Sea ice in Canada

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Sea ice is a prominent feature in the Northern Canadian Waters.Footnote 1 It consists of ice that grows and melts each year (refered to as first-year ice) and ice that remains present all-year round (refered to as multi-year ice). The amount and type of sea ice present, notably the total minimum area it covers in the summer season,Footnote 2 impacts human activity and biological habitat.

Sea ice

National sea ice

Key results

  • In 2018, the Northern Canadian Waters were covered by an average sea ice area of 1.23 million square kilometres, which represents 32.8% of its area
  • Over the past 5 decades, the area covered by sea ice in the Northern Canadian Waters, measured during the summer season, has been decreasing
  • Between 1968 and 2018, sea ice area in the Northern Canadian Waters declined at a rate of 7.0% per decade

Average sea ice area, Northern Canadian Waters, 1968 to 2018

Average sea ice area, Northern Canadian Waters, 1968 to 2018 (see the long description below)
Data table for the long description
Average sea ice area, Northern Canadian Waters, 1968 to 2018
Year
Northern Canadian Waters sea ice area (millions of square kilometres)
1968 1.26
1969 1.53
1970 1.47
1971 1.32
1972 1.69
1973 1.30
1974 1.48
1975 1.34
1976 1.49
1977 1.28
1978 1.69
1979 1.44
1980 1.42
1981 1.19
1982 1.35
1983 1.62
1984 1.47
1985 1.36
1986 1.55
1987 1.40
1988 1.28
1989 1.42
1990 1.45
1991 1.44
1992 1.65
1993 1.31
1994 1.36
1995 1.20
1996 1.52
1997 1.27
1998 0.87
1999 1.11
2000 1.24
2001 1.23
2002 1.28
2003 1.20
2004 1.29
2005 1.17
2006 1.00
2007 0.94
2008 0.91
2009 1.15
2010 0.84
2011 0.74
2012 0.71
2013 1.13
2014 1.04
2015 1.12
2016 0.79
2017 0.94
2018 1.23

Download data file (Excel/CSV; 1.24 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Sea ice is measured during the summer season. For the Northern Canadian Waters, the summer season is defined as the period from June 19 to November 19 for the Hudson Bay domain and from June 25 to October 15 for the Canadian Arctic domain. A statistically significant trend is reported when the Mann-Kendall test indicated the presence of a trend at the 95% confidence level.
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (2018) Climate Research Division.

More information

Sea ice area decline in Northern Canadian Waters is the result of a combination of factors. Human-induced warming from greenhouse gas emissions and climate variability has resulted in an unprecedented loss of sea ice within the last 50 years in comparison to the last 1450 years.

The Arctic region is very sensitive to climate change because of feedback involving sea ice that influences the reflectivity of the Earth's surface. As sea ice area declines due to warming temperatures, darker ocean surfaces are exposed that can absorb more sunlight and in turn cause more warming and sea ice melting. This feedback cycle is an important factor in amplifying Arctic temperatures. Research has shown that the loss of Arctic sea ice is a very significant contributor to the recent amplification of Arctic temperature change compared to the global average.

Changes in the amount of sea ice, the location of ice edges and the timing of seasonal cycles have complex, cascading ecosystem impacts. Sea ice declines result in a loss of wildlife habitat, as it serves as hunting platforms for polar bears and as resting grounds and nursery areas for walruses and seals. Algae that grow on the underside of sea ice are also important to the marine food supply.

These changes also have an impact on safety of northerners who use sea ice as a transportation route or platform for hunting/fishing. More than ever, decisions on whether to go out on the ice must be made on the basis of weather and sea ice condition reports, as northerners can no longer rely on traditional knowledge of when it is safe to venture out on the ice.

Regional sea ice

In the Northern Canadian Waters, the area covered by sea ice, measured during the summer season,  varies by sub-region. Five (5) sub-regions make up the Canadian Arctic domain (Kane Basin, Foxe Basin, Baffin Bay, the Beaufort Sea and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago) and 4 sub-regions comprise the Hudson Bay domain (Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Davis Strait and the Northern Labrador Sea).

