPSS and SAS Users, Fourth Edition. Chicago: SPSS Inc. ISBN 1568273908.
Linnet, K.M. Dalsgaard, S., Obel, C., Wisborg, K., Henricksen, T., Rodriguez, A., et al. (2003). Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: Review of the current evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(6),1028–1040.
Maier, S.E., & West, J.R. (2001). Drinking patterns and alcohol-related birth defects. Alcohol Research & Health, 25(3), 168–174.
Martin, R.P., Dombrowski, S.C., Mullis, C., Wisenbaker, J., & Huttunen, M.O. (2006). Smoking during pregnancy: Association with childhood temperament, behavior, and academic performance. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(5),490–500.
Mattson, S.N., & Riley, E.P. (2000). Parent ratings of behavior in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and IQ-matched controls. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(2), 226–231.
Mattson, S.N., Riley, E.P., Gramling, L., Delis, D.C., & Jones, K.L. (1998). Neuropsychological comparison of alcohol-exposed children with or without physical features of fetal alcohol syndrome. Neuropsychology, 12(1), 146–153.
Maughan, B., Taylor, A., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T.E. (2004). Prenatal smoking and early childhood conduct problems: Testing genetic and environmental explanations of the association. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 836–843.
McGee, R., & Stanton, W.R. (1994). Smoking in pregnancy and child development to age 9 years. Journal of Pediatric and Child Health, 30, 263–268.
Meyer, G.J., Finn, S.E., Eyde, L.D., Kay, G.G., Moreland, K.L., Dies, R.R., et al. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56(2), 128–165.
Midanik, L.T., Zahnd, E.G., & Klein, D. (2005). Alcohol and drug CAGE screeners for pregnant, low-income women: The California perinatal needs assessment. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(1), 121–125.
Milberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S.V., Chen, L., & Jones, J. (1996). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(9), 1138–1142.
Moraes, C.L., Viellas, E.F., & Reichenheim, M.E. (2005). Assessing alcohol misuse during pregnancy: Evaluating psychometric properties of the CAGE, T-ACE and TWEAK in a Brazilian setting. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(2), 165–173.
Nanson, J.L., & Hiscock, M. (1990). Attention deficits in children exposed to alcohol prenatally. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 14(5),656–661.
Nathanson, V., Jayesinghe, N., & Roycroft, G. (2007). Is it all right for women to drink small amounts of alcohol in pregnancy? No. BMJ, 335, 857.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (1996). National Pregnancy and Health Survey. NIH Pub. No. 96-3819. Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health.
O'Connor, M.J., and Kasari, C. (2000). Prenatal alcohol exposure and depressive features in children. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(7), 1084–1092.
O'Connor, M.J., & Paley, B. (2006). The relationship of prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment to child depressive symptoms. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 50–64.
Olds, D.L., Henderson Jr., C.R., & Tatelbaum, R. (1994). Intellectual impairment in children of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy. Pediatrics, 93(2), 221–227.
Paolucci, E.O., & Violato, C. (2004). A meta-analysis of the published research on the affective, cognitive, and behavioral effects of corporal punishment. The Journal of Psychology, 138, 197–221.
Peters, R. DeV., Arnold, R., Petrunka, K., Angus, D.E., Brophy, K., Burke, S.O., et al. (2000). Developing Capacity and Competence in the Better Beginnings, Better Futures Communities: Short-Term Findings Report (Technical Report). Kingston, Ont.: Better Beginnings, Better Futures Research Coordination Unit.
Piaget, J. (1964). Part I. Cognitive development in children. Piaget development and learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2(3), 176–186.
Pihlakoski, L., Sourander, A., Aromaa, M., Rautava, P., Helenius, H., & Sillanpaa, M. (2006). The continuity of psychopathology from early childhood to preadolescence. A prospective cohort study of 3–12-year-old children. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 15, 409–417.
Richter, L., & Richter, D.M.. (2001). Exposure to parental tobacco and alcohol use: Effects on children's health and development. American Association of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 182–203.
Roebuck, T.M., Mattson, S.N., & Riley, E.P. (1999). Behavioral and psychosocial profiles of alcohol-exposed children. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 23(6), 1070–1076.
Sayal, K. (2009). Commentary: Light drinking in pregnancy: Can a glass or two hurt? International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, 140–142.
Sayal, K., Heron, J., Golding, J., & Emond, A. (2007). Prenatal alcohol exposure and gender differences in childhood mental health problems: A longitudinal population-based study. Pediatrics, 119, e426–e434.
Schachter, H.M., Pham, B., King, J., Langford, S., & Moher, D. (2001). How efficacious and safe is short-acting methylphenidate for the treatment of attention-deficit disorder in children and adolescents? A meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 165, 1475–1488.
Sen, B., & Swaminathan, S. (2007). Maternal prenatal substance use and behaviour problems among children in the U.S. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 10, 189–206.
Sood, B., Delaney-Black, V., Covington, C., Nordstrom-Klee, B., Ager, J., Templin, T., et al. (2001). Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood behavior at age 6 to 7 years: I. Dose–response effect. Pediatrics 108, 34–42.
Statistics Canada. (2004). Ontario Child Health Study. Retrieved March 31, 2006, from http://www.statcan.ca/english/sdds/3824.htm .
Statistics Canada and Human Resources Development Canada. (1995). National Longitudinal Survey of Children: Overview of survey instruments from 1994-95 data collection cycle.Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 9502. Ottawa: Minister of Industry.
Streissguth, A. (2007). Offspring effects of prenatal alcohol exposure from birth to 25 years: The Seattle Prospective Longitudinal Study. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings. 14(2), 81–101.
Streissguth, A.P., Barr, H.M., Kogan, J., & Bookstein, F.L. (1996). Understanding the Occurrence of Secondary Disabilities in Clients with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Final report. Seattle: University of Washington and Publication Services.
Streissguth, A.P., Barr, H.M., & Sampson, P.D. (1990). Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure: Effects on child IQ and learning problems at age 7-1/2 years. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 14(5), 662–669.
Streissguth, A.P., Landesman-Dwyer, S., Martin, J.C., & Smith, D.W. (1980). Teratogenic effects of alcohol in humans and laboratory animals. Science, 209(4454), 353–361.
Streissguth, A., & O'Malley, K. (2000). Neuropsychiatric implications and long-term consequences of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Semin Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 5(3), 177–190.
Thapar, A., Fowler, T., Rice, F., Scorfield, J., van den Bree, M., Thomas, H., Harold, G., & Hay, D. (2003). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in offspring. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(11), 1985–1989.
Tremblay, R.E., Masse, L.C., Kurtz, L., & Vitaro, F. (1996). From childhood physical aggression to adolescent maladjustment: The Montréal Prevention Experiment. In R. DeV. Peters & R.J. McMahon (Eds.), Preventing Childhood Disorders, Substance Abuse & Delinquency (pp. 268–298). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Wakschlag, L.S., Pickett, K.E., Cook Jr., E., Benowitz, N.L., & Leventhal, B.L. (2002). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: A review. American Journal of Public Health, 92(6), 966–974.
Weissman M.M., Warner V., Wickramaratne P.J., & Kandel D.B., (1999). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychopathology in offspring followed to adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 38, 892–899.
Weitzman, M., Gormaker, S., & Sobol, A. (1992). Maternal smoking and behavior problems of children. Pediatrics, 90(3), 342–349.
Wilford, J.A., Leech, S.L., & Day, N.L. (2006). Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and cognitive status of children at age 10. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30(6),1051–1059.
Williams, G.M., O'Callaghan, M., Najman, J.M., Bor, W., Richards, D., & Chinlyn, U. (1998). Maternal cigarette smoking and child psychiatric morbidity: A longitudinal study. Pediatrics, July: 102(1.e11),1–8