2021-2022 Departmental Results Report

Table of contents

© His Majesty the King in Right of Canada,
as represented by the Minister of Public Safety, 2022

Catalogue No. PS81-15E-PDF
ISSN 2561-1364

This document is available on the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat website at http://www.tbs‑sct.gc.ca
This document is available in alternative formats upon request.

From the Minister

As Canada's Minister of Public Safety, I am pleased to present the Correctional Service of Canada’s (CSC) Departmental Results Report for 2021-22.

This report features the results achieved by CSC, and informs Canadians of the work undertaken to rehabilitate and safely reintegrate offenders back into communities while providing safe correctional environments for those who work and live in its facilities. An example of this work is the resulting publication of two new policies in early 2022-23, one to help prevent and address sexual coercion and violence, and another to support and help protect gender diverse offenders.

Over the course of the year, CSC continued to deliver on its mission of supporting offenders in becoming law-abiding citizens while facing several challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, including the implementation of necessary measures to limit the spread of the virus in its facilities to protect employees, offenders, and the public.

The Honourable Marco E. L. Mendicino, P.C., M.P.

The Honourable Marco E. L. Mendicino, P.C., M.P.

In order to advance reconciliation and build safer communities for all Canadians, supporting positive outcomes for Indigenous, Black, and other racialized individuals in the correctional system remains a priority for CSC. To this end, CSC developed an Anti-Racism Framework and Actions, focusing on employees, offenders, and stakeholders. CSC also delivered training to staff on topics such as anti-racism, unconscious bias, Indigenous cultures, and cultural competency.

Supported by the National Indigenous Plan, the Indigenous Intervention Centres (IIC) model continued to produce positive results. Overall, the 2021-22 results reflect that Indigenous offenders at an IIC tended to achieve better results compared to the overall Indigenous population at CSC. For example, at the end of the reporting year, 71.4% of Indigenous offenders at an IIC with an identified need for a national recognized correctional program completed programming prior to first release, compared to 60.7% of the overall Indigenous offender population. Indigenous offenders at an IIC had a higher percentage of discretionary releases, compared to the overall Indigenous offender population (52.4% versus 36.0%). As well, 59.6% of IIC participants reached sentence expiry date without re-admission, compared to 45.3% of the overall Indigenous offender population.

CSC continued to refine the Structured Intervention Units (SIUs) model within federal institutions. The historic transformation reached the two-year mark, and CSC continued to consult with stakeholders and individuals with diverse perspectives in order to ensure the success of the SIU model.

Ensuring that offenders have access to quality, safe, patient-centered services from health care professionals remained a priority this year. CSC made system-wide enhancements to help identify mental health needs of individuals, and continued to implement harm reduction initiatives to prevent the spread of HIV and Hepatitis C.

CSC is providing offenders with the skills to become contributing members of society. For example, the residential construction program as part of the Indigenous Offender Employment Initiative is helping Indigenous communities meet their housing needs, while ensuring offenders obtain valuable skills and certifications that help them find meaningful employment upon release and contribute to their reintegration.

I am pleased by CSC’s accomplishments in 2021-22 and look forward to continuing work to enhance public safety results and keep Canadians safe.

Sincerely,

The Honourable Marco E. L. Mendicino, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Public Safety

Results at a glance

The Correctional Service of Canada’s (CSC) plans and strategies directly support its mission, mandate and values, as well as the Government of Canada’s priorities as set out in the Minister of Public Safety’s mandate letterEndnote i. CSC’s operations align with its corporate priorities and key areas of risk, delivering results in accordance with related strategies and plans. In implementing its key plans and priorities, CSC focused on strengthening its infrastructure for workplace modernization and digital services for offenders, as well as furthered its commitment in creating a barrier-free workplace and in responding to an increasingly diverse offender population. Interwoven throughout CSC’s activities are also initiatives to enhance the provision of services to offenders with mental health challenges, and the well-being of staff.

Over two years ago, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic, which had an enormous impact on everyone. The Service focused on minimizing the risk of introducing COVID-19 to institutions, Community Correctional Centres, and workplaces. This crisis required CSC to adapt, make thoughtful decisions, and lead in innovative ways during a time of uncertainty, while continuing to apply and reinforce infection prevention and control measures, and adapting these measures based on the Public Health Agency of Canada and local public health advice. CSC provided weekly updates on COVID-19 health and safety measures and vaccinations directly to offenders and staff, and kept the public informed via its website and social media.

Budget 2021 provided CSC with $154.6 million in 2021-22 to limit the spread of COVID-19 and keep staff and inmates safe, while enabling safe access to intervention services. This included the procurement of personal protective equipment, enhanced cleaning protocols, and support for increased use of information technology for remote work, as necessary, during the pandemic.

The total number of offenders under CSC jurisdiction has declined in recent years. On a typical day in 2021-22, CSC managed 21,181 offenders, of which 12,327 were incarcerated. Despite this decline, CSC continues to face increasingly complex needs from diverse offender populations, including those with extensive histories of violence and violent crimes, affiliations with gangs or organized crime, and/or with serious mental health disorders.

Key Milestones/Achievements in 2021-22:


Institutions for women (1 per region): 5; Institutions for men: 34; CSC-operated Healing Lodges (men: 3, women: 1): 4; Community Correctional Centres: 14; Parole and Sub-Parole offices: 90.

For more information on CSC’s plans, priorities and results achieved, see the “Results: what we achieved” section of this report.

Infrastruture


Results: what we achieved

Core responsibilities

Gender-based analysis plus

CSC collects performance data, which are disaggregated, where applicable, by sex, and other intersecting identity factors (e.g., race), thereby enabling identification of impacts of programs or initiatives on specific groups of male and female offenders. (Please refer to the Gender-based analysis plus Supplementary Information TableEndnote iii for information on program impacts on gender and diversity.)

The Service remained committed to ensuring gender diverse offenders, including persons who identify as transgender or as two-spirit, are given the same protections, dignity, and rights as others. CSC’s policy development, planning, and decision-making at all levels use a Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA Plus) lens to better meet the needs of its diverse offender population. For example, during this reporting year, the Women Offender Sector led and actively participated in the revision initiatives of several CSC policy documents, correctional program and training documents, transfer requests for women and gender diverse offenders, security level reviews, and reclassifications. In all of the aforementioned revisions, gender-based responsivity and intersecting challenges were considered to ensure that the needs of women and gender diverse offenders were respected through various activity areas, ultimately supporting diversity, inclusion, and gender equality.

CSC continued to enhance its searching procedures to ensure dignity and privacy to all persons searched, while ensuring the needs of gender diverse persons are respected pursuant to the Canadian Human Rights Act, including gender identity or expression as prohibited grounds for discrimination.

In supporting gender diverse offenders and their ongoing safety, dignity, and human rights, CSC engaged in extensive consultations with a wide variety of stakeholders, experts, members of the 2SLGBTQI+ community, and several organizations, in order to advance the development of a new national policy related to gender diverse offenders (in its final stages for promulgation).

Core responsibility 1: Care and Custody

Description

CSC provides for the safety, security and humane care of inmates, including day-to-day needs of inmates such as food, clothing, accommodation, mental health services, and physical health care. It also includes security measures within institutions such as drug interdiction, and appropriate control practices to prevent incidents.

Results

The Service has custody of a diverse and complex offender population, and manages its operations within an evolving environment by responding and functioning with a high degree of adaptability, agility, and rigor. To respond to public health protocols and assist staff in completing their daily tasks, the Service continued to be guided by its Integrated Risk Management Framework (IRMF). Updated throughout the pandemic, this tool identifies institutional and community correctional activities, risks, and mitigation strategies to protect CSC staff and offenders, while respecting legislation and delivering on CSC’s mandate. Staff continued to show creativity and commitment to meet the needs of those in CSC care and custody, notwithstanding the challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Engagement and Intervention ModelEndnote iv (EIM) is a risk-based model intended to guide staff in both security and health activiies to prevent, respond to, and resolve incidents, using the most reasonable interventions. The ongoing education and promotion of the EIM, including developing intervention plans through a multi-disciplinary format, has promoted a more collaborative approach to resolving conflict with inmates in distress. This fiscal year, CSC began addressing identified gaps highlighted in the recently completed EIM evaluation. Training enhancements, in conjunction with policy revisions, will improve the safety and security of CSC institutions, while ensuring the EIM is implemented as expected.

Nationally, the rate of serious incidents per 1,000 offenders in custody was outside the national anticipated range of 20.5 - 21.4, with a rate of 26 this fiscal year; however, the rate has been decreasing over the last three years. The rates in the Atlantic, Quebec, and Prairie regions continued to decrease, and are the lowest they have been in the last three years. In contrast, the rates in the Ontario and Pacific regions both increased. In addition to impacts on the operational dynamics due to restrictions related to COVID-19, increased efforts to release lower risk offenders, and changes in the type and number of admissions over the past few years have resulted in a more complex incarcerated population, having increased offender needs, presenting higher risk, longer sentence lengths, lower reintegration potential, and increased security threat group involvement/affiliation.

