5. Demographic characteristics of immigrants

Basic demographic characteristics provide further insight into the composition of immigrants within the individual FOLS categories. In this section, immigrants in the FOLS categories will be examined and compared in terms of four demographic characteristics:

  1. mobility;
  2. average age;
  3. gender; and
  4. Census Families.

5.1. MobilityFootnote 41

MobilityFootnote 42 in the Census refers to the relationship between a person's usual place of residence on Census Day and his or her usual place of residence one year and five years earlier. In this paper we examine the five-year earlier results for immigrants who lived in the same ER, those who moved to another ER within Quebec and those who lived in an ER outside of Quebec five years ago.

  • English FOLS (80%) immigrants are more likely to have lived in the same ER five years ago than either French FOLS immigrants (74%) or English-French FOLS immigrants (73%).
    • 79% of Anglophone immigrants (FOLS) live in the same ER as they did five years ago, compared with 74% of Francophone (FOLS) immigrants.
  • Montréal ER has the highest percent of immigrants who lived in that ER five years ago.
    • Eighty-two percent of immigrants assigned to the English FOLS category, 77% of immigrants assigned to the French FOLS category and 77% of immigrants assigned to the English-French FOLS category live in Montréal, just as they did five years ago.
    • For immigrants assigned as Anglophone (FOLS) and Francophone (FOLS), 81% and 77% live in Montréal, just as they did five years ago.
  • Four percent and 6% of English FOLS and English-French FOLS immigrants lived in a different ER in Quebec five years ago.
    • In Lanaudière, 22% of English FOLS immigrants and 33% of English-French FOLS immigrants lived in a different ER in Quebec five years ago.
  • English FOLS immigrants are the least likely of the three FOLS categories to have come from an ER outside Quebec.
    • Fifteen percent of English FOLS immigrants, 19% of French FOLS immigrants and 21% of English-French FOLS immigrants lived outside of Quebec five years ago.
    • Outaouais (33%) has the highest percentage of English FOLS immigrants living in an ER outside Quebec five years ago.
    • Capitale-Nationale (39%) and Estrie (35%) are the ERs with the highest percentage of English-French FOLS immigrants living in an ER outside Quebec five years ago.
    • 31% of Anglophone (FOLS) immigrants in Outaouais and 27% in Capitale-Nationale lived in an ER outside of Quebec five years ago, there are no percentages that are higher than those for any of the Francophone (FOLS) ERs.

Map 18: Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS showing the economic regions they lived in five years ago, for the population five years and older, for Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS showing the economic regions they lived in five years ago, for the population five years and older, for Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version: Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS showing the economic regions they lived in five years ago, for the population five years and older, for Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region        
Montréal 181,165 82% 1% 17%
Montérégie 28,705 76% 13% 11%
Laval 17,180 79% 16% 6%
Capitale-Nationale 1,735 75% 5% 20%
Outaouais 7,395 65% 2% 33%
Laurentides 4,800 77% 14% 9%
Estrie 2,345 81% 5% 14%
Lanaudière 1,215 71% 22% 7%
Eastern ERs 1,315 76% 6% 18%
Nothern ERs 1,100 77% 9% 15%

Map 19: Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS showing the economic regions they lived in five years ago, for the population five years and older, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS showing the economic regions they lived in five years ago, for the population five years and older, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS showing the economic regions they lived in five years ago, for the population five years and older, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region        
Montréal 181,165 82% 1% 17%
Montérégie 28,705 76% 13% 11%
Laval 17,180 79% 16% 6%
Capitale-Nationale 1,735 75% 5% 20%
Outaouais 7,395 65% 2% 33%
Laurentides 4,800 77% 14% 9%
Estrie 2,345 81% 5% 14%
Lanaudière 1,215 71% 22% 7%
Eastern ERs 1,315 76% 6% 18%
Nothern ERs 1,100 77% 9% 15%

