References: Preserving antibiotics now and in the future

Chief Public Health Officer of Canada's Spotlight Report 2019

Footnote 1

O'Neill, J. Antimicrobial resistance: Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations. The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. (2014).

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Footnote 2

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Footnote 3

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Footnote 4

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Footnote 5

Blum, H. E. The human microbiome. Adv. Med. Sci. 62, 414-420 (2017).

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Footnote 6

Ursell, L. K., Metcalf, J. L., Parfrey, L. W. & Knight, R. Defining the human microbiome. Nutr. Rev. 70 Suppl 1, S38-44 (2012).

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Footnote 7

Brown, A. F., Leech, J. M., Rogers, T. R. & McLoughlin, R. M. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization: Modulation of Host Immune Response and Impact on Human Vaccine Design. Front. Immunol. 4, 507 (2014).

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Footnote 8

Mohr, K. I. History of Antibiotics Research. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 398, 237-272 (2016).

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Footnote 9

Kohanski, M. A., Dwyer, D. J. & Collins, J. J. How antibiotics kill bacteria: from targets to networks. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 8, 423-435 (2010).

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Footnote 10

Chandler, C., Hutchinson, E. & Hutchison, C. Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance through Social Theory. (2016).

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Footnote 11

Keeney, K. M., Yurist-Doutsch, S., Arrieta, M. C. & Finlay, B. B. Effects of antibiotics on human microbiota and subsequent disease. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 68, 217-235 (2014).

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Footnote 12

Cunha, B. A. Antibiotic side effects. Med. Clin. North Am. 85, 149-185 (2001).

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Footnote 13

Chew, C. & Goenka, A. QUESTION 2: Does amoxicillin exposure increase the risk of rash in children with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection? Arch. Dis. Child. 101, 500-502 (2016).

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Footnote 14

Fleming, A. On the Antibacterial Action of Cultures of a Penicillium, with Special Reference to their Use in the Isolation of B. influenzæ. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 10, 226-236 (1929).

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Footnote 15

Aminov, R. History of antimicrobial drug discovery: Major classes and health impact. Biochem. Pharmacol. 133, 4-19 (2017).

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Footnote 16

Heynick, F. The original 'magic bullet' is 100 years old - extra. Br. J. Psychiatry 195, 456 (2009).

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Footnote 17

Hesterkamp, T. Antibiotics Clinical Development and Pipeline. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 398, 447-474 (2016).

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Footnote 18

Nesme, J. & Simonet, P. The soil resistome: a critical review on antibiotic resistance origins, ecology and dissemination potential in telluric bacteria. Environ. Microbiol. 17, 913-930 (2015).

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Footnote 19

Andersson, D. I. & Hughes, D. Selection and Transmission of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. Microbiol. Spectr. 5, 10.1128/microbiolspec.MTBP-0013-2016 (2017).

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Footnote 20

Juhas, M. Horizontal gene transfer in human pathogens. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 41, 101-108 (2015).

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Footnote 21

Stekel, D. First report of antimicrobial resistance pre-dates penicillin. Nature 562, 192-018-06983-0 (2018).

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Footnote 22

Silberstein, S. Zur Frage der salvarsanresistenten Lues. Archiv für Dermatologie und Syphilis 147, 116 (1924).

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Footnote 23

Munch-Petersen, E. & Boundy, C. Yearly incidence of penicillin-resistant staphylococci in man since 1942. Bull. World Health Organ. 26, 241-252 (1962).

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Footnote 24

Martin, P. et al. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms in Canadian Hospitals. Comparison of point-prevalence survey results from 2010, 2012, and 2016. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 40, 53-59 (2019).

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Footnote 25

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Footnote 26

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Footnote 27

Fleming-Dutra, K. E. et al. Prevalence of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescriptions Among US Ambulatory Care Visits, 2010-2011. JAMA 315, 1864-1873 (2016).

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Footnote 28

Harbarth, S. & Monnet, D. L. in Antibiotic Policies: Fighting Resistance (eds Gould, I. M. & van der Meer, J. W.) 29-40 (Springer US, Boston, MA, 2008).

