3. Geographic distribution and context of immigrants

3.1. Geographic distribution

In this paper, we will present results for the three FOLS categories for Quebec and Quebec ERs (ERs) to provide a greater understanding of regional differences and similarities across the province. An ER is a grouping of complete census divisions (CDs) created as a standard geographic unit to analyze regional economic activity. Within the province of Quebec, ERs (régions administratives) are designated by law and are commonly used by the Quebec government for administrative purposes.Footnote 27

  • Although immigrants are more concentrated in Montréal, there is a similar distribution pattern across the immigrant and non-immigrant populations, with a concentration in these larger urban centres, while the further one moves from these centres the more the population diminishes, with the exception of Outaouais ER due to its proximity to Ottawa.
    • The top non-immigrant ERs are Montérégie (19%) followed by Montréal (19%) and Capitale-Nationale (10%), while the top immigrant ERs are Montréal (66%), Montérégie (12%) and Laval (9%).
  • The proportion of immigrants living in Montréal ER is relatively high across the three FOLS language categories: 73% of the English FOLS immigrants, 59% of the French FOLS immigrants and 71% of the English-French FOLS immigrants live in the Montréal ER.
  • Map 1’s scale divides the immigrant population of Quebec into five geographic tiers.
    • Tier One is the Montréal ER.
    • Tier Two is the two ERs that border Montréal—Montérégie and Laval—which have the 2nd and 3rd highest percentage of Quebec immigrants, at 12% and 9% respectively.
    • Tier Three ERs—Capitale-Nationale (3%), Outaouais (3%), Laurentides (2%), Estrie (2%) and Lanaudière (2%)—are those that are not immigrant-concentrated, although they have a large enough immigrant population to complete socio-economic analysis.
    • In Tier Four ERs (Bas-Saint-Laurent, Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Mauricie, Saguenay--Lac-Saint-Jean, Centre-du-Quebec, Chaudière-Appalaches), there are between 1,000 and 9,999 immigrants.
    • Tier Five comprises the most Eastern and Northern ERs (Côte-Nord, Nord-du-Quebec and Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine), and have fewer than 1,000 immigrants and fewer than 1% of Quebec immigrants.
  • Information for all ERs will be provided when we examine the general distribution of language categories. Information pertaining to other demographic and socio-economic outcomes will use geographic roll-ups (a grouping together of smaller levels of geographies into a larger unit) in Tiers Four and Five, Eastern and Northern regions.
  • The Eastern ER combines Centre-du-Quebec, Chaudière-Appalaches and Bas-Saint-Laurent ERs, while the Northern ER combines Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, Mauricie, Côte-Nord, Abitibi-Témiscamingue and Nord-du-Quebec ERs.

Map 1: Number and percentage of the population that are immigrants across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Number and percentage of the population that are immigrants across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version: Number and percentage of the population that are immigrants across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Number of
Population
Percentage of
Population
Montréal 560,395 65.8%
Montérégie 100,785 11.8%
Laval 73,565 8.6%
Capitale-Nationale 25,165 3.0%
Outaouais 23,635 2.8%
Laurentides 19,825 2.3%
Estrie 13,530 1.6%
Lanaudière 12,675 1.5%
Centre-du-Québec 4,890 0.6%
Chaudière-Appalaches 4,670 0.5%
Gaspésie—Îles-de-la-Madeleine 845 0.1%
Bas-Saint-Laurent 2,005 0.2%
Saguenay—Lac-Saint-Jean 2,535 0.3%
Mauricie 3,990 0.5%
Côte-Nord 920 0.1%
Abitibi-Témiscamingue 1,780 0.2%
  • As shown on Maps 2, 3 and 4, the three language categories have a similar geographic distribution pattern of immigrants: Montréal is at the centre and Tiers Four and Five have the fewest immigrants.
    • The French FOLS category has the largest number of immigrants and it is the least concentrated in Tier 1.
    • The main difference between the distribution of immigrants in the English FOLS and English-French FOLS categories is the ranking of Laval, which has more immigrants than Montérégie in the English-French FOLS category than the English FOLS category.
    • English-French FOLS immigrants are more concentrated in Tiers 1 and 2 than English FOLS immigrants.