Key results                                                               

  • The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Beaufort Sea and Kane Basin sub-regions usually remain covered by ice in the summer because they contain a mix of multi-year and seasonal ice
  • The 4 sub-regions of the Hudson Bay domain (Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Davis Strait and Northern Labrador Sea) are typically sea ice free because they are seasonal ice regions
  • All sub-regions have statistically significant decreasing trends over the 1968 to 2018 period, ranging from a 2.9% per decade in the Kane Basin to a 15.6% per decade in the Northern Labrador Sea

Sub-region sea ice area trends, Northern Canadian Waters, 1968 to 2018

Sub-region sea ice area trends, Northern Canadian Waters, 1968 to 2018 (see the long description below)
Data table for the long description
Sub-region sea ice area trends, Northern Canadian Waters, 1968 to 2018
Year
Foxe Basin sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Kane Basin sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Baffin Bay sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Beaufort Sea sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Canadian Arctic Archipelago sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Hudson Bay sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Hudson Strait sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Davis Strait sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
North Labrador Sea sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
1968 83 31 143 311 542 94 21 25 5
1969 59 32 172 431 544 191 25 34 5
1970 74 34 216 390 556 130 19 38 12
1971 66 33 177 354 482 109 30 31 9
1972 117 33 171 335 659 223 50 77 15
1973 64 34 157 375 476 125 30 49 3
1974 68 34 85 478 587 154 27 23 7
1975 53 34 87 457 520 109 17 27 8
1976 82 34 147 427 597 113 19 41 7
1977 73 35 210 286 515 84 15 41 6
1978 108 31 210 412 649 194 30 35 7
1979 76 33 139 327 662 127 22 37 6
1980 62 33 149 417 581 110 17 28 3
1981 44 31 127 353 471 104 14 28 2
1982 63 32 158 299 558 142 24 58 6
1983 90 35 187 453 539 162 38 81 12
1984 65 31 124 442 538 154 41 52 12
1985 56 30 85 459 513 133 27 24 10
1986 72 33 179 397 622 165 21 42 3
1987 86 30 188 275 587 158 26 32 7
1988 66 28 121 379 492 112 23 26 5
1989 81 35 177 388 537 141 20 28 5
1990 86 26 153 377 592 128 31 38 7
1991 69 33 108 467 553 122 27 34 12
1992 79 38 151 450 612 210 32 55 7
1993 68 31 212 253 526 142 21 42 4
1994 56 29 140 437 511 116 19 31 6
1995 56 25 169 284 531 94 12 14 0
1996 61 35 258 454 538 121 22 29 6
1997 49 35 156 312 576 102 16 17 3
1998 58 32 140 155 392 55 10 13 1
1999 59 31 144 335 458 37 8 27 5
2000 47 32 94 406 506 107 8 24 2
2001 57 34 102 425 522 51 6 18 1
2002 59 34 79 358 564 126 15 28 9
2003 52 30 74 352 556 103 9 18 2
2004 61 32 101 314 598 147 11 16 0
2005 40 30 112 354 549 64 10 10 1
2006 28 29 64 360 436 46 4 12 1
2007 54 25 96 242 408 76 10 18 5
2008 59 26 92 158 435 94 14 24 0
2009 52 22 69 306 505 139 17 28 6
2010 39 29 79 233 408 33 3 9 0
2011 45 25 73 190 340 59 3 6 0
2012 52 29 43 126 353 74 6 18 0
2013 57 35 67 339 504 84 9 17 5
2014 61 25 52 260 520 86 12 13 5
2015 65 35 128 261 418 140 18 47 3
2016 42 27 57 149 399 79 12 22 2
2017 43 28 96 199 471 60 9 36 0
2018 59 32 98 333 532 123 17 33 4
1968 to 2018 decadal trend -7.4% -2.9% -12.2% -7.5% -4.3% -9.5% -14.0% -11.4% -15.6%

Download data file (Excel/CSV; 3.06 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Sea ice is measured during the summer season. For the Northern Canadian Waters, the summer season is defined as the period from June 19 to November 19 for the Hudson Bay domain and from June 25 to October 15 for the Canadian Arctic domain. A statistically significant trend is reported when the Mann-Kendall test indicated the presence of a trend at the 95% confidence level.
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (2018) Climate Research Division.

