Operation HONOUR Research Program
In 2015, the Director General Military Personnel Research Analysis (DGMPRA) established the Operation HONOUR Research Program in response to the external review conducted by the External Review Authority, Madame Marie Deschamps. DGMPRA provides an integrated personnel research program for the Department of National Defence (DND) and the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), addressing both strategic and operational research needs. The Sexual Misconduct Response Centre uses the research findings from this program to inform the advice and guidance it provides to the CAF about addressing sexual misconduct and the Directorate of Professional Military Conduct (DPMC) applies the research findings in the implementation of Operation HONOUR.
The main purpose of the Operation HONOUR research program is to better inform the CAF’s sexual misconduct policy and training initiatives, and its efforts to align members’ behaviours and attitudes with the ethical principles and core values of the profession of arms in Canada.
This research program focuses on:
- Understanding the scope of sexual misconduct in the CAF;
- Understanding key risks and barriers to a healthy and inclusive CAF/DND culture;
- Exploring key cultural factors and behaviours that create positive culture change; and
- Guide ongoing training programs and policy development.
DGMPRA conducts a comprehensive, multi-phased program of social science research that focuses on understanding key cultural dimensions, as well as incidences and responses to sexual misconduct, in the CAF and DND. The program covers a wide range of issues, including bystander behaviour, support services for affected persons and gender.
Operation HONOUR is also influenced by research which addresses the related topics of equality and respect, such as gender integration and ethical decision-making.
The following research products explore the topic of bystander behaviour and intervention.
- Kocum, Lucie, Helen Lee and Kelsea Beadman (2017). Literature Review: The Bystander Effect and Sexual Misconduct (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C294).
- Russell, Shannon and Sara Rubenfeld (2019). Bystander Behaviour: Individual, Organizational and Social Factors Influencing Bystander Intervention of Sexual Misconduct (DRDC-RDDC-2019-L172).
Culture and Culture Change
The following research products explore culture and culture change in the workplace.
- Lin, Iris, Dan van der Werf, and Andrea Butler (2019). Measuring and Monitoring Culture Change: Claiming Success (DRDC-RDDC-2019-C039).
- Lin, Iris, Andrea Butler and Glen Budgell (2017). Literature Review – Sexual Misconduct: Understanding Impacts of Culture (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C239).
- Davis, Karen and Erinn Squires (2019). Culture Shift and Sexual Misconduct: Measurement and Monitoring Strategy (DRDC-RDDC-2019-L335).
- Davis, Karen (2016). Culture, Sexual Harassment, and Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Research response to the External Review into Sexual Misconduct and Sexual Harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces.
- Rubenfeld, Sara and Stefan Wolejszo (2017). Responding to Sex- and Gender-Based Misconduct in the Military: Lessons Learned from the Deterrence Literature.
Gender and Gender Based Analysis Plus
The following research products explore the influence of gender, Gender Based Analysis Plus (GBA+), inappropriate sex- and gender-based behaviours and the effect of gender on career mobility in the military.
- Ewles, Grace, Dan van der Werf and Andrea Butler (2017). Literature Review – Sexual Misconduct: GBA+ and the Concept of Professionalism (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C022).
- Hadziomerovic, Aida, Patricia Baratta, Midori Nishiok and Glen Budgell (2017). Literature Review: Sexual Misconduct and (Mis)Understandings (Experience of LGBTQ+ Members) in Military Organizations (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C299).
- Kocum, Lucie, Rebecca Lee, Midori Nishioika and Aida Hadziomerovic (2017). Masculinities and the Military: Literature Review (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C337).
- Kocum, Lucie, Kate Calnan, Danielle Mercer and Taylor Oakie (2017). Sexual Misconduct: Leadership and Implicit Bias (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C333).
- Gauthier, Michel and Michelle Straver (2018). Analysis of Maternity and Parental Leave in the Regular Force (DRDC-RDDC-2018-L334).
- Hachey, Krystal K. (2017). Summary and Analysis of the Contract Report on “Sexual Misconduct and Gender-Based Analysis Plus and the Concept of Professionalism” (DRDC-RDDC-2017-L347).
- Rubenfeld, Sara and Jennifer Peach (2020). Implicit Bias: Understanding and Mitigating Bias in the Canadian Armed Forces (DRDC-RDDC-2020-L082).
- Gauthier, Michel G. (2016). Identifying Internal Mobility Pattern Differences Within the Canadian Armed Forces, Journal of Defense Resources Management 7:2 , 49-56 (http://www.jodrm.eu/volume7_issue2.html).
The following research products explore language and how it impacts human behaviour.
- Fletcher, Benjamin (2017). An Annotated Bibliography Exploring the Impact of Dehumanizing and Sexualized Language on Attitudes and Behaviour (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C222).