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Footnote 29

Deschepper, R. et al. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe? BMC Health Serv. Res. 8, 123 (2008).

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Footnote 30

Pechere, J. C. Patients' interviews and misuse of antibiotics. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33 Suppl 3, S170-3 (2001).

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Footnote 31

Rosman, S. in Les pratiques de prescription des antibiotiques en médecine générale en France et aux Pays-Bas 81-99, 2010).

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Footnote 32

Cadieux, G., Tamblyn, R., Dauphinee, D. & Libman, M. Predictors of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing among primary care physicians. Canadian Medical Association journal 177, 877 (2007).

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Footnote 33

McNulty, C. A. M., Nichols, T., French, D. P., Joshi, P. & Butler, C. C. Expectations for consultations and antibiotics for respiratory tract infection in primary care: the RTI clinical iceberg. Br. J. Gen. Pract. 63, e429-36 (2013).

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Footnote 34

Rowan, M. & Thompson, C. Building Canada's Antimicrobial Stewardship Action Plan: Issues and insights from interviews with key informants. (2016).

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Footnote 35

Avorn, J. & Solomon, D. H. Cultural and economic factors that (mis)shape antibiotic use: the nonpharmacologic basis of therapeutics. Ann. Intern. Med. 133, 128-135 (2000).

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Footnote 36

Bosley, H., Henshall, C., Appleton, J. V. & Jackson, D. A systematic review to explore influences on parental attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing in children. J. Clin. Nurs. 27, 892-905 (2018).

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Footnote 37

Ternhag, A., Grunewald, M., Naucler, P. & Wisell, K. T. Antibiotic consumption in relation to socio-demographic factors, co-morbidity, and accessibility of primary health care. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 46, 888-96 (2014).

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Footnote 38

Teixeira Rodrigues, A., Roque, F., Falcao, A., Figueiras, A. & Herdeiro, M. T. Understanding physician antibiotic prescribing behaviour: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 41, 203-212 (2013).

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Footnote 39

Coenen, S. et al. Appropriate international measures for outpatient antibiotic prescribing and consumption: recommendations from a national data comparison of different measures. jac 69, 529-534 (2013).

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Footnote 40

Daneman, N. et al. Influences on the start, selection and duration of treatment with antibiotics in long-term care facilities. CMAJ 189, E851-E860 (2017).

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Footnote 41

Fleming-Dutra, K. E., Bartoces, M., Roberts, R. M. & Hicks, L. A. Characteristics of Primary Care Physicians Associated With High Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing Volume. Open Forum. Infect. Dis. 5, ofx279 (2018).

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Footnote 42

Touboul Lundgren, P., Khouri, P. & Pradier, C. [How to raise awareness about antibiotics and vaccination among French teenagers?]. Sante Publique 29, 167-177 (2017).

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Footnote 43

Borg, M. A. National cultural dimensions as drivers of inappropriate ambulatory care consumption of antibiotics in Europe and their relevance to awareness campaigns. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 67, 763-7 (2012).

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Footnote 44

Daneman, N. et al. Influences on the start, selection and duration of treatment with antibiotics in long-term care facilities. CMAJ 189, E851-60 (2017).

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Footnote 45

Doyon, S. et al. Quantitative evaluation of a clinical intervention aimed at changing prescriber behaviour in response to new guidelines. J. Eval. Clin. Pract. 15, 1111-7 (2009).

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Footnote 46

Livorsi, D. J. et al. Setting the Research Agenda for Preventing Infections From Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in the Veterans Health Administration. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 39, 186-188 (2018).

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Footnote 47

Gaygisiz, U., Lajunen, T. & Gaygisiz, E. Socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality and antibiotics use: A cross-cultural study among European countries. J Infect Public Health 10, 755-760 (2017).

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Footnote 48

Cole, A. GPs feel pressurised to prescribe unnecessary antibiotics, survey finds. BMJ 349, g5238 (2014).

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Footnote 49

van Duijn, H. et al. Patients' views on respiratory tract symptoms and antibiotics. Br. J. Gen. Pract. 53, 491-492 (2003).