More information

In absolute terms, the largest sea ice area loss over the 1968 to 2018 period was found in the Beaufort Sea sub-region, where about 187 000 km2 of sea ice area was lost. The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay sub-regions also lost a large amount of sea ice area over the same period, with a detected loss of about 134 000 km2, 102 000 km2 and 73 000 km2, respectively.

Based on projections from the latest state-of-the-art climate models, a nearly sea ice-free summer is considered a strong possibility for the Arctic Ocean by the middle of the century although sea ice may persist longer in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago region.

Multi-year sea ice

National multi-year sea ice

Multi-year sea ice corresponds to ice that has survived at least one summer's melt. Multi-year sea ice contains less salt and is usually thicker than first-year sea ice. Because it contains less salt, it is harder and more difficult for icebreakers to navigate and clear.

Key results

In the Canadian Arctic domain:

  • multi-year sea ice area, measured during the summer season, declined by 7.4% per decade over the 1968 to 2018 period
  • total sea ice area declined by 7.0% per decade over the same period

Average multi-year sea ice area, Canadian Arctic domain, 1968 to 2018

Average multi-year sea ice area, Canadian Arctic domain, 1968 to 2018 (see the long description below)
Data table for the long description
Average multi-year sea ice area, Canadian Arctic domain, 1968 to 2018
Year
Canadian Arctic domain multi-year sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
1968 516
1969 661
1970 543
1971 530
1972 472
1973 566
1974 498
1975 648
1976 644
1977 508
1978 551
1979 628
1980 679
1981 492
1982 369
1983 584
1984 533
1985 502
1986 542
1987 562
1988 589
1989 545
1990 619
1991 676
1992 687
1993 606
1994 603
1995 501
1996 666
1997 621
1998 393
1999 335
2000 421
2001 578
2002 486
2003 516
2004 541
2005 557
2006 500
2007 370
2008 260
2009 351
2010 345
2011 250
2012 207
2013 295
2014 406
2015 391
2016 286
2017 312
2018 521

Download data file (Excel/CSV; 1.12 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Sea ice is measured during the summer season. For the Canadian Arctic domain, the summer season is defined as the period from June 25 to October 15. A statistically significant trend is reported when the Mann-Kendall test indicated the presence of a trend at the 95% confidence level.
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (2018) Climate Research Division.

Regional multi-year sea ice

Key results

  • In the Canadian Arctic domain, decreasing trends in multi-year sea ice, measured during the summer season, were found for the Foxe Basin, Kane Basin, Beaufort Sea and Canadian Arctic Archipelago sub-regions
  • The Baffin Bay sub-region showed no significant increasing or decreasing trends from 1968 to 2018
  • The sub-regions of the Hudson Bay domain were found to be free of multi-year ice over the whole time period because they are seasonal ice regions

