Bacillus cereus, excluding biovar anthracis: Infectious substances pathogen safety data sheet

Section I – Infectious agent


Bacillus cereus, excluding biovar anthracis

Agent type









Synonym or cross-reference

Causative agent of Bacillus cereus foodborne illness, food poisoning, diarrheal syndrome, emetic syndrome, and gastroenteritisFootnote 1Footnote 2Footnote 3.


Brief description

Bacillus cereus sensu stricto (hereafter referred to as B. cereus) is a Gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped (1-1.2 µm by 3-5 µm) facultative anaerobe, which occurs singly, paired, or in short chainsFootnote 2Footnote 4Footnote 5Footnote 6. B. cereus is a member of a bacterial group known as Bacillus cereus sensu lato, which also includes B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. weihenstephanensis, B. cytotoxicus, and B. toyonensis, as well as several newly described members identified through more recent genetic taxonomic analyses, such as B. gaemokensis, B. manliponensis, and B. bingmayongensisFootnote 2Footnote 7. Although these bacteria display high levels of genetic similarity, they are each classified as unique species based on differences in morphological and physiological features and associated clinical manifestations resulting from infectionFootnote 2. The genome size of B. cereus strain 3A-ES consists of a single circular chromosome approximately 5,335 kb in size, with a G+C content of ~35% and 287 subsystems (sets of proteins that together implement a specific biological process or structural complex), of which the largest number are involved in metabolic processes, followed by protein processing, virulence, stress response, and defenseFootnote 8. Cells have peritrichous flagella for motilityFootnote 2. B. cereus produces central-to-terminal ellipsoid or cylindrical spores with appendages on its surfaceFootnote 3Footnote 9. Psychrotrophic strains grow well at temperatures below 10°C, but not at 37°CFootnote 10. Mesophilic strains grow well at 37°C but can also survive at temperatures below 10°CFootnote 2Footnote 10.


Some B. cereus strains have a generation time as short as 12 minutes under optimal conditionsFootnote 3. B. cereus is able to persist in unfavourable conditions through the formation of endospores and biofilmsFootnote 2. Spores are generally resistant to heating, freezing, drying, and gamma-ray and ultraviolet radiationFootnote 2. Relative to spores from other Bacillus spp., B. cereus spores have an increased hydrophobicity, which allows for strong adhesion to surfaces and foodsFootnote 3. Biofilms can form on abiotic surfaces and on living tissue but can also be in the form of floating pelliclesFootnote 2.

B. cereus strains produce up to six toxins, of which five are enterotoxins and one is an emetic toxinFootnote 5. Enterotoxins include enterotoxin T (BceT), enterotoxin FM (EntFM), hemolysin BL (HBL), nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE), and cytotoxin K (CytK or hemolysin IV)Footnote 2. Some B. cereus strains produce an emetic toxin called cereulideFootnote 4Footnote 11Footnote 12. B. cereus also produces other virulence factors including mammalian membrane-damaging phospholipases and hemolysinsFootnote 2. Spores produce two metalloproteases, InhA and NprA, which are involved in escaping immune surveillance and promoting germination, allowing for establishment of infection in a host.

Section II – Hazard identification

Pathogenicity and toxicity

B. cereus strains vary in pathogenicity due to differences in toxin productionFootnote 4. Pathogenic strains primarily cause self-limiting foodborne illness (diarrheal type and/or emetic type), but can also cause other types of infectionsFootnote 3Footnote 5Footnote 11. The diarrheal type of food poisoning occurs when vegetative B. cereus cells are ingested and produce enterotoxins in the small intestine. This illness, which is characterized by symptoms such as watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and vomiting, often lasts for 12-24 hours, or up to several daysFootnote 3Footnote 4Footnote 5Footnote 13. The emetic type of illness, caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with pre-formed cereulide, is characterized by vomiting, nausea, malaise, and diarrhea, and lasts for 6-24 hoursFootnote 3Footnote 5Footnote 13. In a small number of cases, symptoms from both types of illness can occur simultaneously since approximately 5% of strains produce both types of toxinsFootnote 3. B. cereus food poisoning rarely leads to complications and mortality; however, occasional fatalities have been reported, including three deaths caused by the necrotic enterotoxin CytK, and deaths due to ingestion of large amounts of the emetic toxinFootnote 3Footnote 14.

B. cereus also occasionally causes local and systemic infections aside from food poisoningFootnote 15. Extraintestinal infections include septicemia, endophthalmitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, meningitis, and encephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals and neonates. Mortality occurs in approximately 10% of cases involving extraintestinal local or systemic infections, and in up to 21% of cases involving hospitalized individualsFootnote 15. Several cases of fulminant infections have been reported in healthy individuals, with symptoms similar to those of anthrax due to infection with non-biovar anthracis B. cereus isolates harbouring B. anthracis toxin genesFootnote 15Footnote 16Footnote 17. A few fatal cases associated with fulminant liver failure due to the emetic toxin have been reportedFootnote 5Footnote 18Footnote 19.

B. cereus can occasionally cause mastitis in bovines and goatsFootnote 20. Disease ranges from mild to severeFootnote 21. In a British survey, B. cereus mastitis accounted for 0.3% of cases of mastitisFootnote 21. Cows with mastitis experience symptoms including fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, bloodstained milk, uniformly bloody udder secretions, enlarged, painful, discoloured and hard udders, and the occasional presence of necrotic mammary gland tissue in milkFootnote 20Footnote 21. Gangrenous mastitis may develop, leading to necrosis and sloughing of the involved quarter udder and bluish-purple discoloration of the skin. Lactation may be permanently reduced. Of 119 cases of bovine mastitis reported in New South Wales, the mortality rate was 12%Footnote 22. Goats infected with B. cereus experience similar symptoms as infected cows. Prognosis for survival is good for goats with proper treatmentFootnote 20. Aside from mammary gland infections, B. cereus infections may also cause abortionFootnote 20.

B. cereus may cause hemorrhagic disease in dromedary camelsFootnote 23. This may cause the development of fatal leukopenia. A case of abortion due to B. cereus has also been described in a dromedary camelFootnote 23Footnote 24.

B. cereus is pathogenic to multiple aquatic animal species, including Chinese softshell turtles, where disease is characterized by hepatic congestion and enlarged spleen, resulting in high mortalityFootnote 25.


B. cereus has a worldwide distribution and is ubiquitous in the environmentFootnote 5. Since many B. cereus food poisoning cases are caused by improper food handling, there is no particular distribution pattern within a countryFootnote 5. However, there are national differences in the proportions of outbreaks caused by B. cereus. Emetic type food poisoning is the more prevalent type of B. cereus food poisoning in the United Kingdom and Japan, while the diarrheal type is more common in North America and northern EuropeFootnote 11Footnote 26Footnote 27. B. cereus was previously recorded as the cause of 17.8% of all bacterial foodborne illnesses in Finland, 11.5% in the Netherlands, 0.8% in Scotland, 0.7% in England and Wales, 2.2% in Canada, 0.7% in Japan, and 15% in HungaryFootnote 27. The number of reported cases is likely underestimated since many cases are mild and of short durationFootnote 2.

The number of annual cases of B. cereus-specific food poisoning is estimated to be approximately 27,000 in the United StatesFootnote 28. B. cereus outbreaks involve 2-140 cases per outbreak, with a median of 8 casesFootnote 29. B. cereus is one of the microorganisms most frequently isolated from samples taken from large commercial kitchensFootnote 4. Contamination rates of B. cereus spores in foods such as noodles, potatoes, and rice are as high as 88-100%, and 50-83% in cooked vegetablesFootnote 30.

Sporadic cases of bovine B. cereus mastitis occasionally occur in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, Egypt, and New ZealandFootnote 21Footnote 22Footnote 31Footnote 32. Contaminated animal feed containing Brewer’s grains are often associated with bovine B. cereus infectionsFootnote 21.

No specific population is particularly predisposed to B. cereus foodborne illness; however, reduced stomach acidity as occurs in the elderly and in those suffering from achlorhydria may be a risk factorFootnote 11Footnote 33. Old age, the presence of surgical or traumatic wounds, the use of intravascular and/or indwelling devices, neoplastic disease, immunosuppression, alcoholism, illicit drug use, and/or underlying medical conditions may be risk factors for extraintestinal B. cereus infectionsFootnote 5Footnote 15.

Host range

Natural host(s)

Humans and animals, including cows, goats, and camels are natural hostsFootnote 3Footnote 20Footnote 24. Tiger frogs, insect larvae and chickens can also be infectedFootnote 15Footnote 34Footnote 35Footnote 36.

Other host(s)

Insect species including Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella) and silkworms (Bombyx mori), and small animals such as mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs, have been used as animal modelsFootnote 37Footnote 38Footnote 39Footnote 40.

Infectious dose

For the diarrheal type of food poisoning, the infectious dose is 104-109 B. cereus cells per gram of food, while 105-108 B. cereus cells per gram of food are required to generate sufficient toxicity to cause the emetic type of food poisoningFootnote 5.

Incubation period

The incubation period for the diarrheal type of food poisoning is 8-16 hours post-ingestion of contaminated food, and 0.5-6 hours post-ingestion for the emetic typeFootnote 5Footnote 6. Illness usually resolves within 24 hours of symptom onsetFootnote 3.


B. cereus foodborne illness results from ingestion of B. cereus-contaminated food productsFootnote 15. Nosocomial transmission of B. cereus is also possible and occurs due to the transmission of spores present on human skin, or to the formation of B. cereus biofilms on fomites such as medical devices and bedsheetsFootnote 15. Transmission of B. cereus by contact with mucous membranes or damaged skin is possible through wounds and indwelling medical devices. Animal infection occurs primarily from ingestionFootnote 20Footnote 23. Mammary gland infection may occur through accidental entrance into the udder tissue when ingesting contaminated feeds, as well as following teat surgery, and from the use of contaminated syringes, teat tubes, or teat dilatorsFootnote 20.

Section III – Dissemination


B. cereus can be found in the normal gastrointestinal flora of humans and animalsFootnote 4. In the environment, B. cereus cells and spores remain viable in decaying organic matter, growing plants, and in the guts of invertebrates in soilFootnote 3Footnote 11. This environmental distribution results in the contamination of foods, especially those of plant origin, including rice, pasta, vegetables, and spices, and in the contamination of pasteurized milk, meat, and eggsFootnote 3.


Food poisoning resulting from the ingestion of B. cereus-contaminated animal by-products is classified as foodborne zoonosisFootnote 41.



Section IV – Stability and viability

Drug susceptibility/resistance

B. cereus strains are generally susceptible to imipenem, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, rifampin, linezolid, fluroquinolones (i.e., ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin), and aminoglycosides (i.e., vancomycin, erythromycin, and daptomycin)Footnote 42.

Due to beta-lactamase production, some B. cereus isolates are resistant to beta-lactams such as penicillins, oxacillins, and cephalosporinsFootnote 15Footnote 42. Some isolates are also resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline, carbapenem, clindamycin, cefazolin, cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfa-methoxazoleFootnote 42Footnote 43. Antibiotic resistance is highly variable depending on the isolate.

Susceptibility to disinfectants

Glutaraldehyde is capable of inactivating B. cereus cells (200 to 1000 mg/L for 30 minutes) and has partial activity against biofilms (200 mg/L for 30 minutes)Footnote 44. Bacillus spores can be killed by a 3 hour treatment with ≥2% aqueous solutions of glutaraldehyde, buffered to pH 7.5–8.5 with sodium bicarbonate, and by a 1-hour exposure to 10% hydrogen peroxideFootnote 45.

Physical inactivation

Pulsed electric fields can inactivate and reduce the number of B. cereus cells when suspended in 0.15% NaClFootnote 46. Although spores are relatively resistant to heat, cellular damage to the membranes and ribosomes is induced by exposure to moist heat (100°C) for 5 minutesFootnote 47. Cooking meat at 70°C for 2 minutes is sufficient to significantly reduce the number of B. cereus vegetative cellsFootnote 48. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 2-5 kilograys (kGy) is required to inactivate B. cereus vegetative cellsFootnote 49. A combination of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), mild heat (60°C), and ultrasound greatly collapses and disrupts B. cereus biofilmsFootnote 50.

Survival outside host

B. cereus, which is saprophytic, is ubiquitous in soil and on vegetationFootnote 40. As B. cereus spores are generally resistant to acidic environments, proteolysis, and heat, they may survive thermal food processing and pasteurizationFootnote 2Footnote 3Footnote 11. In hospital settings, spores and biofilms can be found on human skin and abiotic surfaces such as medical devices and linensFootnote 15.

Section V – First aid/medical


B. cereus can be identified by growing and isolating the bacterium at 37°C on B. cereus growth media such as MEYP (mannitol, egg yolk, polymyxin B) agar, PEMBA (polymyxin B, egg yolk, mannitol, bromothymol blue agar), and BCM (B. cereus medium)Footnote 5Footnote 51. Immunological assays, PCR, and biological tests can detect the presence of B. cereus enterotoxinsFootnote 5Footnote 27.

Note: The specific recommendations for surveillance in the laboratory should come from the medical surveillance program, which is based on a local risk assessment of the pathogens and activities being undertaken, as well as an overarching risk assessment of the biosafety program as a whole. More information on medical surveillance is available in the Canadian Biosafety Handbook (CBH).

First aid/treatment

B. cereus food poisoning usually resolves quickly without treatmentFootnote 4. Appropriate antibiotic therapy and supportive care can aid in treating infected individuals, if requiredFootnote 19. Fluid administration is recommended for severe diarrhea or vomiting. The early administration of antibiotics has been successful in preventing the progression of systemic infections and bacteremiaFootnote 52. Bovine mastitis may be treated with intra-mammary antibiotic therapyFootnote 21.

Note: The specific recommendations for first aid/treatment in the laboratory should come from the post-exposure response plan, which is developed as part of the medical surveillance program. More information on the post-exposure response plan can be found in the CBH.


No vaccine is currently available.

Note: More information on the medical surveillance program can be found in the CBH, and by consulting the Canadian Immunization Guide.


No known post-exposure prophylaxis.

Note: More information on prophylaxis as part of the medical surveillance program can be found in the CBH.

Section VI – Laboratory hazard

Laboratory-acquired infections

Only one case of B. cereus-associated laboratory-acquired infection has been reported; this case occurred in a research laboratory and was suspected to have been caused by contamination of a hand woundFootnote 53.

Note: Please consult the Canadian Biosafety Standard (CBS) and CBH for additional details on requirements for reporting exposure incidents


Human stool, soil, and food specimensFootnote 3Footnote 42Footnote 54.

Primary hazards

Ingestion of infectious material, exposure to infectious material on fomites, and exposure of mucous membranes/damaged skin to infectious materialFootnote 2Footnote 3Footnote 4Footnote 15Footnote 53.

Special hazards


Section VII – Exposure controls/personal protection

Risk group classification

B. cereus is a Risk Group 2 Human Pathogen and a Risk Group 2 Animal PathogenFootnote 55.

Containment requirements

Containment Level 2 facilities, equipment, and operational practices outlined in the CBS for work involving infectious or potentially infectious materials, animals, or cultures.

Protective clothing

The applicable Containment Level 2 requirements for personal protective equipment and clothing outlined in the CBS are to be followed. The personal protective equipment could include the use of a labcoat and dedicated footwear (e.g., boots, shoes) or additional protective footwear (e.g., boot or shoe covers) where floors may be contaminated (e.g., animal cubicles, PM rooms), gloves when direct skin contact with infected materials or animals is unavoidable, and eye protection where there is a known or potential risk of exposure to splashes.

Note: A local risk assessment will identify the appropriate hand, foot, head, body, eye/face, and respiratory protection, and the personal protective equipment requirements for the containment zone and work activities must be documented.  

Other precautions

A biological safety cabinet (BSC) or other primary containment devices to be used for activities with open vessels, based on the risks associated with the inherent characteristics of the regulated material, the potential to produce infectious aerosols or aerosolized toxins, the handling of high concentrations of regulated materials, or the handling of large volumes of regulated materials.

Use of needles and syringes to be strictly limited. Bending, shearing, re-capping, or removing needles from syringes to be avoided, and if necessary, performed only as specified in standard operating procedures (SOPs). Additional precautions are required with work involving animals or large scale activities.

Additional information

For diagnostic laboratories handling primary specimens that may contain B. cereus, the following resources may be consulted:

Section VIII – Handling and storage


Allow aerosols to settle. Wearing personal protective equipment, gently cover the spill with absorbent paper towel and apply suitable disinfectant, starting at the perimeter and working towards the centre. Allow sufficient contact time with disinfectant before clean up (CBH).


All materials/substances that have come in contact with the regulated materials to be completely decontaminated before they are removed from the containment zone or standard operating procedures (SOPs) to be in place to safely and securely move or transport waste out of the containment zone to a designated decontamination area / third party. This can be achieved by using decontamination technologies and processes that have been demonstrated to be effective against the regulated material, such as chemical disinfectants, autoclaving, irradiation, incineration, an effluent treatment system, or gaseous decontamination (CBH).


The applicable Containment Level 2 requirements for storage outlined in the CBS are to be followed. Primary containers of regulated materials removed from the containment zone to be labelled, leakproof, impact resistant, and kept either in locked storage equipment or within an area with limited access.

Section IX – Regulatory and other information

Canadian regulatory information

Controlled activities with B. cereus require a Pathogen and Toxin licence issued by the Public Health Agency of Canada.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of applicable designations, regulations, or legislations:

Last file update

March, 2023

Prepared by

Centre for Biosecurity, Public Health Agency of Canada.


The scientific information, opinions, and recommendations contained in this Pathogen Safety Data Sheet have been developed based on or compiled from trusted sources available at the time of publication. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and this information may not be completely up to date. The Government of Canada accepts no responsibility for the accuracy, sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from the use of the information.

Persons in Canada are responsible for complying with the relevant laws, including regulations, guidelines and standards applicable to the import, transport, and use of pathogens in Canada set by relevant regulatory authorities, including the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Environment and Climate Change Canada, and Transport Canada. The risk classification and related regulatory requirements referenced in this Pathogen Safety Data Sheet, such as those found in the Canadian Biosafety Standard, may be incomplete and are specific to the Canadian context. Other jurisdictions will have their own requirements.

Copyright © Public Health Agency of Canada, 2024, Canada


Footnote 1

Bazinet, A. L. 2017. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato. BMC Evol. Biol. 17:176.

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Footnote 2

Enosi Tuipulotu, D., A. Mathur, C. Ngo, and S. M. Man. 2021. Bacillus cereus: Epidemiology, Virulence Factors, and Host–Pathogen Interactions. Trends Microbiol. 29:458-471.

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Footnote 3

Granum, P. E., and T. Lindbäck. 2012. Bacillus cereus, p. 491-502. M. P. Doyle and R. L. Buchanan (eds.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 4th ed., American Society for Microbiology.