Map 2: Distribution of immigrants assigned to English FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Distribution of immigrants assigned to English FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version: Distribution of immigrants assigned to English FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Number of
Population
Percentage of
Population
 Montréal 182,065 73.4%
 Montérégie 28,820 11.6%
 Laval 17,225 6.9%
 Capitale-Nationale 1,770 0.7%
 Outaouais 7,435 3.0%
 Laurentides 4,850 2.0%
 Estrie 2,370 1.0%
 Lanaudière 1,215 0.5%
 Centre-du-Québec 280 0.1%
 Chaudière-Appalaches 620 0.2%
 Gaspésie—Îles-de-la-Madeleine 245 0.1%
 Bas-Saint-Laurent 160 0.1%
 Saguenay—Lac-Saint-Jean 245 0.1%
 Mauricie 260 0.1%
 Côte-Nord 90 0.0%
 Abitibi-Témiscamingue 405 0.2%
 Nord-du-Québec 105 0.0%

Map 3: Distribution of immigrants assigned to French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Distribution of immigrants assigned to French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version: Distribution of immigrants assigned to French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Number of
Population
Percentage of
Population
 Montréal 241,390 58.6%
 Montérégie 52,515 12.7%
 Laval 36,040 8.7%
 Capitale-Nationale 20,375 4.9%
 Outaouais 11,500 2.8%
 Laurentides 13,220 3.2%
 Estrie 9,350 2.3%
 Lanaudière 10,175 2.5%
 Centre-du-Québec 3,865 0.9%
 Chaudière-Appalaches 3,790 0.9%
 Gaspésie—Îles-de-la-Madeleine 530 0.1%
 Bas-Saint-Laurent 1,720 0.4%
 Saguenay—Lac-Saint-Jean 2,130 0.5%
 Mauricie 3,370 0.8%
 Côte-Nord 795 0.2%
 Abitibi-Témiscamingue 1,200 0.3%
 Nord-du-Québec 215 0.1%

Map 4: Distribution of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Distribution of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version: Distribution of immigrants assigned to English-French FOLS across Quebec economic regions, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Number of
Population
Percentage of
Population
 Montréal 105,720 70.6%
 Montérégie 15,855 10.6%
 Laval 16,830 11.2%
 Capitale-Nationale 2,285 1.5%
 Outaouais 3,965 2.6%
 Laurentides 1,410 0.9%
 Estrie 1,440 1.0%
 Lanaudière 1,045 0.7%
 Centre-du-Québec 340 0.2%
 Chaudière-Appalaches 215 0.1%
 Gaspésie—Îles-de-la-Madeleine 70 0.0%
 Bas-Saint-Laurent 90 0.1%
 Saguenay—Lac-Saint-Jean 120 0.1%
 Mauricie 260 0.2%
 Côte-Nord 25 0.0%
 Abitibi-Témiscamingue 130 0.1%
 Nord-du-Québec 30 0.0%

3.2. Geographic context

  • The percentage of a specific FOLS language category that immigrants comprise may make a difference in the level of services they receive or the degree to which their issues are the focus of policy development.
  • On Maps 5, 6 and 7, immigrants in each of the FOLS categories represent a different percentage of the total individual FOLS categories.Footnote 28
    • Immigrants represent 35% of the English FOLS population in Montréal, 31% in Laval and 22% in Montérégie, while in Tier Three ERs immigrants represent between 11% and 17% of the population.
    • For the French FOLS category, across all of the ERs except Montréal (22%) and Laval (13%), immigrants represent less than 5% of the French FOLS population.
    • The English-French FOLS category is the most immigrant-concentrated. Immigrants comprise a much higher percentage than in the other two FOLS categories
    • In Tier Four and Five ERs, the number of immigrants is small in some cases and findings should be used with caution. Footnote 29

Map 5: Immigrants as a percentage of the English FOLS category across Quebec economic regions, 2006 census, 20% sample

Immigrants as a percentage of the English FOLS category across Quebec economic regions, 2006 census, 20% sample
Text version: Immigrants as a percentage of the English FOLS category across Quebec economic regions, 2006 census, 20% sample
Region Number of
Population
Percentage of
Population
 Montréal 182,065 32%
 Montérégie 28,820 29%
 Laval 17,225 23%
 Capitale-Nationale 1,770 7%
 Outaouais 7,435 31%
 Laurentides 4,850 24%
 Estrie 2,370 18%
 Lanaudière 1,215 10%
 Centre-du-Québec 280 6%
 Chaudière-Appalaches 620 13%
 Gaspésie—Îles-de-la-Madeleine 245 29%
 Bas-Saint-Laurent 160 8%
 Saguenay—Lac-Saint-Jean 245 10%
 Mauricie 160 7%
 Côte-Nord 90 10%
 Abitibi-Témiscamingue 405 23%
 Nord-du-Québec 105 30%