Multi-year sea ice area in Canadian Arctic sub-regions, 1968 to 2018

Multi-year sea ice area in Canadian Arctic sub-regions, 1968 to 2018 (see the long description below)
Data table for the long description
Multi-year sea ice area in Canadian Arctic sub-regions, 1968 to 2018
Year
Foxe Basin multi-year sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Kane Basin multi-year sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Baffin Bay multi-year sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Beaufort Sea multi-year sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Canadian Arctic Archipelago multi-year sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
1968 1.58 17 8 216 244
1969 0.14 23 28 319 289
1970 0.32 14 23 234 243
1971 0.83 16 16 256 201
1972 3.77 14 11 181 243
1973 0.88 19 15 202 301
1974 0.18 16 6 285 190
1975 0.45 16 5 374 235
1976 2.46 17 9 350 247
1977 0.16 14 15 181 293
1978 4.16 14 9 240 281
1979 5.88 15 10 213 383
1980 0.26 18 8 291 354
1981 0.35 16 18 213 237
1982 0.22 12 16 140 201
1983 3.91 21 44 252 255
1984 0.57 14 16 287 211
1985 0.43 13 2 271 207
1986 1.09 11 9 265 253
1987 0.77 13 8 190 346
1988 0.66 10 8 253 308
1989 0.24 17 10 245 273
1990 0.79 17 51 260 288
1991 1.74 6 7 340 313
1992 1.49 28 12 320 318
1993 1.37 24 60 190 328
1994 3.85 20 13 281 279
1995 0.65 17 43 203 233
1996 0.67 18 48 344 260
1997 0.21 22 22 255 320
1998 0.02 17 32 103 240
1999 0.40 13 13 205 102
2000 0.16 15 8 239 151
2001 0.03 17 12 308 232
2002 <0.01 18 10 229 228
2003 0.11 14 8 232 263
2004 0.25 18 16 205 294
2005 0.39 14 7 240 295
2006 0.26 13 12 254 208
2007 0.00 13 27 163 168
2008 0.04 11 17 79 152
2009 0.06 9 10 164 168
2010 0.02 14 27 134 169
2011 0.00 12 9 111 119
2012 0.10 13 4 77 106
2013 0.16 12 5 146 131
2014 0.22 11 5 178 212
2015 0.13 15 12 191 172
2016 <0.01 15 5 89 177
2017 0.06 16 16 60 220
2018 0.56 17 22 234 246
1968 to 2018 decadal trend -18.5% -3.4% No trend -8.8% -6.5%

Download data file (Excel/CSV; 2.19 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Sea ice is measured during the summer season. For the Canadian Arctic domain, the summer season is defined as the period from June 25 to October 15. A statistically significant trend is reported when the Mann-Kendall test indicated the presence of a trend at the 95% confidence level.
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (2018) Climate Research Division.

Sea ice in Canada's Northwest Passage

Sea ice area in Canada's Northwest Passage

Canada's Northwest Passage is a system of gulfs, straits, sounds and channels in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago connecting the Beaufort Sea in the west with Baffin Bay in the east. The Northwest Passage provides 2 main navigation paths on its western side: a northern route and a southern route.

Key results

  • Over the 1968 to 2018 period, the amount of sea ice area covering the Northwest Passage, measured during the summer season, fluctuated in a similar way to the rest of the Canadian Arctic Waters
  • Statistical decreasing trends were detected over this period for the sea ice and multi-year sea ice areas of the northern and southern routes
  • The southern route was virtually free of multi-year sea ice for several of the recent years

Average sea ice and multi-year sea ice area, Canada's Northwest Passage, 1968 to 2018

Average sea ice and multi-year sea ice area, Canada's Northwest Passage, 1968 to 2018 (see the long description below)
Data table for the long description
Average sea ice and multi-year sea ice area, Canada's Northwest Passage, 1968 to 2018
Year
Northwest Passage northern route sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Northwest Passage southern route sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Northwest Passage northern route multi-year sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
Northwest Passage southern route multi-year sea ice area (thousands of square kilometres)
1968 127 81 64 8
1969 133 86 82 4
1970 130 98 55 7
1971 110 69 40 7
1972 146 147 61 13
1973 119 63 77 19
1974 132 134 36 7
1975 138 87 65 12
1976 138 123 73 14
1977 124 81 77 22
1978 159 142 62 31
1979 158 155 92 42
1980 139 115 77 36
1981 117 67 53 10
1982 131 110 40 9
1983 128 110 50 17
1984 138 94 48 6
1985 123 102 55 13
1986 141 137 67 26
1987 145 119 96 30
1988 126 62 84 14
1989 127 102 69 16
1990 143 114 76 26
1991 134 112 80 33
1992 145 120 84 21
1993 129 89 84 22
1994 129 88 87 19
1995 132 85 69 13
1996 134 90 69 23
1997 147 104 93 22
1998 94 55 60 19
1999 107 70 12 4
2000 119 93 26 3
2001 137 83 64 7
2002 140 111 53 10
2003 136 98 77 14
2004 140 122 91 19
2005 136 108 86 23
2006 116 53 66 7
2007 98 58 44 4
2008 104 62 32 5
2009 119 87 30 5
2010 81 55 21 6
2011 69 50 15 1
2012 74 56 20 1
2013 123 79 23 2
2014 126 84 32 8
2015 91 29 27 7
2016 106 43 49 6
2017 118 44 60 13
2018 137 54 60 21
1968 to 2018 decadal trend -3.1% -9.6% -6.7% -10.0%