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Footnote 4

Ehling-Schulz, M., R. Knutsson, and S. Scherer. 2010. Chapter 11. Bacillus cereus, p. 147-164. P. Fratamico, Y. Liu, and Kathariou. S. (eds.), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press.

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Footnote 5

Logan, N. A., and M. Rodríguez-Díaz. 2006. Chapter 9. Bacillus spp. and Related Genera, p. 139-158. S. H. Gillespie and P. M. Hawkey (eds.), Principles and Practice of Clinical Bacteriology, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Footnote 6

Marrollo, R. 2016. Chapter 1. Microbiology of Bacillus cereus, p. 1-13. V. Savini (ed.), The Diverse Faces of Bacillus cereus. Academic Press.

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Footnote 7

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Footnote 8

Yossa, N., R. Bell, S. Tallent, E. Brown, R. Binet, and T. Hammack. 2022. Genomic characterization of Bacillus cereus sensu stricto 3A ES isolated from eye shadow cosmetic products. BMC Microbiol. 22.

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Footnote 9

Stalheim, T., and P. E. Granum. 2001. Characterization of spore appendages from Bacillus cereus strains. J. Appl. Microbiol. 91:839-845.

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Footnote 10

Wijnands, L. M., J. B. Dufrenne, M. H. Zwietering, and F. M. van Leusden. 2006. Spores from mesophilic Bacillus cereus strains germinate better and grow faster in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions than spores from psychrotrophic strains. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 112:120-128.

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Footnote 11

Marrollo, R. 2016. Chapter 5. Bacillus cereus Food-Borne Disease, p. 61-72. V. Savini (ed.), The Diverse Faces of Bacillus cereus. Academic Press.

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Footnote 12

Stenfors Arnesen, L. P., A. Fagerlund, and P. E. Granum. 2008. From soil to gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 32:579-606.

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Footnote 13

Granum, P. E., and T. Lund. 1997. Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 157:223-228.

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Footnote 14

Dierick, K., E. Van Coillie, I. Swiecicka, G. Meyfroidt, H. Devlieger, A. Meulemans, G. Hoedemaekers, L. Fourie, M. Heyndrickx, and J. Mahillon. 2005. Fatal family outbreak of Bacillus cereus-associated food poisoning. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:4277-4279.

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Footnote 15

Glasset, B., S. Herbin, S. A. Granier, L. Cavalie, E. Lafeuille, C. Guérin, R. Ruimy, F. Casagrande-Magne, M. Levast, N. Chautemps, J. W. Decousser, L. Belotti, I. Pelloux, J. Robert, A. Brisabois, and N. Ramarao. 2018. Bacillus cereus, a serious cause of nosocomial infections: Epidemiologic and genetic survey. PLoS ONE. 13:e0194346.

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Footnote 16

Hoffmaster, A. R., J. Ravel, D. A. Rasko, G. D. Chapman, M. D. Chute, C. K. Marston, B. K. De, C. T. Sacchi, C. Fitzgerald, L. W. Mayer, M. C. J. Maiden, F. G. Priest, M. Barker, L. Jiang, R. Z. Cer, J. Rilstone, S. N. Peterson, R. S. Weyant, D. R. Galloway, T. D. Read, T. Popovic, and C. M. Fraser. 2004. Identification of anthrax toxin genes in a bacillus cereus associated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101:8449-8454.

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Footnote 17

Marston, C. K., H. Ibrahim, P. Lee, G. Churchwell, M. Gumke, D. Stanek, J. E. Gee, A. E. Boyer, M. Gallegos-Candela, J. R. Barr, H. Li, D. Boulay, L. Cronin, C. P. Quinn, and A. R. Hoffmaster. 2016. Anthrax toxin-expressing bacillus cereus isolated from an anthrax-like eschar. PLoS ONE. 11:e0156987.