Map 6: Immigrants as a percentage of the French FOLS category across Quebec economic regions, 2006 census, 20% sample

Immigrants as a percentage of the French FOLS category across Quebec economic regions, 2006 census, 20% sample
Text version: Immigrants as a percentage of the French FOLS category across Quebec economic regions, 2006 census, 20% sample
Region Number of
Population
Percentage of
Population
 Montréal 241,390 43%
 Montérégie 52,515 52%
 Laval 36,040 49%
 Capitale-Nationale 20,375 81%
 Outaouais 11,500 49%
 Laurentides 13,320 67%
 Estrie 9,350 69%
 Lanaudière 10,175 80%
 Centre-du-Québec 3,865 79%
 Chaudière-Appalaches 3,790 81%
 Gaspésie—Îles-de-la-Madeleine 530 63%
 Bas-Saint-Laurent 1,720 86%
 Saguenay—Lac-Saint-Jean 2,130 84%
 Mauricie 3,370 84%
 Côte-Nord 795 86%
 Abitibi-Témiscamingue 1,200 67%
 Nord-du-Québec 215 61%

Map 7: Immigrants as a percentage of English-French FOLS category across Quebec economic regions, 2006 census, 20% sample

Immigrants as a percentage of English-French FOLS category across Quebec economic regions, 2006 census, 20% sample
Text version: Immigrants as a percentage of English-French FOLS category across Quebec economic regions, 2006 census, 20% sample
Region Number of
Population
Percentage of
Population
 Montréal 105,720 19%
 Montérégie 15,855 16%
 Laval 16,830 23%
 Capitale-Nationale 2,285 9%
 Outaouais 3,965 17%
 Laurentides 1,410 7%
 Estrie 1,440 11%
 Lanaudière 1,045 8%
 Centre-du-Québec 340 7%
 Chaudière-Appalaches 215 5%
 Gaspésie—Îles-de-la-Madeleine 70 8%
 Bas-Saint-Laurent 90 4%
 Saguenay—Lac-Saint-Jean 120 5%
 Mauricie 260 7%
 Côte-Nord 25 3%
 Abitibi-Témiscamingue 130 7%
 Nord-du-Québec 30 8%
  • When comparing the relative size of immigrant communities by FOLS categories, as shown on Map 8, in most ERs the French FOLS immigrant category is the largest and the English FOLS is the second largest category. The exceptions are Capitale-Nationale and Centre-du-Quebec where more immigrants are assigned to the English-French FOLS than to the English FOLS category, and in Maurice where these two categories are approximately the same size.Footnote 30
  • The ERs with the highest percentages of immigrants assigned to the English FOLS are Montréal (32%), Outaouais (31%), and Montérégie (29%).
  • The ERs with the highest percentages of immigrants assigned to the English-French FOLS are Laval (23%), Montréal (19%), and Outaouais (17%),
  • The percentages for immigrants who are assigned to the English FOLS in these most Northern and Eastern ERs are relatively high, but the actual numbers are relatively low.
  • The English FOLS and English-French FOLS immigrant categories are more concentrated around Montréal and Outaouais. The former is a historic centre for Anglophones in Quebec. The latter is supported by the large Anglophone population concentration of Ottawa.

Map 8: Quebec immigrant population by FOLS category, 2006 Census, 20% sample

Quebec immigrant population by FOLS category, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Text version: Quebec immigrant population by FOLS category, 2006 Census, 20% sample
Region Total English FOLS French FOLS English-French FOLS
 Montréal 560,395 32% 43% 19%
 Montérégie 100,785 29% 52% 16%
 Laval 73,565 23% 49% 23%
 Capitale-Nationale 25,165 7% 81% 9%
 Outaouais 23,635 31% 49% 17%
 Laurentides 19,825 24% 67% 7%
 Estrie 13,530 18% 69% 11%
 Lanaudière 12,675 10% 80% 8%
 Centre-du-Québec 4,890 6% 79% 7%
 Chaudière-Appalaches 4,670 13% 81% 5%
 Gaspésie—Îles-de-la-Madeleine 845 29% 63% 8%
 Bas-Saint-Laurent 2,005 8% 86% 4%
 Saguenay—Lac-Saint-Jean 2,535 10% 84% 5%
 Mauricie 3,990 7% 94% 7%
 Côte-Nord 920 10% 86% 3%
 Abitibi-Témiscamingue 1,780 23% 67% 7%
 Nord-du-Québec 355 30% 61% 8%
Report a problem or mistake on this page
Please select all that apply:

Thank you for your help!

You will not receive a reply. For enquiries, contact us.

Date modified: