7. Education, labour force and income profiles of immigrants

In this section, selected educational, labour force and income-related characteristics are presented for immigrants assigned to the FOLS categories in Quebec. University education profiles apply to the population aged 15 years old and over, while Labour Force Participation, Employment Rates, Professional and Managerial Occupations and Median Income focus on the working population aged 35–64 years old and over.Footnote 54 Although points relating to gender and recent immigrants are not always highlighted below, reference data tables are provided in the appendix.

7.1. University education attainmentFootnote 55

  • In 2006, 28% of English FOLS immigrants aged 15 years old and over reported having attained university degree or higher, which is higher than that for French FOLS immigrants (26%), but lower than that assigned to the English-French FOLS category (32%).
  • As a result of the higher English-French education levels, Anglophone (29%) and Francophone (27%) immigrants’ education levels are higher than the English FOLS and French FOLS levels.
  • Regardless of the FOLS group examined, Capitale-Nationale immigrants have the highest levels of university education attainment, at 44% for English FOLS, 34% for French FOLS and 53% for English-French FOLS immigrants.
  • For all FOLS immigrant categories, males have a higher percentage with a university degree or higher.
    • For English FOLS immigrants, 26% of women and 31% of men have a university degree or higher.
    • For French FOLS immigrants, 24% of women and 29% of men have a university degree or higher.
    • For English-French FOLS immigrants, the percentages were higher and the spread between genders less remarkable, at 32% for women and 33% men.
  • A higher percentage of English FOLS (47%) and English-French FOLS (56%) recent immigrants aged 15 years and older have a university education than recent French FOLS immigrants (41%).

Map 39: Percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS with a university degree or higher level of education across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS with a university degree or higher level of education across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS with a university degree or higher level of education across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region  
Montréal 30%
Montérégie 28%
Laval 14%
Capitale-Nationale 44%
Outaouais 34%
Laurentides 21%
Estrie 23%
Lanaudière 15%
Eastern ERs 24%
Nothern ERs 23%

Map 40: Percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS with a university degree or higher level of education across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS with a university degree or higher level of education across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS with a university degree or higher level of education across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region  
Montréal 27%
Montérégie 26%
Laval 19%
Capitale-Nationale 34%
Outaouais 34%
Laurentides 21%
Estrie 29%
Lanaudière 17%
Eastern ERs 21%
Nothern ERs 25%

Map 41: Percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS with a university degree or higher level of education across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS with a university degree or higher level of education across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS with a university degree or higher level of education across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region  
Montréal 33%
Montérégie 37%
Laval 22%
Capitale-Nationale 53%
Outaouais 38%
Laurentides 25%
Estrie 38%
Lanaudière 19%
Eastern ERs 28%
Nothern ERs 40%

7.2. Labour force participation and employment ratesFootnote 56

  • Immigrants between the ages of 35–64 years who were assigned to the English FOLS category display slightly lower levels of labour force participation (75.5%) than their counterparts in the French FOLS (77.9%) and English-French FOLS (79.6%) immigrant categories.
    • The labour force participation rate for English FOLS immigrants in the Laurentides, Estrie and Eastern ERs is below the 70% mark.
  • Female English FOLS immigrants display lower labour force participation rates than their male counterparts (67.7% and 83.2%) and their French FOLS and English-French FOLS female counterparts (70.3% and 70.5%, respectively).
  • English FOLS recent immigrants’ labour force participation rates (63.4%) are below French FOLS (69.5%) and English-French FOLS (68.2%) recent immigrant rates.
  • The employment rate of English FOLS (69.2%) and French FOLS (69.8%) immigrants aged 35 to 64 years is lower than the employment rate of English-French FOLS (72.2%) immigrants in this same age category.
  • Across all the FOLS categories, male immigrants aged 35–64 years have higher employment rates than their female counterparts.
  • English-French FOLS recent immigrants (those who arrived between 2001–2006), immigrants who arrived between 1991 and 2001 and more established immigrants (those who arrived before 1991) have consistently higher employment rates than English FOLS and French FOLS immigrants who arrived during those same time periods.

Map 42: Labour force participation rates among immigrants assigned to English FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Labour force participation rates among immigrants assigned to English FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Labour force participation rates among immigrants assigned to English FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region    
Montréal 102,165 75.1
Montérégie 17,050 76.7
Laval 10,800 78.3
Capitale-Nationale 905 75.7
Outaouais 4,465 77.9
Laurentides 2,565 68.2
Estrie 1,190 66.0
Lanaudière 655 84.7
Eastern ERs 680 68.4
Nothern ERs 610 75.4

Map 43: Labour force participation rates among immigrants assigned to French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Labour force participation rates among immigrants assigned to French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Labour force participation rates among immigrants assigned to French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region    
Montréal 116,880 76.3
Montérégie 27,325 81.3
Laval 20,550 80.1
Capitale-Nationale 9,435 80.6
Outaouais 6,175 80.6
Laurentides 7,285 80.0
Estrie 4,205 76.6
Lanaudière 5,555 79.6
Eastern ERs 4,180 80.9
Nothern ERs 3,270 72.2

Map 44: Labour force participation rates among immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Labour force participation rates among immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Labour force participation rates among immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region    
Montréal 49,775 78.3
Montérégie 8,385 82.4
Laval 9,740 83.4
Capitale-Nationale 1,085 79.7
Outaouais 2,085 81.8
Laurentides 695 83.5
Estrie 595 73.1
Lanaudière 565 75.2
Eastern ERs 370 83.8
Nothern ERs 280 80.4

7.3. Professional and managerial occupationsFootnote 57

  • Professional and managerial occupations comprise economic activities in the managerial, business, natural and applied sciences, health, social sciences, education and government.
  • Fifty-two percent of English FOLS and English-French FOLS immigrant workers are in professional and managerial occupations, compared with 51% of French FOLS immigrants.
    • For English FOLS immigrants, percentages are higher than 60% in the Northern ERs, Laurentide ER and Capitale-Nationale ER.
  • English FOLS and English-French FOLS female immigrants are more concentrated in professional and managerial occupations at 57% and 60% respectively than their male counterparts at 48% and 47% respectively.

Map 45: Percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS in the work force, who are 35 to 64 years of age, showing those employed in professional-managerial related occupations across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS in the work force, who are 35 to 64 years of age, showing those employed in professional-managerial related occupations across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Percentage of immigrants assigned to English FOLS in the work force, who are 35 to 64 years of age, showing those employed in professional-managerial related occupations across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region  
Montréal 51%
Montérégie 57%
Laval 44%
Capitale-Nationale 60%
Outaouais 52%
Laurentides 61%
Estrie 55%
Lanaudière 55%
Eastern ERs 55%
Nothern ERs 63%

Map 46: Percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS in the work force, who are 35 to 64 years of age, showing those employed in professional-managerial related occupations across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS in the work force, who are 35 to 64 years of age, showing those employed in professional-managerial related occupations across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Percentage of immigrants assigned to French FOLS in the work force, who are 35 to 64 years of age, showing those employed in professional-managerial related occupations across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region  
Montréal 50%
Montérégie 54%
Laval 50%
Capitale-Nationale 57%
Outaouais 61%
Laurentides 52%
Estrie 47%
Lanaudière 51%
Eastern ERs 45%
Nothern ERs 53%

Map 47: Percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS in the work force, who are 35 to 64 years of age, showing those employed in professional-managerial related occupations across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS in the work force, who are 35 to 64 years of age, showing those employed in professional-managerial related occupations across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Percentage of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS in the work force, who are 35 to 64 years of age, showing those employed in professional-managerial related occupations across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region  
Montréal 52%
Montérégie 58%
Laval 48%
Capitale-Nationale 64%
Outaouais 53%
Laurentides 56%
Estrie 61%
Lanaudière 46%
Eastern ERs 56%
Nothern ERs 60%

7.4. Median employment incomeFootnote 58

  • The median employment income observed for immigrants aged 35 to 64 years in the three FOLS categories are $25,865 for English FOLS, $25,607 for French FOLS, and $25,116 for English-French FOLS.
    • Among immigrants assigned to the English FOLS, French FOLS and English-French FOLS categories, the highest median income is in Capitale-Nationale ER ($34,591), Outaouais ($32,772) and Laurentides ($36,994) respectively.
  • Gender breakdowns of median employment incomes reveal that the median employment income of male and female immigrants assigned to the English FOLS category is slightly higher than for those assigned to either the French FOLS or the English-French FOLS categories.
    • For English FOLS immigrants between the ages of 35 and 64 years, regardless of gender, the highest median income is in the Capitale-Nationale region ($53,336 among males and $25,371 among females).
  • The median employment income for immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS is lower than for immigrants assigned to either English FOLS or French FOLS.
  • Immigrants assigned to the English-French FOLS category are more highly educated, have higher participation rates, have a similar percentage of immigrants in professional and managerial occupations, and have lower median incomes.

Map 48: Median employment income of immigrants assigned to English FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Median employment income of immigrants assigned to English FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Median employment income of immigrants assigned to English FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region  
Montréal $25,018
Montérégie $30,029
Laval $28,251
Capitale-Nationale $34,591
Outaouais $28,597
Laurentides $30,021
Estrie $20,685
Lanaudière $29,299
Eastern ERs $20,147
Nothern ERs $22,778

Map 49: Median employment income of immigrants assigned to French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Median employment income of immigrants assigned to French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Median employment income of immigrants assigned to French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region  
Montréal $23,710
Montérégie $29,834
Laval $27,081
Capitale-Nationale $26,245
Outaouais $32,772
Laurentides $30,701
Estrie $23,444
Lanaudière $30,250
Eastern ERs $23,047
Nothern ERs $24,550

Map 50: Median employment income of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Median employment income of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version:Median employment income of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS, who are 35 to 64 years of age, across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region  
Montréal $24,231
Montérégie $29,424
Laval $25,826
Capitale-Nationale $32,408
Outaouais $26,043
Laurentides $36,994
Estrie $21,479
Lanaudière $27,543
Eastern ERs $25,190
Nothern ERs $26,677

Summary

  • In 2006, English-French FOLS (32%) has the highest percentage of immigrants with a university degree or higher, than either English FOLS( 28%) or French FOLS (26%)
  • Regardless of the FOLS group examined, Capitale-Nationale immigrants have the highest levels of university education attainment at 44% for English FOLS, 34% for French FOLS and 53% for English-French FOLS immigrants.
  • A higher percentage of English-French FOLS (56%) recent immigrants aged 15 years and older have a university education than either English FOLS (47%) or French FOLS (41%) recent immigrants.
  • Immigrants between the ages of 35–64 years who were assigned to the English FOLS category display slightly lower levels of labour force participation (75.5%) than their counterparts in the French FOLS (77.9%) and English-French FOLS (79.6%) immigrant categories.
  • English-French FOLS recent immigrants, immigrants who arrived between 1991 and 2001 and more established immigrants have consistently higher employment rates than English FOLS and French FOLS immigrants who arrived during those same time periods.
  • Fifty-two percent of English FOLS and English-French FOLS immigrant workers are in professional and managerial occupations, compared with 51% of French FOLS immigrants.
  • English FOLS female immigrants are more concentrated in professional and managerial occupations than their male counterparts (57% to 48%).
  • English FOLS and English-French FOLS female immigrants are more concentrated in professional and managerial occupations at 57% and 60% respectively than their male counterparts at 48% and 47% respectively.
  • The immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS appear to be better educated and have higher participation and employment rates, while their median income is lower than that of immigrants in the English FOLS or French FOLS categories
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