The rate of transitions to higher security levels per 1,000 offenders also decreased compared to the previous fiscal year, and continued to be below the anticipated national range of 62.1 - 72.3, with a rate of 54.5 this fiscal year. This rate is the lowest in over five years. Results for both Indigenous (61.3) and non-Indigenous (51.2) were also below the anticipated national range this fiscal year. The COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies in place, such as restricted measures and limitations on mixing cohorts, may have slowed the rate of transition to higher security as inmates were spending less time in the open population, causing fewer incidents that typically result in an increase in security level. In addition, the Structured Intervention Units (SIUs), a fundamentally transformative approach for managing inmates who cannot be safely managed in a regular population, have now been operating for over two years, and provide an alternative institutional living environment.

The rate of transitions to lower security was slightly impacted by the pandemic given periods of inmate movement limitations, delays in transitions between institutions, and the inability to access Work Releases and Escorted Temporary Absences that help offenders gain credibility and reduce their security classification. In addition, reduced access to interventions due to measures outlined in the IRMF to curb the spread of COVID-19 infections within CSC facilities likely also impacted these results, as correctional program completion contributes to transitions to lower security. As such, the percentage of successful transitions to lower security (“successful” meaning if there is no reclassification to higher security within 120 days) remained the same as in the previous fiscal year at 92.7%, which is slightly below the national anticipated range of 94.6% - 95.1%. Of note, the gap between Indigenous offenders and non-Indigenous offenders was minimal (92.3% and 92.9%, respectively), and slightly lower for Black offenders at 91.3%.

The rate of critical drug-related incidents remained the same as in the previous year (.08), and continued to be below the national anticipated range of 0.35 - 0.42. This positive result may be attributed to staff’s continued efforts to address the risks of highly toxic substances within institutions that are more likely to result in overdoses. For example, CSC worked on educating and providing tools to both staff and inmates on the risks and management of highly toxic substances, including the wide availability and use of naloxone doses in cases of suspected overdoses, and other harm reduction methods.

As well, CSC uses a number of detection methods to prevent and reduce contraband from entering its institutions. These methods include baggage x-ray scanners, metal detectors, ION mobility scanners, detector dogs, and effective routine and non-routine searches, coupled with intelligence information. The Service also worked with law enforcement partners to gather and share intelligence to disrupt the supply and prevent the transfer of illicit drugs and contraband into its institutions, such as through the use of increasingly sophisticated aerial drones. In October 2021, the National Intercept Centre (NIC) was launched to provide national oversight, administration, and governance to centralized intercept activities, thereby reducing corporate risks while leveraging intelligence information obtained from intercepted communications.

As the Service continues to adapt to emerging security-related technologies in the evolving correctional environment, it enhanced its information technology (IT) security posture through the establishment of a more robust IT Security Operations capability, enabling CSC to adopt and leverage new IT abilities to meet the needs of staff and offenders. As well, a Cloud-based infrastructure and services were further enabled, which will reduce the time to market for new projects, and enable CSC to procure software systems that are business driven, increasing efficiencies in the long term.

During the reporting year, CSC continued to refine the implementation of SIUs across the country, building on a number of initiatives and responding to external oversight recommendations. The Service has made operational changes to ensure all reasonable alternatives are considered before transferring an inmate to an SIU, as well as initiated a review of the performance indicators to better track and report on the outcomes of the SIU model. Enhancements were also made to the SIU application to increase its functionality and ability to report on SIU operations with more accuracy and efficiency. As such, executive team members have better access to daily examine and analyze operational reports. These reports cover many topics including population management, past and future decisions, and interactions with offenders, allowing CSC to make more informed decisions based on operational data. Through monitoring trends and offers to inmates to engage in programming specific to their needs and to opportunities to be outside of their cell, management in SIUs adapts to maximize services to the inmates. The median number of days spent in an SIU increased this fiscal year (28 days in 2021-22, compared to 13 days in 2020-21) for various reasons, including the impacts of COVID-19 and strategies to work with SIU inmates. Significant efforts to reintegrate these inmates into mainstream populations are not always successful, nor enduring. Some inmates transferred out from an SIU continue to experience significant integration issues, resulting in multiple transfers to an SIU in some cases. A successful approach to assist inmates reluctant to leave the SIU or experiencing reintegration issues is to work with them on a longer basis through programming and interventions to achieve a viable and enduring transfer out of an SIU. Consequently, the percentage of successful transfers out of an SIU (considered successful if the inmate remained in mainstream population for a period of 120 days) positively increased from the previous year (66.4% in 2021-22 compared to 56.2% in 2020-21).

To increase options for time out of cell and meaningful human interaction with inmates housed in the SIUs, volunteers have been engaged virtually. While this initiative began with volunteers working with inmates in the SIU at Millhaven Institution, guidance documents were developed and provided to all sites to support implementation of the SIU Virtual Support program at additional sites. In addition, CSC, in collaboration with applicable unions, completed the SIU Social Program Officer (SPO) schedule review in order to maximize SPO support and opportunities for meaningful human contact for offenders in SIUs.

In June 2021, the Commissioner led an SIU consultation with over 30 organizations and individuals representing a broad range of perspectives, including academics, National Indigenous Organizations, ex-offenders, legal and mental health experts, and non-governmental organizations. Since its implementation, the total inmate population in SIUs has consistently remained around 1.5% of the total mainstream inmate population, which is less than approximately 180 inmates across the country on a daily basis. As at March 31, 2022, there were 158 inmates in SIUs nationally, while on the same date last fiscal year, there were 186 inmates. This decrease demonstrates CSC’s firm commitment to the successful implementation of the SIU model.

CSC health professionals work to enhance the mental health of individuals in their care, and provide quality, safe, and patient-centred care. Health Services worked towards the implementation of the new Person Health Care Home model, through the completion of population health profiles in one institution per region. To further explain, the Person Health Care Home model is a new primary health care model that will focus on the delivery of integrated health services and a holistic approach to patients' health care needs in CSC. Primary health care has been evolving and the evidence informed “Patient’s Medical Home,” (Person Health Care Home) is a model promoted by the College of Family Physicians of Canada, and is recognized by the World Health Organization as a model to achieve integrated health care. CSC Health Services began collaborating with a geriatrician to develop and deliver staff training and education on aging and health; this training will help to support staff in their approach to responding to the needs of older persons in custody. In addition, CSC initiated enhancements to the Peer Support Model by strengthening the content of its Peer Support training modules, which will include information on healthy aging and older persons in custody.

CSC is committed to the global Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) elimination targets set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) elimination targets set by the World Health Organization. CSC continues to make significant progress on these commitments. During this reporting year, CSC continued to exceed the target for the percentage of inmates with an HIV infection that are on treatment (99%) and percentage of inmates who completed HCV treatment that achieved sustained viral response (95%).

The percentage of individuals who received mental health treatment from those identified as having a mental health need increased slightly this fiscal year, compared to the previous year (85.5% and 83.3% respectively), but still fell below the national anticipated target of 90%. Results for this indicator were affected by the pandemic for a number of reasons, including health staff needing to assume different health responsibilities in the management of the pandemic (e.g., testing, wellness checks), impacts of a reduced footprint in the institutions, and the ongoing need to utilize ranges for medical isolation, as needed.

This fiscal year, the Service further strengthened the provision of integrated health services to those with mental health needs, particularly with the continued development training related to the Suicide Prevention Intervention Strategy. Additionally, the Self-Management and Recovery Training (SMART) Recovery program was implemented in 25 sites, which includes the enhancement of skills that support treatment for individuals with substance use disorders. Health Services continues to implement harm reduction services, including the Prison Needle Exchange Program (PNEP) and Overdose Prevention Service (OPS). The PNEP has been implemented at nine federal institutions, and the OPS has been implemented at Drumheller Institution. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, four additional sites were identified for implementation: two PNEP sites (Warkworth Institution and Bowden Institution) and two OPS sites (Springhill Institution and Collins Bay Institution). Although implementation of these programs at additional federal institutions across Canada was impacted by COVID-19, CSC is now preparing for implementation at additional sites across the country.

Of relevance, CSC is transitioning from the Regional Complex Mental Health Committee to the Regional Person Centered Health Committee. This change will support national information sharing on complex cases and trends in health service provision, as well as provide an effective continuum of care to patients in federal custody. Patients are those with complex health care needs, including individuals with a rating of considerable or higher on the Mental Health Need Scale who have spent 15 days in an SIU, and individuals who have engaged in serious self-injury or suicide attempt while in the SIU. The Mental Health Need Scale is a three-part scale used by or under the supervision of licensed mental health professionals to triage individuals, as well as to accompany referrals to higher levels of care and document changes in mental health need.