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Footnote 50

Deschepper, R., Vander Stichele, R. H. & Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M. Cross-cultural differences in lay attitudes and utilisation of antibiotics in a Belgian and a Dutch city. Patient Educ. Couns. 48, 161-169 (2002).

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Footnote 51

Elias, C. et al. Guideline recommendations and antimicrobial resistance: the need for a change. BMJ Open 7, e016264-2017-016264 (2017).

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Footnote 52

Weiss, K., Blais, R., Fortin, A., Lantin, S. & Gaudet, M. Impact of a multipronged education strategy on antibiotic prescribing in Quebec, Canada. Clin. Infect. Dis. 53, 433-9 (2011).

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Footnote 53

Dickson, C. et al. The antibiotic management of gonorrhoea in Ontario, Canada following multiple changes in guidelines: an interrupted time-series analysis. Sex. Transm. Infect. 93, 561-565 (2017).

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Footnote 54

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Footnote 55

Grigoryan, L. et al. Determinants of self-medication with antibiotics in Europe: the impact of beliefs, country wealth and the healthcare system. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 61, 1172-9 (2008).

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Footnote 56

Fleming, A., Bradley, C., Cullinan, S. & Byrne, S. Antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research. Drugs Aging 32, 295-303 (2015).

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Footnote 57

Detweiler, K., Mayers, D. & Fletcher, S. G. Bacteruria and Urinary Tract Infections in the Elderly. Urol. Clin. North Am. 42, 561-568 (2015).

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Footnote 58

Cortes-Penfield, N. W., Trautner, B. W. & Jump, R. L. P. Urinary Tract Infection and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Older Adults. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 31, 673-688 (2017).

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Footnote 59

McCullough, A. R., Parekh, S., Rathbone, J., Del Mar, C. B. & Hoffmann, T. C. A systematic review of the public's knowledge and beliefs about antibiotic resistance. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 71, 27-33 (2016).

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Footnote 60

Rennert-May E. & Conly J. Antimicrobial stewardship: A Canadian perspective. Int. J. Health Gov. 21, 165-179 (2016).

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Footnote 61

Cabral, C. et al. Influence of Clinical Communication on Parents' Antibiotic Expectations for Children With Respiratory Tract Infections. Ann Fam Med 14, 141-7 (2016).

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Footnote 62

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Footnote 63

Eythorsson,,Elias et al. Impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on antimicrobial prescriptions in young children: a whole population study.

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Footnote 64

Kwong, J. C., Maaten, S., Upshur, R. E., Patrick, D. M. & Marra, F. The effect of universal influenza immunization on antibiotic prescriptions: an ecological study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49, 750-756 (2009).

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Footnote 65

Norhayati, M. N., Ho, J. J. & Azman, M. Y. Influenza vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in infants and children. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 10, CD010089 (2017).

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Footnote 66

Chua, K. P., Fischer, M. A. & Linder, J. A. Appropriateness of outpatient antibiotic prescribing among privately insured US patients: ICD-10-CM based cross sectional study. BMJ 364, k5092 (2019).

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Footnote 67

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Footnote 68

Smith, S. M., Fahey, T., Smucny, J. & Becker, L. A. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2017).

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Footnote 69

Ahovuo‐Saloranta, A. et al. Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2014).

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Footnote 70

Boucher, A. et al. Quality-related events reported by community pharmacies in Nova Scotia over a 7-year period: a descriptive analysis. CMAJ Open 6, E651-E656 (2018).

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Footnote 71

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Footnote 72

Legare F. et al. Training family physicians in shared decision-making to reduce the overuse of antibiotics in acute respiratory infections: A cluster randomized trial. CMAJ 184, E726-E734 (2012).

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Footnote 73

Hallsworth, M. et al. Provision of social norm feedback to high prescribers of antibiotics in general practice: A pragmatic national randomised controlled trial. The Lancet 387, 1743-1752 (2016).

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Footnote 74

NICE. Antimicrobial stewardship: systems and processes for effective antimicrobial medicine use. (2015).