Map 20: Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS showing the economic regions they lived in five years ago, for the population five years and older, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS showing the economic regions they lived in five years ago, for the population five years and older, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version: Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS showing the economic regions they lived in five years ago, for the population five years and older, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region        
Montréal 181,165 82% 1% 17%
Montérégie 28,705 76% 13% 11%
Laval 17,180 79% 16% 6%
Capitale-Nationale 1,735 75% 5% 20%
Outaouais 7,395 65% 2% 33%
Laurentides 4,800 77% 14% 9%
Estrie 2,345 81% 5% 14%
Lanaudière 1,215 71% 22% 7%
Eastern ERs 1,315 76% 6% 18%
Nothern ERs 1,100 77% 9% 15%

5.2. Average ageFootnote 43

Age is an important indicator because it provides information as to where people are in their life cycle. When one community is younger than the others, the service delivery requirements and socio-economic outcomes are different.

  • Immigrants assigned to the English FOLS (49 years) are on average older than immigrants assigned to either the French FOLS (42 years) or English-French FOLS (41 years).
    • In every ER, immigrants assigned to the English FOLS category have the highest average age, in some cases by a difference of more than 10 years (Montérégie, Lanaudière, Eastern ERs and Northern ERs).
  • Capitale-Nationale and Outaouais ERs have the youngest average age, not only for immigrants assigned to the English FOLS category but also for those assigned to French FOLS or English-French FOLS categories.
  • The English-French FOLS category has a relatively high percentage of immigrants in the 15- to 34-year-old category.
    • Thirty-four percent of English-French FOLS immigrants are between the ages of 15 and 34, compared with 20% of English FOLS immigrants and 25% of French FOLS immigrants.
  • Twenty-one percent of immigrants assigned to the English FOLS category are over the age of 65, compared with 14% for immigrants assigned to the French FOLS category and 12% of immigrants assigned to the English-French FOLS category.

Map 21: Average age of immigrants assigned to English FOLS in Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Average age of immigrants assigned to English FOLS in Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Average age of immigrants assigned to English FOLS in Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Average age
Montréal 48
Montérégie 51
Laval 51
Capitale-Nationale 46
Outaouais 46
Laurentides 53
Estrie 53
Lanaudière 53
Eastern ERs 48
Nothern ERs 53

Map 22: Average age of immigrants assigned to French FOLS in Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Average age of immigrants assigned to French FOLS in Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Average age of immigrants assigned to French FOLS in Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Average age
Montréal 42
Montérégie 43
Laval 44
Capitale-Nationale 38
Outaouais 39
Laurentides 44
Estrie 39
Lanaudière 43
Eastern ERs 38
Nothern ERs 38

Map 23: Average age of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Average age of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Average age of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Average age
Montréal 41
Montérégie 40
Laval 43
Capitale-Nationale 37
Outaouais 37
Laurentides 45
Estrie 35
Lanaudière 45
Eastern ERs 41
Nothern ERs 43

GenderFootnote 44

Gender is an important contextual element, especially when presenting socio-economic outcomes. Services for men and women can be gender-specific and different requirements may be necessary.

  • There is a higher percentage of male immigrants assigned to the English-French FOLS category in Quebec than in the other two FOLS immigrant categories.
    • Males make up 55% of the immigrants assigned to the English-French FOLS category and 49% of the immigrants assigned to the English FOLS and French FOLS categories.
  • Across the province, males comprise more than 50% of the immigrants assigned to the English-French FOLS category in all ERs, while in Lanaudière and the Northern ERs the percentages are particularly high, at 60% and 65% respectively.
  • If analysis was to focus solely on Anglophone (FOLS) and Francophone (FOLS) immigrants, the gender nuances between English FOLS and English-French FOLS immigrants would be missed.