The Service strives to ensure that its policies, practices, and decisions respect and respond to complex situations, such as sexual coercion and violence (SCV). A zero-tolerance approach, for any form of violence in federal corrections, is consistent throughout CSC’s policy framework and is fundamental to its operations. CSC has taken a number of actions to understand, prevent, and address incidences of SCV in its institutions, including the drafting of a standalone policy (in its final stages to be promulgated), which establishes a zero tolerance strategy for preventing and responding to incidents of sexual assault and/or allegations of sexual assault towards offenders. In parallel, a new guideline was also drafted to provide direction for a health care response to sexual assaults of offenders.

CSC continued to implement the principles and vision of its Accommodation Plan 2020-2025 and its major projects. Examples are the options analysis and conceptual design of the National Training Academy and the Shepody Health Center of Excellence projects, as well as the changes to institutions to adapt CSC facilities to better accommodate Indigenous offenders, women offenders, and offenders with mental health needs.

The Class Actions Management Office (CAMO) was established to effectively support the implementation of the administrative segregation (Brazeau, Reddock and Gallone) claims administration process. As per the Distribution and Individual Issues Protocol set out by the Courts, CAMO worked collaboratively with the external claims administrator appointed by the Courts (Epiq), the class counsels, as well as the Department of Justice to ensure a successful launch of the claims period. To ensure CSC met its legal obligations, various procedures and tools were implemented to disseminate the information on the claims process to potential claimants and provide them with the necessary support to exercise their right in submitting a claim. CAMO also continued to invest significant efforts in the area of information disclosure to the administrator to ensure the processing of the individual claims.

With respect to food services, CSC mandated a 60-day food inventory at all sites, and a Standing Offer for the provision of pre-packed meals was put in place. As well, the Service continued to follow the National menu and the per diem rate, even with challenges related to the increased pressure on the food supply chain and the inflation on food items. It is expected that going forward, the Service will continue to feel the effects of ongoing supply chain disruptions due to COVID-19, labour market challenges, and high inflation.

United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals

CSC implemented its 2020-23 Sustainable Development StrategyEndnote v and achieved eight of its 24 commitments. Specifically, LED lighting installation at Joyceville Institution (target 6), completion of food loss and waste analysis of three operational units (target 17), and the publication of the Commissioner’s Directive on Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development on April 4, 2022 (target 23). Many of the sustainable development strategy targets and commitments were delayed over the past year due to conflicting priorities and restrictions related to COVID-19.

Results achieved

The following table shows, for Core Responsibility 1: Care and Custody, the results achieved, the performance indicators, the targets and the target dates for 2021-22, and the actual results for the three most recent fiscal years for which actual results are available.

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2019-20 actual results 2020-21 actual results 2021-22 actual results
Institutions are safe and secure Rate of non-natural and undetermined offender deaths in custody per 1,000 incarcerated offenders (Objective: Zero) Footnote 2 1.03 - 1.27 2022-03-31 1.75 1.21 1.78
Rate of escapes from federal correctional institutions and Section 81 Healing Lodges per 1,000 offenders (Objective: Zero)Footnote 3 0.90 - 1.10 2022-03-31 0.87 0.89 0.32
Rate of serious incidents per 1,000 offenders in federal custody 20.5 - 21.4 2022-03-31 31.4 27.4 26.0
Inmates are managed in a humane manner Percentage of newly admitted offenders receiving health assessments at intake 95% - 100% 2022-03-31 97.2% 93.6% 95.5%
Of the inmates identified as having a mental health need, the percentage who received mental health treatment Footnote 4 90% 2022-03-31 84.8% 83.3% 85.5%
Rate of upheld inmate grievances Footnote 5 per 1,000 offenders in federal custody 63.3 - 72.3 2022-03-31 52.0 46.3 44.0
Maintain Health Services Accreditation Maintain Accreditation 2022-03-31 Accredited Accredited Accredited
Median number of days spent in a structured intervention unit (SIU) within the fiscal year Not available Footnote 6 2022-03-31 9 Footnote 7 13 28
Percentage of successful transfers out of a structured intervention unit (SIU) within the fiscal year (successful if the inmate remains in general population for a period of 120 days) Not available Footnote 8 2022-03-31 33.3% Footnote 9 56.2% 66.4%

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program InventoryEndnote vi is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote vii

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)

The following table shows, for Core Responsibility 1: Care and Custody, budgetary spending for 2021-22, as well as actual spending for that year.

2021-22 Main Estimates 2021-22 planned spending 2021-22 total authorities available for use 2021-22 actual spending (authorities used) 2021-22 difference (actual spending minus planned spending)
1,790,490,230 1,799,685,523 2,127,287,118 1,862,657,518 62,971,995

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote viii is available in GC InfoBase.Endnote ix

Human resources (full-time equivalents)

The following table shows, in full-time equivalents, the human resources the department needed to fulfill this core responsibility for 2021-22.

2021-22 planned full-time equivalents 2020-21 Actual full-time equivalents 2021-22 difference (actual full-time equivalents minus planned full‑time equivalents)
10,975 10,715 -260

The variance of $327.6 million between the total authorities available for use and the planned spending is mainly due to in-year increases in authorities and internal budget adjustments between programs:

Taking into consideration the above requirements, Care and Custody's authorities available for use were $2,127.3 million and the variance with the actual spending was $264.6 million, which was made available in the calculation of the carry forward to 2022-23.

The above variance analysis also explains the major variances at the program level under Core Responsibility 1.0 Care and Custody. The variance of -260 full time equivalents is mainly due to recruiting challenges continued into fiscal year 2021-22 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular the delay in CSC’s Correctional Officer recruitment and onboarding efforts given community restrictions for in-person learning.

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote x is available in GC InfoBase.Endnote xi

Core responsibility 2: Correctional Interventions

Description

CSC conducts assessment activities and program interventions to support federal offenders’ rehabilitation and facilitate their reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens. CSC also engages Canadian citizens as partners in its correctional mandate, and provides services to victims of crime.

Results

CSC manages and responds to the unique needs of a diverse offender population, underscoring the importance of exploring and understanding the correctional experiences of offenders from various backgrounds. Given the challenges posed on CSC operations, adjustments to program delivery were necessary to reduce the rates of COVID-19 transmission, particularly within a congregate living environment, such as program and training rooms, and practices and procedures evolved to maximize efficiencies. As such, the Service continued to monitor and update its IRMF, in collaboration with national, provincial and local public health authorities, labour partners, and external stakeholders. In February 2022, CSC released an interim version of the IRMF specific to correctional programs that allowed for more flexibility with respect to operational measures, resulting in an increased capacity for correctional program delivery within institutions.

While correctional program results were impacted by pandemic-related challenges, improvements in these performance indicators are anticipated over time as adapted operations continue to evolve. The following bullets outline some correctional programming performance results.

One of the mitigation strategies put in place for offenders who may be released without completing their required programming in an institution is to ensure the Community Program (CP) is available. This program has been designed specifically for those offenders who are released without having participated in the program as per their correctional plan. In a recent evaluation of the CP, findings indicated that those who completed the CP experienced significant reductions in the likelihood of being returned to custody, either for any reason or for a new offence, relative to offenders who did not complete the CP and eligible non-participants. The evaluation found that CP effectiveness was comparable for White offenders, Black offenders, Indigenous offenders, and other Ethnocultural offenders.

CSC also continued the implementation of various mitigation strategies in an effort to improve any potential correctional program delays, including the implementation of an interim measures approach to deliver programs to offenders remotely. For example, CSC implemented remote delivery trials in the Quebec, Ontario, and Pacific regions providing a unique opportunity to assess the technological capacities in the institutions and in the community In addition to the remote delivery trials, CSC has undertaken a Virtual Correctional Program Delivery (VCPD) project to explore ways to establish sustainable, virtual approach to deliver correctional programs. Lessons learned from the virtual correctional program delivery trials will provide the VCPD project with important information on delivery implications, technology requirements and limitations.

In 2021-22, CSC continued to make significant strides towards enhancing the national Social Programs portfolio. Of note, three training sessions of the integrated Train-the-Trainer on the revised Community Integration Program (CIP), the Structured Intervention Unit (SIU) Social Program, and the Social Integration Program for Women (SIPW) were delivered to Regional Program Managers in fall 2021. Parallel efforts were also undertaken to integrate the initial training on CIP, as well as the SIU Social Program, into CSC’s National Training Standards. Further, the Case Management for Primary Workers training that is designed for staff employed at women offender institutions was updated to focus on building foundational knowledge and skill-based applications of case management, including a new section on Indigenous women offenders. As well, initial training sessions for the Women Offender Correctional Program and Indigenous Women Offender Correctional Program were provided to Correctional Program Officers in women’s institutions.

The percentage of offenders enrolled in the SIPW was maintained this fiscal year, from 97.6% in 2020-21 to 97.2% in 2021-22. Each woman offender participates in the intake session module in order to understand the process for getting their identification ready, and to have an understanding of what institutional resources are available to them. The remaining four modules and the planning session of the SIPW are given closer to the offender’s release.