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Footnote 18

Mahler, H., A. Pasi, J. M. Kramer, P. Schulte, A. C. Scoging, W. Bär, and S. Krähenbühl. 1997. Fulminant liver failure in association with the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus. New Engl. J. Med. 336:1142-1148.

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Footnote 19

McDowell, R. H., E. M. Sands, and H. Friedman. 2020. Bacillus cereus. StatPearls Publishing, Florida.

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Footnote 20

Savini, V. 2016. Chapter 9. Bacillus cereus Disease in Animals, p. 107-115. V. Savini (ed.), The Diverse Faces of Bacillus cereus. Academic Press.

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Footnote 21

Parkinson, T. J., M. Merrall, and S. G. Fenwick. 1999. A case of bovine mastitis caused by Bacillus cereus. N. Z. Vet. J. 47:151-152.

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Footnote 22

Johnston, K. G. 1986. Bacillus cereus mastitis in lactating cows, p. 1100-1104. P. J. Hartigan and M. L. Monaghan (eds.), Proceedings of the 14th World Congress on Diseases of Cattle, Dublin, Ireland, August 26-29, 1986. Irish Cattle Veterinary Association.

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Footnote 23

Wernery, U., H. H. Schimmelpfennig, H. S. H. Seifert, and J. Pohlenz. 1992. Bacillus cereus as a possible cause of haemorrhagic disease of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), p. 51. W.R. Allen (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Camel Conference, Dubai, 2nd-6th February 1992. R & W Publications (Newmarket).

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Footnote 24

Tibary, A., C. Fite, A. Anouassi, and A. Sghiri. 2006. Infectious causes of reproductive loss in camelids. Theriogenology. 66:633-647.

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Footnote 25

Cheng, L. -., S. Rao, S. Poudyal, P. -. Wang, and S. -. Chen. 2021. Genotype and virulence gene analyses of Bacillus cereus group clinical isolates from the Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) in Taiwan. J. Fish Dis. 44:1515-1529.

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Footnote 26

Gilbert, R. J., and J. M. Kramer. 1986. Bacillus cereus food poisoning, p. 85-93. D. O. Cliver and B. A. Cochrane (eds.), Progress in food safety: proceedings of a symposium. Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

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Footnote 27

Kotiranta, A., K. Lounatmaa, and M. Haapasalo. 2000. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus infections. Microbes Infect. 2:189-198.

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Footnote 28

Schoeni, J. L., and A. C. Lee Wong. 2005. Bacillus cereus food poisoning and its toxins. J. Food Prot. 68:636-648.

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Footnote 29

Bennett, S. D., K. A. Walsh, and L. H. Gould. 2013. Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus - United States, 1998-2008. Clin. Infect. Dis. 57:425-433.

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Footnote 30

Harmon, S. M., and D. A. Kautter. 1991. Incidence and growth potential of Bacillus cereus in ready-to-serve foods. J. Food Prot. 54:372-374.

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Footnote 31

Jones, T. O., and P. C. B. Turnbull. 1981. Bovine mastitis caused by Bacillus cereus. Vet. Rec. 108:271-274.

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Footnote 32

Moustafa, S., and N. M. Saad. 1989. Studies on bovine udder infection with Bacillus cereus. Assiut Vet. Med. J. (Egypt). 22:40-46.

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Footnote 33

Clavel, T., F. Carlin, D. Lairon, C. Nguyen-The, and P. Schmitt. 2004. Survival of Bacillus cereus spores and vegetative cells in acid media simulating human stomach. J. Appl. Microbiol. 97:214-219.

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Footnote 34

Cho, H., L. Liu, K. Liu, Y. Zhu, M. Dziong, L. Lu, and X. Yang. 2010. Phenotypic charcterization and phylogenetic analysis of a virulent Bacillus cereus strain from the Tiger frog Hoplobatrachus rugulosus Wiegmann. 4:2180.