- Lin, Iris, Andrea Butler and Glen Budgell (2017). Literature Review – Sexual Misconduct: How Language Effects Culture (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C230).
- Davis, Karen D. (2017). Language, Culture and Inappropriate Sex- and Gender-Based Behaviours (DRDC-RDDC-2018-L039).
Director General Military Personnel Research Analysis (DGMPRA) is conducting a comprehensive multi-phase research project on leadership dynamics. This project will assess perspectives and experiences of different levels of CAF leadership regarding their roles and responsibilities in relation to inappropriate sex- and gender-based behaviour in the CAF.
- Rubenfeld, Sara and Shannon Russell (2018). Impact of Operation HONOUR: Summary and analysis of the perspectives of senior non-commissioned members (DRDC-RDDC-2018-L273).
- Rubenfeld, Sara and Shannon Russell (2019). Leadership-Driven Culture Change: Senior Non-Commissioned Members’ Perspectives on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces.
The following research products explore social media and its role in sexual misconduct.
- van der Werf, Dan, Grace Ewles, Emrah Eren and Glen Budgell (2017). Literature Review: Role of Social Media in Sexual Misconduct (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C025).
- Hachey, Krystal K. (2017). Summary and Analysis of the Contract Report on “Role of Social Media in Sexual Misconduct” (DRDC-RDDC-2017-L294).
DGMPRA is conducting a comprehensive multi-phase research project on socialization. This project will examine the impacts of CAF culture on military personnel as they go through basic military training, occupation training, and on to employment in military units and in deployed operations.
- Bremner, Nicholas, Jessica Sorenson and Glen Budgell (2017). Sexual Misconduct: Socialization and Risk Factors Literature Review (DRDC-RDDC-2017-C302).
- Fraser, Kyle and Shannon Russell (2017). Research Summary and Analysis Related to Contract Report on Sexual Misconduct and Early Training Environments (DRDC-RDDC-2017-L405).
Support for Affected Persons
The following research products explore the topic of support for victims of sexual misconduct in the military, including the need for support, barriers to receiving support, and best support strategies for victims.
- Kocum, Lucie and Samantha Cukier (2018). Need for Support, Barriers to Receiving Support, and Best Practices for Victims of Sexual Misconduct in the Military: Literature Review (DRDC-RDDC-2018-C246).
- Silins, Stacy and Manon Leblanc (2020). Experiences of CAF members affected by sexual misconduct: Perceptions of support (DRDC-RDDC-2020-L046).
Surveys on Sexual Misconduct in the CAF
Statistics Canada Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the CAF
As part of its commitment to a work environment free from sexual misconduct, the CAF contracted Statistics Canada to develop (in collaboration with DGMPRA), administer, and analyze a survey to measure sexual misconduct in the Regular Force and Primary Reserves.
The Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces (SSMCAF) measures three forms of inappropriate sexual behaviour that occur either inside or outside of the military workplace (sexual assault, sexualized behaviour, and discriminatory behaviour).
The SSMCAF also measures knowledge of directives and programs related to sexual misconduct, perceptions of CAF responses to sexual misconduct, and bystander behaviour.
The results of the SSMCAF are available on the Statistics Canada website.
Director General Military Personnel Research Analysis (DGMPRA) conducted further analyses of the SSMCAF 2016 data for Primary Reservists and for survey respondents who self-identified as lesbian, gay and bi-sexual.
- LeBlanc, Manon (2021). Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Results from the Primary Reserve by class of service (2018) (DRDC-RDDC-2021-L023).
- LeBlanc, Manon and Zhigang Wang (2017). Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Results from the Primary Reserve (DRDC-RDDC-2017-L022).
- LeBlanc, Manon and Zhigang Wang (2017). Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Results from lesbian, gay and bi-sexual Regular Force and Primary Reserve members (DRDC-RDDC-2017-L297).
- LeBlanc, Manon and Zhigang Wang (2017). Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Results from the Primary Reserve by class of service (DRDC-RDDC-2017-L345).
2019 Survey on Individual Safety in the Postsecondary Student Population
Between 2018 and 2019, Statistics Canada developed and conducted the Survey on Individual Safety in the Postsecondary Student Population (SISPSP), which measured behaviours that occurred in the postsecondary school-related setting. The SISPSP included a separate questionnaire specifically tailored to measuring experiences of students attending a Canadian military college in 2019.
The results of the survey conducted with Canadian military college students are available in the report titled Experiences of unwanted sexualized and discriminatory behaviours and sexual assault among students at Canadian military colleges, 2019, published by the Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics.
DGMPRA Surveys of Sexual Misconduct in the CAF
The Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces (SSMCAF) was not administered to CAF members who were on basic military training or who were on initial occupation training courses. DGMPRA administered a survey based on the SSMCAF to these groups. Also, a separate survey was administered to members of the Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service (COATS).