A national consultation provided inmates with the opportunity to submit feedback on the development of a draft accessibility plan. The plan will support increased accessibility in offender programs and services, in accordance with the Accessible Canada Act.

The Service provides offenders with education programs that aim to enhance their literacy, as well as academic and personal development skills needed for safe reintegration into the community. The capacity to deliver education programs within institutions was impacted by the pandemic, and the resumption of group program delivery varied based on local rates of community COVID-19 transmission. Amidst operational restrictions, teachers continued to meet offenders’ educational needs by using alternative methods and by focusing on independent studies outside the traditional classroom. The percentage of education referrals actioned within 120 days after admission saw an improvement this fiscal year, from 63.5% in 2020-21 to 68.0% in 2021-22. However, the percentage of offenders with an identified need for educational upgrading who received the upgrade fell below the national anticipated range; results for 2021-22 increased by 1.9% compared to the previous year.

The Digital Education Project (DEP) pilot was implemented in November 2020 in the Ontario region, at Bath Institution, and has since expanded to Grand Valley Institution and Joyceville Minimum Institution. The aim of the project is to provide an opportunity for CSC to innovate in the area of computer-assisted learning in a controlled manner, and to offer opportunities for offenders to gain the computer skills needed to increase literacy levels. Approximately 100 course completions were obtained through the pilot. In addition to the initial courses (grade 11 and 12 Math and English), many additional courses and materials were integrated into the platform, reaching more offenders with learning difficulties, mental health challenges, and diversity and inclusion needs. With this project, teachers are able to enhance offenders’ individualized learning plans and education pathways in an effective manner. In partnership with CORCAN, vocational training courses have also been added to the platform.

In addition, the Ontario region and CORCAN partnered with the St. Lawrence College to provide micro-credential courses as a pilot, with a total of 20 inmates successfully completing the courses in Fleet Management and Logistics. CSC continued to collaborate with local universities and colleges to increase post-secondary education for offenders through the Walls to Bridges program and the Inside Out program.

To raise a victim’s awareness of the services CSC provides to victims and survivors of crime, particularly among Black, Indigenous, and other racialized communities, a three-year Outreach Strategy was developed in all regions for 2021-22 to 2024-25. The strategy provides an overall strategic vision and national framework for reaching and communicating with victims, and the many victim service providers and victim advocacy organizations that work with them. As part of this strategy, CSC facilitated discussions with the Indigenous Justice Program at the Department of Justice to request assistance in disseminating information to First Nations communities through their networks across Canada.

While access to many institutions was reduced during COVID-19, Chaplains were able to conduct some of their work at regional headquarters and parole offices. These accommodations provided greater opportunity for connections with inmates in closed areas of the institutions, as well as with faith community support people in the community. CSC Chaplaincy services continued to facilitate engagement between the national supplier and the Interfaith Committee (IFC) to help fulfill the IFC’s advisory role within CSC, and to foster collaboration and information sharing. CSC dialogued with underserved and racialized communities, and engaged in services to develop culturally-appropriate faith-based responses to the reintegration needs of racialized offenders.

This fiscal year, the National Indigenous Plan continued to support the operations of the Indigenous Intervention Centres (IIC). Seven IICs are now operating at men’s institutions, and the interventions were available at all women’s sites. As well, CSC worked on the interactive statistical report (nearing completion), which allows employees and others to view and interact with the report, enabling them to identify trends, analyze disaggregated data, and monitor results over time, strengthening performance monitoring. The IIC model continued to produce positive results. Overall, the 2021-22 results reflect that Indigenous offenders at an IIC tended to achieve better results compared to the overall Indigenous population at CSC, indicating that the National Indigenous Plan is contributing to improved outcomes for Indigenous offenders. For example, at the end of the reporting year, 71.4% of Indigenous offenders at an IIC with an identified need for a national recognized correctional program completed programming prior to first release, compared to 60.7% of the overall Indigenous offender population. Indigenous offenders at an IIC had a higher percentage of discretionary releases, compared to the overall Indigenous offender population (52.4% versus 36.0%). As well, 59.6% of IIC participants reached sentence expiry date without re-admission, compared to 45.3% of the overall Indigenous offender population.

The COVID-19 pandemic, and CSC’s efforts to limit its spread, presented population management challenges that impacted the Pathways initiative, resulting in the program not operating to its potential, and leading to fewer successful departures. The percentage of Indigenous offenders who were granted a discretionary release at the time of their first release was 36.0% this fiscal year, compared to 38.5% in the previous year. Although within the national anticipated range, the percentage was considerably lower than the national performance result at 48.8% for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous offenders.

There was an increase this fiscal year in the percentage of offenders with an established Corrections and Conditional Release Act section 84 release plan prior to first release, being 41.1% this fiscal year compared to 32.2% in the previous year. CSC is committed to supporting the rehabilitation and safe reintegration of Indigenous offenders into the community in a manner that is culturally-responsive and inclusive of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit communities. The Service explored opportunities to strengthen horizontal collaboration and to establish a more forward posture at whole of government tables to better address socio-economic drivers of reintegration success, including housing, health and education, which were emphasized by the Executive Committee Sub-committee on Indigenous Corrections as priorities moving forward. As well, virtual meetings were facilitated with the National Indigenous Advisory Committee and the National Elders Working Group to ensure ongoing communication with Indigenous leaders regarding culturally-situated advice for CSC initiatives and programs. In December 2021, CSC’s Indigenous Initiatives Directorate led a discussion with stakeholders on the Elder, Spiritual Advisor, and Elder Helpers’ contracting guidelines to identify opportunities for enhancement, increased support, and the adoption of key pretransfer les in acquiring these contracts. Further discussions addressed ongoing challenges associated with the Pathways Initiative, Section 84 releases, the Criminal Risk Index, the recruitment and retention of Indigenous employees, and support for Elders.

The Secure Certificate of Indian Status (SCIS) Working Group, which includes representatives from CSC and Indigenous Services Canada (ISC), developed an adapted registration process that allows CSC staff to facilitate the intake of SCIS applications for eligible federal offenders. The SCIS aims to assist discharged eligible status First Nations offenders with access to services and programs, including housing and education, as well as coverage for health benefits not covered through other social programs, private insurance plans and/or provincial or territorial health insurance. The Service continued to meet regularly to ensure the implementation and coordination of the initiative in each region.

As part of an integrated approach to the discharge planning process, Health Services participated in an interdepartmental Housing Working Group with CSC and its ISC counterparts to explore opportunities for collaboration and potential housing arrangements/strategies for Indigenous federal offenders. Group discussion and information exchange took place, which will inform the development of a demonstration project in the Prairie, Ontario and Quebec regions, with the aim of enhancing the understanding and strengthening of the discharge and community reintegration processes for Indigenous individuals.

Low bed occupancy at Section 81 Healing Lodges continued to persist for CSC this fiscal year due to reduced transfers, mainly as a result of impacts from COVID-19. As a mitigation strategy, bi-monthly meeting conferences with Healing Lodge Directors occurred to address gaps, and ensure regional responsiveness and support, as well as continued collaboration with Section 81 partner organizations to explore options so that Section 81 Healing Lodges remained viable, even when bed occupancy was low.

CSC contributed to the Government of Canada’s Federal Pathway to Address Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women, Girls (MMIWG) and 2SLGBTQQIA+ People Endnote xii with initiatives to address the MMIWG Calls for Justice. Endnote xiii For instance, initiatives include the exploration of expanded accommodation options such as Section 81 Healing Lodge capacity, and, in collaboration with academic experts and Indigenous groups, research on security assessment tools to ensure that they consider Indigenous cultures.

In 2021-22, CSC launched the Ethnocultural Action Framework (EAF) to enhance organizational capacity to respond with agility and inclusivity to the needs of ethnocultural offenders, as well as foster cohesion, consistency, and collaboration at all levels of the organization. As part of the EAF, CSC identified over 60 staff members to perform the role of Ethnocultural Site Coordinator, who provide key support to ethnocultural offenders at the site level.

In addition, to ensure that institutional libraries can continue to offer current reading material to offenders, CSC undertook the modernization of institutional library catalogues by facilitating a significant number of donations from community organizations and members of the public. As part of this effort, CSC was able to strengthen its relationships with community partners, as well as actively promote the donation of audiobooks and French-language books.

This reporting year, CORCAN participated in a National Housing Strategy Solutions Lab hosted by The John Howard Society (JHS) and Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) entitled From Prison to Homelessness: Ending a Perilous Trajectory. Endnote xiv The lab looked into solutions for homelessness, in particular those connected to individuals being released from incarceration.

Good news stories

In the Atlantic region, CORCAN partnered with New Boots, which is a provincial network and resource hub that aims to promote, support, and mentor women in non traditional skill trades. Also, an Indigenous bike repair program was developed at the St. John’s Parole office at the St. John’s Parole office.

In the Quebec region, CORCAN, in collaboration with Indigenous Initiatives Directorate and the Health Services Sector, made community garden boxes for residents of the Community Correctional Centre - Martineau.

In the Ontario region, through the CORCAN program at Grand Valley Institution (an institution for women), the offenders completed two raised garden beds for donation to a non-profit organization in Ottawa.

In the Prairie Region, the Dumont Technical Institution, which is a Métis educational institution, offered Wildfire Training to offenders, including those who may return to remote or northern communities.

In the Pacific region, the National Employment Skills Program for Indigenous offenders was adapted and delivered to small groups of offenders to better meet the needs of a population with high mental health needs.

Employment and employability programs and services are continually reviewed to ensure the needs of offenders are met in an ever-changing environment, which includes a particular focus on the needs of women, Indigenous and ethnocultural offenders, as well as offenders with mental health needs. The percentage of employable time spent employed for offenders under community supervision saw a positive increase this fiscal year, from 62.9% in 2020-21 to 69.0% in 2021-22, which is above the national anticipated range of 63.2% - 66.3%. This positive performance result demonstrates that the efforts made pre-pandemic to improve the continuum of interventions and services for employment and employability with the community population through partnerships and increased collaboration, as well as strategic activities to mitigate challenges during the pandemic, succeeded and are a foundation for an upward trend.

Notwithstanding that a majority of vocational training is delivered by third parties that had more limited access to offenders since the onset of COVID-19, there was an increase in vocational and on-the-job training delivered this fiscal year through CORCAN-operated training sites as well as alternate methods and collaborative work with operational sites. With regard to the penitentiary agriculture program, there were 62 third party certificates for vocational training issued to offenders directly related to the construction industry as a result of their work on farm projects. In addition, cattle operations have continued to be part of the program, with both dairy and beef herds at the sites. Through the agriculture program, offenders learned on-the-job skills related to care of livestock, including milking cattle and calving, crop and maple syrup production, bee keeping, and forestry management.

The Service has approximately 4,000 registered volunteers across the country who play an important role in the organization by providing support to institutional programs and to offenders in the community. During the pandemic, volunteers found innovative ways to interact with offenders, both virtually and in-person. In addition, approximately 300 volunteers across Canada participate in Citizen’s Advisory Committees (CAC), which foster positive relationships with the community and enhance the effectiveness of the Service. These committees are attached to almost all community parole offices and institutions, through which members interact with offenders, staff, managers, and the public.

Results achieved

The following table shows, for Core Responsibility 2: Correctional Interventions, the results achieved, the performance indicators, the targets and the target dates for 2021-22, and the actual results for the three most recent fiscal years for which actual results are available.

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2019-20 actual results 2020-21 actual results 2021-22 actual results
Offenders are prepared for their release from CSC's jurisdiction as law-abiding citizens Percentage of successful transitions to lower security (successful if no reclassification to higher security within 120 days) 94.6% - 95.1% 2022-03-31 95.0% 92.7% 92.7%
Percentage of successful Indigenous offender transitions to lower security (successful if no reclassification to higher security within 120 days) 94.1% - 94.6% 2022-03-31 95.1% 93.2% 92.3%
Median percentage of sentence served prior to first release, for offenders with moderate or high reintegration potential 43.9% - 53.0% 2022-03-31 42.2% 45.1% 49.3%
Percentage of Indigenous offenders who were granted a discretionary release at the time of their first release Footnote 10 27.9% - 39.1% 2022-03-31 40.1% 38.5% 36.0%
Of the offenders with an identified need for a nationally recognized correctional program, the percentage who complete prior to first release Footnote 11 84.7% - 87.6% 2022-03-31 77.7% 69.1% 68.0%
Of the offenders with an identified need for an upgrade to their education, the percentage who upgrade prior to first release 65.7% - 67.1% 2022-03-31 68.5% 57.7% 59.6%
Of the offenders with an identified need for vocational training (labour market skills), the percentage who complete prior to first release 60.6% - 65.6% 2022-03-31 65.7% 61.3% 57.6%
Of the offenders with an identified need for employment in the community, the percentage who secure such employment prior to sentence expiry date 75.2% - 77.1% 2022-03-31 75.8% 72.9% 74.6%
Of the offenders with an identified need for a nationally recognized correctional program, the percentage who complete prior to sentence expiry date 84.9% - 89.2% 2022-03-31 80.1% 78.4% 73.4%
Of the Indigenous offenders who identify an interest in following a traditional healing path, the percentage who receive an Elder Review (Elder reviews are required as part of a traditional healing path) 94.7% - 95.9% 2022-03-31 91.1% 91.8% 92.7%
The percentage of offenders who, five years after the end of their sentence, have not been readmitted to federal custody 83.8% - 85.1% 2022-03-31 85.4% 87.5% 87.9%

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xv is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xvi

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)

The following table shows, for Core Responsibility 2: Correctional Interventions, budgetary spending for 2021-22, as well as actual spending for that year.

2021-22 Main Estimates 2021-22 planned spending 2021-22 total authorities available for use 2021-22 actual spending (authorities used) 2021-22 difference (actual spending minus planned spending)
458,676,315 461,582,718 489,035,130 474,630,158 13,047,440

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xvii is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xviii

Human resources (full-time equivalents)

The following table shows, in full-time equivalents, the human resources the department needed to fulfill this core responsibility for 2021-22.

2021-22 planned full-time equivalents 2020-21 Actual full-time equivalents 2021-22 difference (actual full-time equivalents minus planned full‑time equivalents)
4,322 4,310 -12

The variance of $27.4 million between the total authorities available for use and the planned spending is mainly due to in-year increases in authorities and internal budget adjustments between programs:

Taking into consideration the above requirements, Correctional Interventions' authorities available for use were $489.0 million and the variance with the actual spending was $14.4 million, which was made available in the calculation of the carry forward to 2022-23.

The above variance analysis also explains the major variances at the program level under Core Responsibility 2.0 Correctional Interventions.

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xix is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xx

Core responsibility 3: Community Supervision

Description

CSC supervises offenders i n the community and provides structure and services to support their safe and successful reintegration into the community. Services include accommodation options, community health services, and the establishment of community partnerships. CSC manages offenders on parole, statutory release, and long-term supervision orders.

Results

Most of Canada’s federal offenders serve part of their sentences in institutions, and the rest of their time is served in the community, where they must abide by certain conditions and are supervised by parole officers. The average offenders in the community in 2021-22 was 8,853. This average decreased from fiscal year 2020-21 (9,421). A number of variables impacted the number of offenders in the community, including the overall number of federal offenders, sentence length, and release eligibility. Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, CSC adapted quickly through various measures and adjusted its case management and supervision practices, with the paramount consideration for public safety. As the pandemic evolved, the IRMF was regularly reviewed and adjusted in terms of staff presence and daily supervision activities to maintain CSC’s operations in the community. For the third consecutive year, successful reintegration outcomes Footnote 12 have surpassed the national target and have increased from 85.4% in 2019-20 to 87.9% in 2021-22.

The Electronic Monitoring Research Pilot (EMRP) was implemented in 2015 as a means to better understand how electronic monitoring could enhance community supervision and public safety. During the EMRP, the number of cases increased gradually, with a more notable upward trend over fiscal year 2020-21, in part due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the introduction of a new EM device. This fiscal year, the number of cases peaked at 286 cases, but have since stabilized to approximately 180.

The pandemic significantly impacted community accommodation services as service providers were required to address public health risks associated with congregate living environments, for example, dealing with a lower number of available beds. However, the number of releases on community supervision is slowly returning to pre-COVID numbers. Specific to the residency population, the proportion of offenders in the community under a legislated release (statutory release or long-term supervision order) with a residency condition is increasing, while the proportion of offenders on day parole is decreasing. This means that the residency population may be more high risk and high needs, and as such, presenting different challenges. As a means to mitigate this situation and to ensure a national uniformity, CSC completed a comprehensive review of the role and responsibilities of Commissionaires in Community Correctional Centres (CCC). The national Statement of Work was endorsed and provides clear expectations for the Commissionaires who will be involved in dynamic security and the monitoring of activities, thus contributing to risk management and the provision of a safe environment for all.

Furthermore, CSC continued to work closely with partners to examine new ways to support offender accommodation outside of the traditional capacity increases. As a result, the Service has seen an increase in proposals from partners and the districts to convert existing bed profiles into specialized beds to meet the needs of vulnerable populations, such as aging offenders and those with complex health/mental health issues. All proposals to re-profile beds were supported at the national level.

The Offender Accommodation Management (OAM) System is an automated tool used to better respond to the changing and increasing demand for offender accommodation in the community, by using case management best practices. Operational and technical updates were made to the OAM system throughout the fiscal year, including improvements to ensure it remains an effective and efficient system in documenting community accommodation information and in invoice reconciliation between CSC and the Community-Based Residential Facilities (CBRFs).