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Footnote 35

Zhang, Q., Z. Zuo, Y. Guo, T. Zhang, Z. Han, S. Huang, M. Karama, M. K. Saleemi, A. Khan, and C. He. 2019. Contaminated feed-borne Bacillus cereus aggravates respiratory distress post avian influenza virus H9N2 infection by inducing pneumonia. Sci. Rep. 9:7231.

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Footnote 36

Auger, S., N. Ramarao, C. Faille, A. Fouet, S. Aymerich, and M. Gohar. 2009. Biofilm formation and cell surface properties among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of the Bacillus cereus group. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:6616-6618.

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Footnote 37

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Footnote 38

Glatz, B. A., and J. M. Goepfert. 1973. Extracellular factor synthesized by Bacillus cereus which evokes a dermal reaction in guinea pigs. Infect. Immun. 8:25-29.

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Footnote 39

Salamitou, S., F. Ramisse, M. Brehelin, D. Bourguet, N. Gilois, M. Gominet, E. Hernandez, and D. Lereclus. 2000. The plcR regulon is involved in the opportunistic properties of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus in mice and insects. Microbiology. 146:2825-2832.

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Footnote 40

Spira, W. M., and J. M. Goepfert. 1972. Bacillus cereus-induced fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops. Appl. Microbiol. 24:341-348.

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Footnote 41

European Food Safety Authority. 2019. Foodborne zoonotic diseases. 2023.

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Footnote 42

Bottone, E. J. 2010. Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 23:382-398.

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Footnote 43

López, A. C., R. V. M. De Ortúzar, and A. M. Alippi. 2008. Tetracycline and oxytetracycline resistance determinants detected in Bacillus cereus strains isolated from honey samples. Rev. Argent. Microbiol. 40:231-236.

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Footnote 44

Simões, L. C., M. Lemos, P. Araújo, A. M. Pereira, and M. Simões. 2011. The effects of glutaraldehyde on the control of single and dual biofilms of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescence. Biofouling. 27:337-346.

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Footnote 45

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities. 2023.

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Footnote 46

Cserhalmi, Z., I. Vidács, J. Beczner, and B. Czukor. 2002. Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus cereus by pulsed electric fields technology. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 3:41-45.

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Footnote 47

Silva, M. T., and J. C. Sousa. 1972. Ultrastructural alterations induced by moist heat in Bacillus cereus. Appl. Microbiol. 24:463-476.

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Footnote 48

Byrne, B., G. Dunne, and D. J. Bolton. 2006. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores in pork luncheon roll. Food Microbiol. 23:803-808.

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Footnote 49

Abostate, M. A. M., D. A. Zanran, and H. N. Hifnawi. 2006. Incidence of Bacillus cereus in Some Meat Products and the Effects of Gamma Radiation on Its Toxin(s). Int. J. Agric. Biol. 8:1.

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Footnote 50

Hussain, M. S., M. Kwon, E. Park, K. Seheli, R. Huque, and D. Oh. 2019. Disinfection of Bacillus cereus biofilms on leafy green vegetables with slightly acidic electrolyzed water, ultrasound and mild heat. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 116:108582.

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Footnote 51

van Netten, P., and J. M. Kramer. 1992. Media for the detection and enumeration of Bacillus cereus in foods: a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 17:85-99.

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Footnote 52

Aygun, F. D., F. Aygun, and H. Cam. 2016. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia. Case Rep. Pediatr. 2016:6380929-6380929.

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Footnote 53

Gillum, D., P. Krishnan, and K. Byers. 2016. A searchable laboratory-acquired infection database. Appl. Biosafety. 21:203-207.

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Footnote 54

Turnbull, P. C. B., and J. M. Kramer. 1985. Intestinal carriage of Bacillus cereus: Faecal isolation studies in three population groups. J. Hyg. 95:629-638.

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Footnote 55

Government of Canada. 2009. Human Pathogens and Toxins Act. S.C. 2009, c. 24. Government of Canada, Second Session, Fortieth Parliament, 57-58 Elizabeth II, 2009.

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