Download data file (Excel/CSV; 1.90 kB)

How this indicator was calculated

Note: Sea ice is measured during the summer season. For the Canadian Arctic domain, the summer season is defined as the period from June 25 to October 15. A statistically significant trend is reported when the Mann-Kendall test indicated the presence of a trend at the 95% confidence level.
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (2018) Climate Research Division.

Over the 1968 to 2018 period, statistical decreasing trends of 3.1% and 9.6% were detected for the sea ice areas of the northern and southern routes of the Northwest Passage. For multi-year sea ice, a decreasing trend of 6.7% per decade was detected for the northern route, while a decreasing trend of 10.0% was detected for the southern route.

Canada's Northwest Passage

Canada's Northwest Passage presents a potential deep-water Arctic shipping route between the northern Pacific and Atlantic regions that is much shorter than routes through the Panama or Suez canals. The Northwest Passage is covered by floating or land-fast sea ice Footnote 3 for most of the year, making it a navigation obstacle for ice-breaking ships and a safety hazard for non-ice strengthened ships.

Canada's Northwest Passage

Canada's Northwest Passage (see the long description below)

Reduced sea ice is increasing opportunities for shipping, tourism, resource exploration and industrial activities in the North.

However, these activities bring new risks of accidents and spills under harsher conditions, including floating ice, changing sea ice cover and extreme weather. These factors can put people and ecosystems at risk and place additional stress on limited search and rescue, and disaster response capacity.

About the indicators

About the indicators

What the indicators measure

The Sea ice in Canada indicators provide information on the area of sea in Canada covered by ice during the summer season. Sea ice area represents the portion of marine area covered by ice. The area is evaluated using the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive and is expressed in thousands or millions of square kilometres. The Sea ice in Canada indicators are provided for the Northern Canadian Waters, by sub-region and for the Northwest Passage. The indicators also present trends in total sea ice area and multi-year sea ice area. Multi-year sea ice is defined as sea ice that has survived at least one summer's melt.

Why these indicators are important

Sea ice is an indicator of how the climate is changing. It is a critical component of our planet because it influences the Arctic and global climate, ecosystems, and people who live in polar regions. Sea ice influences the climate through the sea ice–albedo feedback effect (or reflectivity of the Earth's surface). Changes in sea ice can also affect ocean currents and the exchange of heat and water vapour from ocean to atmosphere.

Sea ice affects marine transportation, commercial fishing, offshore resource development, the hunting and fishing patterns of Indigenous people, and tourism and recreation. Understanding how Canada's climate is changing is important for developing adaptive responses. The Sea ice in Canada indicators provide a way to communicate to Canadians how Canada's Arctic sea ice has changed.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the World Meteorological Organization use sea ice, among several other variables, to assess long-term changes in climate. Sea ice is considered by the World Meteorological Organization's Global Climate Observing System to be an Essential Climate Variable.

Related indicators

The Temperature change in Canada indicator measures yearly and seasonal surface air temperature departures in Canada, while the Precipitation change in Canada indicator measures annual and seasonal precipitation departures.