Map 24: Percentage of male immigrants assigned to English FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Percentage of male immigrants assigned to English FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Percentage of male immigrants assigned to English FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Percentage of male immigrants
Montréal 49%
Montérégie 48%
Laval 51%
Capitale-Nationale 45%
Outaouais 51%
Laurentides 50%
Estrie 44%
Lanaudière 48%
Eastern ERs 47%
Nothern ERs 47%

Map 25: Percentage of male immigrants assigned to French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Percentage of male immigrants assigned to French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Percentage of male immigrants assigned to French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Percentage of male immigrants
Montréal 48%
Montérégie 50%
Laval 49%
Capitale-Nationale 50%
Outaouais 47%
Laurentides 52%
Estrie 51%
Lanaudière 51%
Eastern ERs 50%
Nothern ERs 48%

Map 26: Percentage of male immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Percentage of male immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Percentage of male immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Percentage of male immigrants
Montréal 54%
Montérégie 54%
Laval 56%
Capitale-Nationale 55%
Outaouais 55%
Laurentides 57%
Estrie 54%
Lanaudière 60%
Eastern ERs 53%
Nothern ERs 65%

5.4. Living in a Census FamilyFootnote 45

  • FamilyFootnote 46 plays an important part in the integration of immigrants into Quebec society. If there are children in the family, schools and sports-based activities will get families involved in their neighbourhoods and communities. Individual immigrants often become socialized as the family interacts with mainstream society.
  • The English-French FOLS category has the highest percentage of people living in Census Families, at 89%, compared with 80% for English FOLS immigrants and 82% for French FOLS immigrants.
    • For immigrants assigned to the English-French FOLS category, the highest percentages living in Census Families are in Montérégie (94%), Laval (94%), Laurentides (94%) and the Eastern ERs (94%).
  • Laval has the highest percentage of immigrants living in Census Families for both English FOLS and French FOLS immigrants, at 89% for each.
  • Seventy-four percent of immigrants in Census Families who are assigned to the English FOLS live as husbands or wives, compared with 56% for immigrants assigned to the French FOLS category and 63% assigned to the English-French FOLS category.
  • French FOLS immigrants in Census Families have the highest share of common-law families, at 11%, compared with 6% for English FOLS and 4% for English-French FOLS.
  • English FOLS immigrants living in Census Families have the lowest percentage of children living in Census Families, at 12%, compared with 24% for French FOLS immigrants and 28% of English-French FOLS immigrants.

Map 27: Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS living in census families across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS living in census families across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS living in census families across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region # of Census family persons % of Census family persons
Montréal 142,345 78%
Montérégie 24,810 86%
Laval 15,315 89%
Capitale-Nationale 1,490 85%
Outaouais 6,105 83%
Laurentides 3,855 81%
Estrie 1,795 77%
Lanaudière 1,010 83%
Eastern ERs 1,070 85%
Nothern ERs 840 77%

Map 28: Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS living in census families across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS living in census families across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS living in census families across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region # of Census family persons % of Census family persons
Montréal 189,275 79%
Montérégie 45,165 86%
Laval 31,975 89%
Capitale-Nationale 16,735 83%
Outaouais 9,990 87%
Laurentides 11,365 87%
Estrie 7,810 84%
Lanaudière 8,795 87%
Eastern ERs 8,450 86%
Nothern ERs 6,560 86%

Map 29: Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS living in census families across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS living in census families across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Number and percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS living in census families across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region # of Census family persons % of Census family persons
Montréal 92,095 87%
Montérégie 14,895 94%
Laval 15,825 94%
Capitale-Nationale 2,045 91%
Outaouais 3,595 91%
Laurentides 1,325 94%
Estrie 1,265 88%
Lanaudière 930 89%
Eastern ERs 670 94%
Nothern ERs 460 82%

Summary

  • Demographic characteristics show how immigrants assigned to English FOLS and to French FOLS are different from those assigned to English-French FOLS.
    • The English-French FOLS category of immigrants tends to be younger, male and living in a Census Family than either English FOLS or French FOLS.
    • The demographic differences highlighted above between immigrants assigned to the English FOLS and English-French FOLS, mean that the Anglophone category has two subpopulations that are comprised of immigrants who may have varying service needs.
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