- LeBlanc, Manon, Lesleigh Pullman, and Zhigang Wang (2018). Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Basic Military Officer Qualification Administration (DRDC-RDDC-2019-L249).
- LeBlanc, Manon, Lesleigh Pullman, and Zhigang Wang (2018). Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Basic Military Qualification Administration (DRDC-RDDC-2018-L311).
- Nesdole, Robert, Zhigang Wang & Manon LeBlanc (2018). Survey on Sexual Misconduct in the Canadian Armed Forces: Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service (DRDC-RDDC-2018-L306).
- Pullman, Lesleigh and Manon LeBlanc (2021). Sexual misconduct in occupational training at the Canadian Forces School of Military Engineering (CFSME) and the Canadian Forces School of Communications and Electronics (CFSCE) (DRDC-RDDC-2021-L049).
- Silins, Stacey, Manon LeBlanc, Julie Coulthard, Zhigang Wang and Lesleigh Pullman (2018). Sexual misconduct in Royal Canadian Air Force occupational training (DRDC-RDDC-2018-L310).
- Silins, Stacey, Manon LeBlanc and Zhigang Wang (2018). Sexual Misconduct in Military Personnel Command occupational training (DRDC-RDDC-2018-L014).
Your Say Survey
The Your Say Survey (YSS) is administered twice a year (spring and fall) for the purpose of allowing CAF members the opportunity to communicate their opinions, attitudes, and experiences on a range of important topics.
Starting in fall 2016, the YSS included questions about Operation HONOUR and the Sexual Misconduct Response Centre (SMRC). Results are currently available for 2016 and 2017; the survey scheduled for fall 2018 was postponed to early 2019 and the results will be published soon.
- Daugherty, Carina and Chelsie Smith (2019). Fall 2017 Your Say Survey: Operation HONOUR Results (DRDC-RDDC-2019-L154).
- Daugherty, Carina (2019). Fall 2017 Your Say Survey: Sexual Misconduct Response Centre Results (DRDC-RDDC-2019-L048).
- Daugherty, Carina and Elizabeth Nelson (2017). Fall 2016 Your Say Survey: Sexual Misconduct Response Centre Results (DRDC-RDDC-2018-L001).
- Peach, J. (2017). Op HONOUR Efforts: Highlights from the Fall 2016 Your Say Survey (DRDC-RDDC-2017-B008).
- Daugherty, Carina (2021). Winter 2020 Your Say Survey Results: Operation HONOUR.
- Daugherty, Carina (2018). Fall 2017 Your Say Survey Results: Ratings of Operation HONOUR and use of Sexual Misconduct Response Centre.
- Daugherty, Carina and Shannon Russell (2019). Winter 2019 Your Say Survey Results: Operation HONOUR.
Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey
Data from the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey, which was administered by Statistics Canada, were used to estimate the prevalence of military-related sexual assault.
- Watkins, Kimberley, Rachel Bennett, Mark A. Zamorski, and Isabelle Richer (2017). Military-related sexual assault in Canada: a cross-sectional survey, CMAJ Open 5(2), doi: 10.9778/cmajo.20160140.
Workplace Harassment and Discrimination
The following research products explore workplace harassment and discrimination in the workplace.
- Wright, J. & LeBlanc, M. (2017). Canadian Forces Workplace Harassment Survey: Analysis of Open-Ended Comments from the Regular Force and Primary Reserve (DRDC-RDDC-2017-R132).
- LeBlanc, Manon and Justin Wright (2018). Harassment and Discrimination Research in the Canadian Armed Forces and Department of National Defence (DRDC-RDDC-2018-L149).
- LeBlanc, Manon and Julie Coulthard (2017). The Canadian Forces Workplace Harassment Survey: A compendium of results from 2013 to 2016 (DRDC-RDDC-2017-L284).
- Daugherty, Carina and Shannon Russell (2019). Harassment and Discrimination in the Canadian Armed Forces: Results from the Winter 2019 Your Say Survey.
About this research
Available research products include the following:
- Scientific briefs: Short documents used to communicate highlights of research findings. Contract reports will sometimes have associated scientific briefs to summarize and contextualize the report’s content.
- Scientific letters: Short responses to a scientific question that provide an analysis of information drawn from available scientific evidence.
- Scientific reports: Detailed reports of the results of a research project or of a scientific analysis.
- Contract reports: Reports generated and published by a third party, directly contracted by DGMPRA.
- External publications: Reports published in a scientific or academic journal.
- Presentations: Presentations given by DGMPRA to CAF/DND organizations or to external conferences.
Note: The list of research products is not exhaustive, and is subject to change.
Research products are not published on this page but are available upon request. To request a copy of a research product listed on this page, please submit your request using the DPMC feedback form. Please note that products are available in the language in which the research was conducted, meaning research products are not available in both official languages unless provided by the author.
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