Piperazine - information sheet
CAS Registry Number 110-85-0
On this page
- About these substances
- Human and ecological exposures
- Key health and ecological effects (hazard)
- Risk assessment outcomes
- Preventive actions and reducing risk
- Related information
- The Government of Canada conducted a science-based screening assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) to address the potential for harm to Canadians and to the environment from piperazine.
- Under CEPA 1999, the risk posed by a substance is determined by considering both its hazardous properties (its potential to cause adverse human health or ecological effects) and the amount of exposure there is to people and the environment.
- As a result of the draft screening assessment, the Government is proposing that piperazine is not harmful to human health or to the environment at levels of exposure considered in the assessment.
About these substances
- The screening assessment summarized here focuses on the substance piperazine. It was assessed under the Chemicals Management Plan (CMP).
- The ecological hazard and exposure potentials of this substance were classified using the Ecological Risk Classification of Organic Substances (ERC) Approach.
- Piperazine does not occur naturally in the environment.
- According to information gathered by the Government, piperazine is mainly used in Canada in paints and coatings, and in industrial settings. It is also used as a medicinal ingredient in human and veterinary antiparasitic (de-worming) medication, and in epoxy adhesives. It may be used as a flavouring agent in foods sold in Canada.
Human and ecological exposures
- Canadians may be exposed to piperazine from environmental sources (for example, air and water), food, and epoxy adhesive products.
- According to the information considered under the ERC Approach, piperazine was identified as having low ecological exposure potential.
Key health and ecological effects (hazard)
- To inform the health effects characterization in the draft screening assessment, international reports on this substance were considered. This included assessments by the European Union Risk Assessment Report (EU RAR) program and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
- Piperazine has been classified as a suspected reproductive toxicant internationally (Repr 2) under the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) Globally Harmonised System (GHS). In addition, ECHA has also classified piperazine as a category 1 skin and respiratory sensitizer. The critical effects identified for characterizing the risk to human health for piperazine were effects on the nervous system as well as the reproductive system.
- According to information considered under the ERC Approach, piperazine was identified as having a low ecological hazard potential.
Risk assessment outcomes
- Based upon a comparison of levels to which Canadians may be exposed to piperazine and levels associated with health effects, it was determined that the risk to human health from piperazine is considered to be low.
- Based on the outcome of the ERC Approach, piperazine is considered unlikely to be causing ecological harm.
- The Government of Canada published the Draft Screening Assessment for Piperazine on March 13, 2021. The public is invited to comment on the assessment during the 60-day public comment period ending on May 12, 2021.
Proposed screening assessment conclusions
- The Government is proposing that piperazine is not harmful to human health at levels of exposure considered in the assessment.
- The Government is also proposing that piperazine is not entering the environment at levels that are harmful to the environment.
Preventive actions and reducing risk
- Although a risk to human health or the environment has not been identified at current levels of exposure, there may be a concern if exposure to this substance were to increase. As a result, program officials may consider this substance in future initiatives to track its commercial status and/or any new uses.
- Piperazine may be found in products available to consumers. Canadians should follow any safety warnings and directions related to the product and dispose of products responsibly.
- Visit Do it for a Healthy Home for more information on chemical safety in and around the home.
- The screening assessment focused on potential risks from exposure of the general population of Canada, rather than occupational exposure. Hazards related to chemicals used in the workplace are defined within the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS). For information concerning workplace health and safety and what steps to take in the workplace, Canadians should consult their employer and/or the Occupational Health and Safety Regulator in their jurisdiction.
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