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Footnote 75

Hoye, S., Frich, J. C. & Lindbaek, M. Use and feasibility of delayed prescribing for respiratory tract infections: a questionnaire survey. BMC Fam. Pract. 12, 34 (2011).

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Footnote 76

McNulty, C. A. M., Lecky, D. M., Hawking, M. K. D., Quigley, A. & Butler, C. C. Delayed/back up antibiotic prescriptions: what do the public think? BMJ Open 5, e009748 (2015).

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Footnote 77

Raft, C. F., Bjerrum, L., Arpi, M., Jarlov, J. O. & Jensen, J. N. Delayed antibiotic prescription for upper respiratory tract infections in children under primary care: Physicians' views. Eur J Gen Pract 23, 190-195 (2017).

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Footnote 78

Ryves, R. et al. Understanding the delayed prescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection in primary care: a qualitative analysis. BMJ Open 6, e011882 (2016).

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Footnote 79

Owens, B. Telemedicine on the rise but lagging in Canada. CMAJ 190, E1149-E1150 (2018).

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Footnote 80

Langford, B. J. & Morris, A. M. Is it time to stop counselling patients to "finish the course of antibiotics"? Can. Pharm. J. (Ott) 150, 349-350 (2017).

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Footnote 81

Spellberg, B. The New Antibiotic Mantra-"Shorter Is Better". JAMA Intern. Med. 176, 1254-1255 (2016).

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Footnote 82

Butler, C. C. et al. Effectiveness of multifaceted educational programme to reduce antibiotic dispensing in primary care: practice based randomised controlled trial. BMJ 344, d8173 (2012).

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Footnote 83

Ferrat, E. et al. Effects 4.5 years after an interactive GP educational seminar on antibiotic therapy for respiratory tract infections: A randomized controlled trial. Fam. Pract. 33, 192-199 (2016).

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Footnote 84

Le Corvoisier, P. et al. Long-term effects of an educational seminar on antibiotic prescribing by GPs: a randomised controlled trial. Br. J. Gen. Pract. 63, e455-64 (2013).

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Footnote 85

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Footnote 86

O'Neill, J. Tackling drug-resistant infections globally: the review on antimicrobial resistance. (2016).

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Footnote 87

Gulliford, M. C. et al. Effectiveness and safety of electronically delivered prescribing feedback and decision support on antibiotic use for respiratory illness in primary care: REDUCE cluster randomised trial. BMJ 364, l236 (2019).

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Footnote 88

Naughton, C., Feely, J. & Bennett, K. A RCT evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of academic detailing versus postal prescribing feedback in changing GP antibiotic prescribing. J. Eval. Clin. Pract. 15, 807-812 (2009).

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Footnote 89

Meeker, D. et al. Effect of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Among Primary Care Practices: A Randomized Clinical Trial Behavioral Interventions and Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Behavioral Interventions and Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing. JAMA 315, 562-570 (2016).

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Footnote 90

McDonagh, M. S. et al. Interventions to reduce inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections: summary and update of a systematic review. J. Int. Med. Res. 46, 3337-3357 (2018).

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Footnote 91

Stover, K. R., Kenney, R. M., King, S. T. & Gross, A. E. Evaluation of the Use of Novel Biomarkers to Augment Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Activities. Pharmacotherapy 38, 271-283 (2018).

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Footnote 92

Tonkin‐Crine, S. et al. Clinician‐targeted interventions to influence antibiotic prescribing behaviour for acute respiratory infections in primary care: an overview of systematic reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2017).

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Footnote 93

Cross, E. L., Tolfree, R. & Kipping, R. Systematic review of public-targeted communication interventions to improve antibiotic use. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 72, 975-987 (2017).

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Footnote 94

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Footnote 95

de Bont, E.,G.P.M., Alink, M., Falkenberg, F. C. J., Dinant, G. & Cals, J. W. L. Patient information leaflets to reduce antibiotic use and reconsultation rates in general practice: a systematic review. BMJ open 5, e007612; e007612-e007612 (2015).

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Footnote 96

Rosman, S. et al. Prescribing patterns for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice in France and in the Netherlands. Eur. J. Public Health 18, 312-316 (2008).

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