The Snow cover indicators provide information on spring snow cover extent and annual snow cover duration in Canada.

Data sources and methods

Data sources and methods

Data sources

Sea ice data used in these indicators were provided by Environment and Climate Change Canada's Climate Research Division. The sea ice area data were computed from the weekly sea ice charts (Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive) produced by Environment and Climate Change Canada's Canadian Ice Service.

More information

Spatial coverage

The indicators provide coverage for the Northern Canadian Waters which are comprised of the Canadian Arctic domain and the Hudson Bay domain. Five sub-regions make up the Canadian Arctic domain (Kane Basin, Foxe Basin, Baffin Bay, the Beaufort Sea and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago) and four sub-regions comprise the Hudson Bay domain (Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Davis Strait and the Northern Labrador Sea).

Sea ice sub-regions of the Northern Canadian Waters

Sea ice sub-regions of the Northern Canadian Waters (see the long description below)

Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada (2018) Canadian Ice Service.

Temporal coverage

The indicators are calculated using data for the summer sea ice season for the years 1968 to 2018. The summer sea ice season is defined as the period from June 25 to October 15 for the Canadian Arctic domain and from June 19 to November 19 for the Hudson Bay domain. These intervals correspond to the summer shipping season of each domain, a period during which the Canadian Ice Service produces weekly regional sea ice charts.

Data completeness

The data for these indicators are compiled by the Canadian Ice Service and grouped into time series by the Climate Research Division to ensure comparability. The data incorporate information from many different sources such as satellite data, surface observations, airborne and ship reports, and model results, along with the expertise of experienced ice forecasters. The Canadian Ice Service sea ice data provide the authoritative Canadian record for sea ice in Canada.

Data timeliness

The data used in the Sea Ice in Canada indicators are current up to 2018.

Methods

The Sea ice in Canada indicators are based on the sea ice area data provided by Environment and Climate Change Canada's Climate Research Division.

For each region and sub-region, an average sea ice area is calculated from the summer season weekly sea ice charts for each year, from 1968 to 2018.

A statistical analysis is carried out using the Mann-Kendall and SEN's methods (Kendall-tau) to identify the presence of statistical linear trends at the 95% confidence level.

More information

The Sea Ice in Canada indicators use the weekly sea ice charts produced by the Canadian Ice Service. Weekly sea ice charts are primarily produced using imagery from RADARSAT-1 (since 1996) and RADARSAT-2 (since 2008) satellites. Other remote sensing data sources are also used, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Moderate-Resolution Imagine Spectrometer imagery. Where possible, the interpretation of satellite data is verified using observations from the Canadian Ice Service specialists onboard dedicated aircraft and Canadian Coast Guard ships.Footnote 4

The Canadian Ice Service ice charts indicate the ice concentration in tenths and its stage of development. They also list the mean and normal 1981–2010 temperatures of some of the region's stations, which give an indication of one of the factors contributing to current ice conditions. Ice information is presented using the World Meteorological Organization's terminology. For more information about how the Canadian Ice Service produces weekly sea ice charts and maps, consult the Regional Ice Charts or the Manual of Standard Procedures for Observing and Reporting Ice Conditions.

The weekly sea ice charts are compiled into time series by the Climate Research Division for each region and sub-region. The sea ice area for a given year corresponds to the average area calculated from the weekly sea ice charts of the summer season.

The summer season was chosen because it represents the time when the amount of sea ice reaches its minimum, which is widely utilized within the scientific community as a measure of climate variability. It is also the time period when the most visible changes in sea ice occur. Historically, sea ice charts have been generated to support the shipping season, which is highest during the summer.

Non-parametric statistical tests were carried out on temporal sea ice area data to detect the presence of a linear trend and, if present, to determine the orientation (positive or negative) and magnitude of the rate of change (slope). The standard Mann-Kendall trend test was used to detect trend presence and orientation, while the Sen's pairwise slope method was used to estimate the slope. A trend was reported when the Mann-Kendall test indicated the presence of a trend at the 95% confidence level.