The conduct of a national consultation on the Community Residential Facility (CRF) and Treatment Centre (TC) Statements of Work (SoW) ran parallel to the review on the national per diem funding framework given the active and ongoing engagement with partners in the regions. Of note, the consultation mainly focused on the CRF and TC SoWs due to their highly structured facilities.

The continued implementation of updated discharge and planning guidelines includes the assignment of an interdisciplinary coordinating healthcare team to meet the needs of individuals identified with complex physical and/or mental health conditions. These amendments ensure continuity of care for individuals being released to the community through appropriate discharge planning. They emphasize a person-centred approach to discharges and transfers, promoting continuity of care, timely access to services, effective communication and coordination of care and consistent service delivery. As well, a pilot project at the Edmonton Institution for Women, focusing on the effective interdisciplinary management of complex cases, was undertaken with the expectation that such an approach positively applies to all women offender institutions.

Results achieved

The following table shows, for Core Responsibility 3: Community Supervision, the results achieved, the performance indicators, the targets and the target dates for 2021-22, and the actual results for the three most recent fiscal years for which actual results are available.

Departmental results Performance indicators Target Date to achieve target 2019-20 actual results 2020-21 actual results 2021-22 actual results
Offenders are law-abiding citizens while under community supervision Percentage of offenders on conditional release successfully reaching sentence expiry date without re-admission (no revocation, charge or conviction) 55.9% - 59.9% 2022-03-31 60.5% 61.6% 60.9%
Rate of convictions on supervision for serious or violent offences, per 1,000 offenders 23.4 - 26.6 2022-03-31 28.8 23.6 22.1
Rate of convictions on supervision for offences resulting in death, per 1,000 offenders (Objective: Zero) 0.54 - 0.64 2022-03-31 0.32 0.77 0.35
The percentage of offenders with a completed review of their health care needs prior to release Footnote 13 95% 2022-03-31 83.5% 87.0% 83.6%
Percentage of employable time spent employed, for offenders under community supervision 63.2% - 66.3% 2022-03-31 67.9% 62.9% 69.0%
Percentage of offenders with a residency requirement successfully transitioning out of residency (no revocation, charge or conviction) 60.2% - 62.6% 2022-03-31 59.8% 62.5% 59.6%

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xxi is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xxii

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)

The following table shows, for Core Responsibility 3: Community Supervision, budgetary spending for 2021-22, as well as actual spending for that year.

2021-22 Main Estimates 2021-22 planned spending 2021-22 total authorities available for use 2021-22 actual spending (authorities used) 2021-22 difference (actual spending minus planned spending)
171,828,261 172,015,943 182,277,085 175,810,644 3,794,701

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xxiii is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xxiv

Human resources (full-time equivalents)

The following table shows, in full-time equivalents, the human resources the department needed to fulfill this core responsibility for 2021-22.

2021-22 planned full-time equivalents 2020-21 Actual full-time equivalents 2021-22 difference (actual full-time equivalents minus planned full‑time equivalents)
237 234 -3

The variance of $10.3 million between the total authorities available for use and the planned spending is mainly due to in-year increases in authorities and internal budget adjustments between programs:

Taking into consideration the above requirements, Community Supervision's authorities available for use were $182.3 million and the variance with the actual spending was $6.5 million, which was made available in the calculation of the carry forward to 2022-23.

The above variance analysis also explains the major variances at the program level under Core Responsibility 3.0 Community Supervision.

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xxv is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xxvi

Internal Services

Description

Internal Services are those groups of related activities and resources that the Federal Government considers to be services in support of programs and/or required to meet corporate obligations of an organization. Internal Services refers to the activities and resources of ten distinct services that support program delivery in the organization, regardless of the Internal Services delivery model in a department. These services are:

Results

CSC is determined to take the necessary steps to ensure staff have the positive and supportive work environment they deserve that is worthy of their dedication and professionalism. Communications products are shared regularly with employees to raise awareness and promote respect, wellness, and mental health. This fiscal year, the Respectful Workplace Campaign’s objectives were incorporated in the National Comprehensive Strategy on Workplace Wellness and Employee Wellbeing.

CSC offered leadership development opportunities for all four employment equity groups via the Treasury Board Secretariat Executive Leadership Development Program. The Service is also adjusting its existing mentorship program to make it more accessible to staff, and developing a new sponsorship program.

The New Employee Orientation Program (NEOP) is a blended training program that provides new employees with knowledge and skill requirements to work at CSC. Values and ethics training continued to be included in the NEOP, and this fiscal year, three Train-the-Trainer sessions were delivered.

The Service continued to implement the Strategic Plan for Human Management 2019-2020 to 2021-2022, which identifies people management priorities and serves as a framework for regional and sector human resources plan. The Strategic Plan aligns with and responds to internal and external reporting mechanisms, such as the Public Service Employee Survey, and further integrates employment equity and official languages action plans. For example, according to the 2020 PSES results for employees in bilingual regions, most of CSC’s employees (92%) indicated that the tools they used are provided in the official language of their choice.

In 2021-22, CSC conducted a National Employment Equity Survey of women employees and six virtual town halls, which completed a series of four employment equity group consultations led by the Commissioner. The purpose of the women’s survey and the town halls was to receive feedback on four key areas: safe work environment, discrimination, work-life balance, and professional development.

CSC completed its ethical risk assessment, which is a national initiative conducted in work units that resulted in site-specific action plans to foster healthy work environments and promote team wellness. As well, CSC engaged with key partners identified in the Anti-Racism Framework to advance CSC’s goal of creating an anti-racist organization that is more inclusive, diverse, and free of racism, while raising awareness amongst staff, offenders, and stakeholders.

The Service also provided awareness and training sessions, and published communications promoting tools and services related to preventing and managing conflict. Informal conflict resolution services, such as facilitated discussion and coaching, were provided to employees and managers at all levels, which were also offered as an informal-resolution option under the new Workplace Harassment and Violence Prevention Policy.

CSC has begun building Accessibility requirements into evaluations for new application requests through the Software Development Lifecycle process. CSC has also started to evaluate existing applications, and will modernize them to ensure that they are accessible, when possible.

With an emphasis on digital technology and in an effort to advance initiatives in support of the Government of Canada’s Information Technology Modernization priorities, IMS completed migrating 125 business areas to GCDOCS to date, which represents a total of 93% of the 133 business areas. In response to the continuing pandemic and in collaboration with Shared Services Canada, IMS upgraded network links and improved VPN capabilities, which allowed staff to telework, as well as supported various CSC programs.

In the international context, this fiscal year, CSC finalized a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with The Bahamas Department of Correctional Services. The objective of this MOU is to facilitate an effective pathway for information and expertise sharing, along with the provision of technical assistance and training in the field of correctional services, exemplifying collaboration to improve public safety for all.

CSC’s Point of Sales (POS) supports the Inmate Owned Canteen’s processes by providing the necessary inventory management, sales, client, and financial modules to run a full canteen operation. Each institution is set up on its own independent network and manages its canteen operation independently. This fiscal year, the Service completed a Point of Sale system update, which allows offenders continued access to easily purchase canteen, health, and hygiene products, using authorization through hand scanning.

CSC’s Committee for Inmate Purchasing created an e-commerce agreement with Amazon Canada, and sought additional suppliers through a public notice posted on the Buy and Sell website. CSC staff were involved in developing the e-commerce agreement with Amazon Canada, and received training on the new process. In January 2022, CSC began implementing this new inmate purchasing process, which was fully implemented in all institutions across the country by March 1, 2022.

The Service continued to refit its National Capital Region buildings in-line with the new Government of Canada Workplace model, and piloted the consolidation of employees from certain floors in buildings into unassigned seats in other buildings. CSC’s post-COVID Committee for the workplace is tasked with looking at lessons-learned from the pandemic and adapting these lessons into future designs.

Contracting and Materiel Services (CMS) launched its targeted Asset Verification for fiscal year 2021-22, and this year’s exercise was based on a risk management approach validating asset records in the real property, fleet, firearms, IT equipment, and software categories. Over 52,000 assets were verified in this exercise. In support of the Asset Management National Monitoring Framework and in response to the targeted asset verification, CMS is currently developing a business process for monitoring activities to strengthen requirements, responsibilities, and the roles of those involved in and accountable for asset management monitoring.

As well, CMS engaged and worked with sectors with high-volume contract requirements to develop national procurement strategies, which included the proposal of the creation of dedicated resources within National Headquarters CMS to process their specific contract requirements at a national level. During this fiscal year, progress has been made in the staffing of CMS positions within the regions; however, there still remains challenges given that many employees are new to their position and require training and time to gain experience.

CSC values transparency with the public, staff, and inmates, including their families. CSC continued to educate internal audiences about COVID-19 and the measures in place to protect staff and offenders. The weekly Commissioner’s messages and educational material are posted to CSC’s Web site for stakeholders and families to view. The Service’s subject matter experts also provided numerous interviews with media outlets on a variety of topics to increase awareness on issues affecting offenders and communities.