Caveats and limitations

Care should be taken when using these indicators as proxies of the actual sea ice area change in specific locations. Sea ice area change could vary considerably within a sub-region, the smallest unit of analysis in these indicators.

Resources

Resources

References

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Derksen C, Smith SL, Sharp M, Brown L, Howell S, Copland L, Mueller DR, Gauthier Y, Fletcher CG, Tivy A, Bernier M, Bourgeois J, Brown R, Burn CR and Duguay C (2012) Variability and change in the Canadian cryosphere. Climatic Change 115(1):59-88. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Environment and Climate Change Canada (2005) Manual of Standard Procedures for Observing and Reporting Ice Conditions (MANICE). Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Environment and Climate Change Canada (2018) Changes in sea ice. Canadian Centre for Climate Services. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

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Ford, J.D., Bell, T. and Couture, N.J. (2016): Perspectives on Canada’s North Coast region (PDF; 4.03 MB); in Canada's Marine Coasts in a Changing Climate, (ed.) D.S. Lemmen, F.J. Warren, T.S. James and C.S.L. Mercer Clarke; Government of Canada. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Kinnard C, Zdanowicz CM, Fisher DA, Isaksson E, de Vernal A and Thompson LG (2011) Reconstructed changes in Arctic sea ice over the past 1,450 years. Nature 479(7374):509-512. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Laliberté, F., S. E. L. Howell, and P. J. Kushner (2016), Regional variability of a projected sea ice- free Arctic during the summer months, Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 256–263 doi:10.1002/2015GL066855. Retrieved on January 20, 2019.

Maslanik J, Stroeve J, Fowler C and Emery W (2011) Distribution and trends in Arctic sea ice age through spring 2011. Geophysical Research Letter 38(13):L13502. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Mudryk, L., C. Derksen, S.E.L. Howell, F. Laliberté, C. Thackeray, R. Sospedra-Alfonso, V. Vionnet, P. Kushner and R. Brown (2018), Canadian Snow and Sea Ice Trends and Projections, The Cryosphere, 12, 1157-1176. Retrieved on January 20, 2019.

Pizzolato L, Howell SEL, Derksen C and Copland L. (2014) Changing sea ice conditions and marine transportation activity in Canadian Arctic waters between 1990 and 2012. Climatic Change 123(2):161-173. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Richter-Menge, J., M. O. Jeffries, and E. Osborne, Eds. (2018) The Arctic [in “State of the Climate in 2017”] (PDF; 9.2 MB). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99 (8), S143–S173. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Screen J and Simmonds I (2010) The central role of diminishing sea ice in recent Arctic temperature amplification. Nature 464(7293):1334-1337. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Statistics Canada (2012) Sea ice trends in Canada. EnviroStats publication 16-002X. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Stern GA and Gaden A (2015) From Science to Policy in the Western and Central Canadian Arctic: An Integrated Regional Impact Study (IRIS) of climate change and modernization. ArcticNet. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Tivy A, Howell SEL, Alt B, McCourt S, Chagnon R, Crocker G, Carrieres and Yackel JJ (2011) Trends and variability in summer sea ice cover in the Canadian Arctic based on the Canadian Ice Service Digital Archive, 1960-2008 and 1968-2008. Journal of Geophysical Research 116:C03007. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Warren F.J. and Lemmen, D.S., editors (2014) Canada in a Changing Climate: Sector Perspectives on Impacts and Adaptation (PDF; 5.5 MB). Government of Canada. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Related information

Haas C and Howell S (2015) Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage. Geophysical Research Letters 42(18):7673-7680.Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Howell S, Derksen C, Pizzolato L and Brady M (2015) Multiyear ice replenishment in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: 1997-2013. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120(3):1623-1637.Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Chapter 4 Observations: Cryosphere (PDF; 12.5 MB). Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

National Snow & Ice Data Center (2018) All About Sea Ice. Retrieved on December 10, 2018.

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