Budgetary financial resources (dollars)

The following table shows, for internal services, budgetary spending for 2021–22, as well as spending for that year.

2021-22 Main Estimates 2021-22 planned spending 2021-22 total authorities available for use 2021-22 actual spending (authorities used) 2021-22 difference (actual spending minus planned spending)
372,680,589 374,529,517 450,429,739 396,824,933 22,295,416

Human resources (full-time equivalents)

The following table shows, in full-time equivalents, the human resources the department needed to carry out its internal services for 2021–22.

2021-22 planned full-time equivalents 2020-21 Actual full-time equivalents 2021-22 difference (actual full-time equivalents minus planned full‑time equivalents)
2,734 2,833 99

The variance of $75.9 million between the total authorities available for use and the planned spending is mainly due to in-year increases in authorities and internal budget adjustments between programs:

Taking into consideration the above requirements, Internal Services' authorities available for use were $450.4 million and the variance with the actual spending was $53.6 million, which was made available in the calculation of the carry forward to 2022-23.

The above variance analysis also explains the major variances at the program level under Internal Services.

Spending and human resources

Spending

Spending 2019–20 to 2024–25

The following graph presents planned (voted and statutory spending) over time.

Good news stories

The table shows details of CSC's planned spending in $ millions for fiscal years 2019-20, 2020-21, 2021-22, 2022-23, 2023-24 and 2024-25. In 2019-20, there was 229 million of spending on statutory and 2,424 million on voted for a total of 2,653 million. In 2020-21, there was 246 million of spending on statutory and 2,685 million on voted for a total 2,931 million. In 2021-22, there was 241 million of spending on statutory and 2,669 million on voted for a total of 2,910 million. In 2022-23, there will be 256 million of spending on statutory and 2,793 million on voted for a total of 3,049 million. In 2023-24, there will be 255 million of spending on statutory and 2,757 million on voted for a total of 3,012 million. In 2024-25, there will be 257 million of spending on statutory and 2,649 million on voted for a total of 2,906 million.

Budgetary performance summary for core responsibilities and internal services (dollars)

The “Budgetary performance summary for core responsibilities and internal services” table presents the budgetary financial resources allocated for CSC’s core responsibilities and for internal services.

Core responsibilities and internal services 2021-22 Main Estimates 2021-22 planned spending 2022-23 planned spending 2023-24 planned spending 2021-22 total authorities available for use 2019-20 actual spending (authorities used) 2020-21 actual spending (authorities used) 2021-22 actual spending (authorities used)
1.0 Care and Custody 1,790,490,230 1,799,685,523 1,986,742,750 1,962,344,512 2,127,287,118 1,669,389,184 1,875,093,281 1,862,657,518
2.0 Correctional Interventions 458,676,315 461,582,718 483,788,435 475,511,632 489,035,130 452,591,211 495,803,539 474,630,158
3.0 Community Supervision 171,828,261 172,015,943 174,420,226 172,278,255 182,277,085 173,361,655 172,006,751 175,810,644
Subtotal 2,420,994,806 2,433,284,184 2,644,951,411 2,610,134,399 2,798,599,333 2,295,342,050 2,542,903,571 2,513,098,320
Internal services 372,680,589 374,529,517 405,776,051 400,792,908 450,429,739 357,479,385 388,312,515 396,824,933
Total 2,793,675,395 2,807,813,701 3,050,727,462 3,010,927,307 3,249,029,072 2,652,821,435 2,931,216,086 2,909,923,253

For the fiscal year 2021-22, CSC’s actual spending exceeded planned spending by $102.1 million.

To fund the above variance, CSC’s total authorities available for use were increased by $441.2 million. Taking into consideration this increase, CSC’s total authorities available for use were $3,249.0 million and the variance with the actual spending was $339.1 million. Of this variance, a total of $77.4 million in operating and capital funds were requested to be reprofiled to future years and $164.5 million in operating and capital funds were carried forward to 2022-23.

The net increase in authority of $441.2 million is due to the following:

Carry forward amounts in the 2021-22 fiscal year were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Operating expenditures saw an increase as CSC did its part to prevent the spread of the virus and manage outbreaks at several institutions. Conversely, planned capital expenditures were not reached, as large capital projects were put on hold, as mandated by municipal and federal governments, in response to the pandemic. All unused funding was either requested for reprofile or has been made available in the carry-forward calculations to 2022-23.

2021-22 Budgetary actual gross spending summary (dollars)

The following table reconciles gross planned spending with net spending for 2021-22.

Core responsibilities and internal services 2021-22 actual gross spending 2021-22 actual revenues netted against expenditures 2021-22 actual net spending (authorities used)
Care and Custody 1,862,657,518 0 1,862,657,518
Correctional Interventions 571,619,055 96,988,897 474,630,158
Community Supervision 175,810,644 0 175,810,644
Subtotal 2,610,087,217 96,988,897 2,513,098,320
Internal services 400,463,854 3,638,921 396,824,933
Total 3,010,551,071 100,627,818 2,909,923,253

The revenues recorded under the Correctional Interventions Core responsibility are generated by the CORCAN Revolving Fund while the revenues recorded under Internal Services are from a vote-netted authority to provide internal support services to another government department in accordance with section 29.2 of the FAA.

Human resources

The “Human resources summary for core responsibilities and internal services” table presents the full-time equivalents (FTEs) allocated to each of CSC’s core responsibilities and to internal services.

Human resources summary for core responsibilities and internal services
Core responsibilities and internal services 2019–20 actual full‑time equivalents 2020–21 actual full‑time equivalents 2021–22 planned full-time equivalents 2021–22 actual full‑time equivalents 2022–23 planned full‑time equivalents 2023–24 planned full‑time equivalents
1.0 Care and Custody 10,343 10,576 10,975 10,715 11,049 11,006
2.0 Correctional Interventions 4,310 4,289 4,322 4,310 4,312 4,312
3.0 Community Supervision 231 230 237 234 235 235
Subtotal 14,884 15,095 15,534 15,259 15,596 15,553
Internal services 2,714 2,751 2,734 2,833 2,886 2,886
Total 17,598 17,846 18,268 18,092 18,482 18,439

The variance between planned and actual FTEs of 176 (less than 1%) is mostly explained by attrition and recruitment challenges as CSC continues to work to staff planned positions across the country. There were lower numbers of filled Correctional Officer positions, as the pandemic resulted in fewer Correctional Training Programs (CTP) being held than anticipated during the year. CSC is gradually resuming CTP offerings as the situation allows, given the applicable Public Health measures in place. Budget 2022 announced funding for preventing the spread of COVID-19 in Correctional Institutions for the financial year 2022-23. CSC will continue to work with central agencies to ensure that CSC’s financial resources are sufficient to ensure an effective response to COVID-19 in CSC’s institutions. Because of the unpredictable nature of the pandemic, these discussions could be ongoing beyond 2022-23.

Expenditures by vote

For information on CSC’s organizational voted and statutory expenditures, consult the Public Accounts of Canada 2021. Endnote xxvii

Government of Canada spending and activities

Information on the alignment of CSC’s spending with Government of Canada’s spending and activities is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xxviii

Financial statements and financial statements highlights

Financial statements

The Correctional Service of Canada’s financial statements (unaudited) for the year ended March 31, 2022, are available on the departmental website. Endnote xxix

Financial statement highlights

Condensed Statement of Operations (unaudited) for the year ended March 31, 2022 (dollars)

Financial information 2021-22 planned results 2021-22 actual results 2020-21 actual results Difference (2021-22 actual results minus 2021-22 planned results) Difference (2021-22 actual results minus 2020-21 actual results)
Total expenses 2,990,532,630 3,118,943,880 3,139,766,391 128,411,250 -20,822,511
Total revenues 51,110,888 42,941,395 43,291,391 -8,169,493 -349,996
Net cost of operations before government funding and transfers 2,939,421,742 3,076,002,485 3,096,475,000 136,580,743 -20,472,515

Over 90% of CSC’s total expenses are personnel costs, amortization, utilities, supplies and professional services. As reflected in the Consolidated Financial Statements, CSC’s total expenses decreased by $20.8 million compared to 2020-21 primarily due to a reduction in salary costs and claims against the Crown, offset by an increase in professional and special services and contingent liabilities.

CSC earns revenue through the sale of goods and services produced by the CORCAN Revolving Fund, a special operating agency within CSC established to aid in the safe reintegration of offenders into Canadian society by providing employment and training opportunities to offenders incarcerated in federal penitentiaries and, after they are released into the community. Total actual revenues were lower than the original 2021-22 planned results by $8.1 million as many of CORCAN's business lines continued to be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic situation throughout 2021-22. The value of this impact was challenging to forecast for 2021-22 and included a reduction in manufacturing output and construction project delays.

The Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations shows actual expenses of $3,119 million for 2021-22. The Care and Custody core responsibility represents $1,959 million (63%), the Correctional Interventions core responsibility represents $562 million (18%), Internal Services represent $413 million (13%) and the Community Supervision core responsibility represents $185 million (6%).

Condensed Coonsolidated Statement of operations

Internal services: 13%; Community supervision: 6%; Correctional interventions: 18%; Care & custody: 63%.

Condensed Statement of Financial Position (unaudited) as of March 31, 2022 (dollars)
Financial information 2021-22 2020-21 Difference (2021-22 minus 2020-21)
Total net liabilities 896,656,887 996,290,774 -99,633,887
Total net financial assets 397,384,322 509,042,874 -111,658,552
Departmental net debt 499,272,565 487,247,900 12,024,665
Total non-financial assets 2,403,360,727 2,401,619,547 1,741,180
Departmental net financial position 1,904,088,162 1,914,371,647 -10,283,485

The 2021-22 planned results information is provided in CSC’s Future-Oriented Statement of Operations and Notes 2021-22.Endnote xxx

For detailed financial information, refer to CSC's 2021-22 Consolidated Financial Statements.

CSC’s net liabilities include $720.3 million in accounts payable and accrued liabilities, $103.7 million in vacation pay and compensatory leave, $45.6 million in employee future benefits, $23.9 million in the inmate trust fund, $2.4 million in environmental liabilities and $0.8 million in deferred revenue. The decrease in total net liabilities is mainly explained by a decrease in the accrued liabilities for the retroactive pay accrued for in 2020-21 and paid in 2021-22 resulting from the new collective agreements.

The total net financial assets include $292.3 million in the amount Due from the Consolidated Revenue Fund, $91.6 million in accounts receivable, advances and loans and $14.6 million in inventory held for resale. The decrease in total net financial assets is mainly explained by a decrease in the amount Due from Consolidated Revenue Fund primarily caused by a decreased in accrued salaries and wages.

Corporate Information

Organizational profile

Appropriate minister[s]: The Honourable Marco E. L. Mendicino, P.C., M. P.

Institutional head: Anne Kelly, Commissioner

Ministerial portfolio: Public Safety

Enabling instrument[s]: Corrections and Conditional Release Act, Endnote xxxi S.C. 1992, c.20

Year of incorporation / commencement: 1979 (March 31)

Raison d’être, mandate and role: who we are and what we do

“Raison d’être, mandate and role: who we are and what we do” is available on CSC’s website.Endnote xxxii

For more information on the department’s organizational mandate letter commitments, see the Minister’s mandate letter.Endnote xxxiii

Operating context

Information on the operating context is available on CSC’s website.Endnote xxxiv

Reporting framework

CSC’s Departmental Results Framework and Program Inventory of record for 2021-22 are shown below.

Program Code Program(s) Name
Core Responsibility 1: Care and Custody
P1 Institutional Management and Support
P2 Preventive Security, Intelligence and Supervision
P3 Drug Enforcement
P4 Clinical Services and Public Health
P5 Mental Health Services
P6 Food Services
P7 Accommodation Services
Core Responsibility 2: Correctional Interventions
P8 Offender Case Management
P9 Community Engagement
P10 Chaplaincy
P11 Elder Services
P22 Correctional Programs
P15 Offender Education
P16 CORCAN Employment and Employability
P17 Social Program
Core Responsibility 3: Community Supervision
P18 Community Management and Security
P19 Community-Based Residential Facilities
P20 Community Correctional Centres
P21 Community Health Services
Internal Services

Supporting information on the program inventory

Financial, human resources and performance information for CSC’s Program Inventory Endnote xxxv is available in GC InfoBase. Endnote xxxvi

Supplementary information tables

The following supplementary information tables are available on CSC's website: Endnote xxxvii

Federal tax expenditures

The tax system can be used to achieve public policy objectives through the application of special measures such as low tax rates, exemptions, deductions, deferrals and credits. The Department of Finance Canada publishes cost estimates and projections for these measures each year in the Report on Federal Tax Expenditures. Endnote xlii This report also provides detailed background information on tax expenditures, including descriptions, objectives, historical information and references to related federal spending programs as well as evaluations and GBA Plus of tax expenditures.

Organizational contact information

Correctional Service of Canada websiteEndnote xliii
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P9

Phone: (613) 992-5891
Fax: (613) 943-1630

Appendix: definitions

appropriation (crédit)
Any authority of Parliament to pay money out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund.

budgetary expenditures (dépenses budgétaires)
Operating and capital expenditures; transfer payments to other levels of government, organizations or individuals; and payments to Crown corporations.

core responsibility (responsabilité essentielle)
An enduring function or role performed by a department. The intentions of the department with respect to a core responsibility are reflected in one or more related departmental results that the department seeks to contribute to or influence.

Departmental Plan (plan ministériel)
A report on the plans and expected performance of an appropriated department over a 3‑year period. Departmental Plans are usually tabled in Parliament each spring.

departmental priority (priorité)
A plan or project that a department has chosen to focus and report on during the planning period. Priorities represent the things that are most important or what must be done first to support the achievement of the desired departmental results.

departmental result (résultat ministériel)
A consequence or outcome that a department seeks to achieve. A departmental result is often outside departments’ immediate control, but it should be influenced by program-level outcomes.

departmental result indicator (indicateur de résultat ministériel)
A quantitative measure of progress on a departmental result.

departmental results framework (cadre ministériel des résultats)
A framework that connects the department’s core responsibilities to its departmental results and departmental result indicators.

Departmental Results Report (rapport sur les résultats ministériels)
A report on a department’s actual accomplishments against the plans, priorities and expected results set out in the corresponding Departmental Plan.

full‑time equivalent (équivalent temps plein)
A measure of the extent to which an employee represents a full person‑year charge against a departmental budget. For a particular position, the full‑time equivalent figure is the ratio of number of hours the person actually works divided by the standard number of hours set out in the person’s collective agreement.

gender-based analysis plus (GBA Plus) (analyse comparative entre les sexes plus [ACS Plus])
An analytical tool used to support the development of responsive and inclusive policies, programs and other initiatives; and understand how factors such as sex, race, national and ethnic origin, Indigenous origin or identity, age, sexual orientation, socio-economic conditions, geography, culture and disability, impact experiences and outcomes, and can affect access to and experience of government programs.

government-wide priorities (priorités pangouvernementales)
For the purpose of the 2022 to 23 Departmental Results Report, government-wide priorities are the high-level themes outlining the government’s agenda in the November 23, 2021, Speech from the Throne: building a healthier today and tomorrow; growing a more resilient economy; bolder climate action; fighter harder for safer communities; standing up for diversity and inclusion; moving faster on the path to reconciliation; and fighting for a secure, just and equitable world.

horizontal initiative (initiative horizontale)
An initiative where two or more federal organizations are given funding to pursue a shared outcome, often linked to a government priority.

non‑budgetary expenditures (dépenses non budgétaires)
Net outlays and receipts related to loans, investments and advances, which change the composition of the financial assets of the Government of Canada.

performance (rendement)
What an organization did with its resources to achieve its results, how well those results compare to what the organization intended to achieve, and how well lessons learned have been identified.

performance indicator (indicateur de rendement)
A qualitative or quantitative means of measuring an output or outcome, with the intention of gauging the performance of an organization, program, policy or initiative respecting expected results.

performance reporting (production de rapports sur le rendement)
The process of communicating evidence‑based performance information. Performance reporting supports decision making, accountability and transparency.

plan (plan)
The articulation of strategic choices, which provides information on how an organization intends to achieve its priorities and associated results. Generally, a plan will explain the logic behind the strategies chosen and tend to focus on actions that lead to the expected result.

planned spending (dépenses prévues)
For Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports, planned spending refers to those amounts presented in main estimates.

A department is expected to be aware of the authorities that it has sought and received. The determination of planned spending is a departmental responsibility, and departments must be able to defend the expenditure and accrual numbers presented in their Departmental Plans and Departmental Results Reports.

program (programme)
Individual or groups of services, activities or combinations thereof that are managed together within the department and focus on a specific set of outputs, outcomes or service levels.

program inventory (répertoire des programmes)
Identifies all the department’s programs and describes how resources are organized to contribute to the department’s core responsibilities and results.

result (résultat)
A consequence attributed, in part, to an organization, policy, program or initiative. Results are not within the control of a single organization, policy, program or initiative; instead they are within the area of the organization’s influence.

statutory expenditures (dépenses législatives)
Expenditures that Parliament has approved through legislation other than appropriation acts. The legislation sets out the purpose of the expenditures and the terms and conditions under which they may be made.

target (cible)
A measurable performance or success level that an organization, program or initiative plans to achieve within a specified time period. Targets can be either quantitative or qualitative.

voted expenditures (dépenses votées)
Expenditures that Parliament approves annually through an appropriation act. The vote wording becomes the governing conditions under which these expenditures may be made.

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