Canada's Reserve Force - RPP 2016-17
The Reserve Force is composed of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members who are enrolled for other than continuous full-time military service.
The Reserves play three key roles in the CAF:
- Operational – trained and ready to respond;
- Canadian Forces presence and community connection; and
- Citizenship, leadership and commitment to country.
The Reserve Force is based on a long standing “citizen soldier” model and serves both as a strategic and operational resource for the CAF by providing depth and breadth to CAF capabilities, a vital link to communities and to Canadians. While Regular Force members are enrolled for a specified term of service, members of the Reserve force are enrolled for an indefinite period of service and as such volunteer to keep themselves ready for duty if and when necessary.
The Reserve Force is comprised of four sub-components: the Primary Reserve (P Res), the Canadian Rangers, the Cadet Organization, Administration and Training Service (COATS) and the Supplementary Reserve. It is important to note that only the Primary Reserve and Canadian Rangers have a role related to CAF operations. The Reserve Force represents a rich heritage and tradition of service to Canada with its presence in local communities throughout the country. A sustainable Reserve Force, trained and equipped to meet the needs and operational challenges of the Department of National Defence (DND) and CAF, is a critical enabler to CAF strategic and operational success.
Primary Reservists and COATS are recruited through CAF recruiting centres manned by both Regular and Reserve personnel. Attraction is accomplished through a combination of national advertising and local initiatives. Some processing is devolved to P Res units.
Reserve Strategy 2015 announced that the Primary Reserve Force strength would grow to 28,500 by 2019 which, in conjunction with the 68,000 Regular Force personnel, will provide a balance across the four pillars upon which military capabilities are built—personnel, equipment, readiness and infrastructure. Ongoing efforts within DND and the CAF will optimize Reserve Force resources and the force structures necessary to ensure that the critical link to communities across Canada is retained and will continue to evolve while facing the full range of defence and security challenges facing Canada now and into the future.
The Primary Reserve
The P Res is a force that consists of predominately part-time professional CAF members, located throughout Canada, ready with reasonable notice to conduct or contribute to domestic and international operations to safeguard the defence and security of Canada. This force is fully integrated into the CAF Chain of Command.
The Primary Reserve is also a diverse military community and management of the P Res and has the responsibility of the environmental Force Generators (Navy, Army, Air Force, Health Services, Judge Advocate General and Special Operations Forces). Specific tasks, roles and missions flow from the Force Generators and employment and training models as well as the degree of integration varies by environment. However, common to all is the contribution to the Defence Mission and the delivery of Canadian Armed Forces capabilities.
The P Res sub-component consists of the following elements:
- The Naval Reserve;
- The Canadian Army (CA) Reserve;
- The Air Reserve;
- Military Personnel Command (MILPERSCOM) Reserve which includes: the CAF Health Services Reserve, MILPERSCOM Primary Reserve List (PRL) and the National Defence Headquarters PRL;
- The Canadian Special Operations Forces Command Reserve (CANSOFCOM); and
- The Legal Reserve.
The Primary Reserve contributes to the overall CAF capability to deliver strategic effects in the defence of Canadian interests both at home and abroad. It consists of professional, well-trained and predominantly part-time CAF members who contribute to the defence and security of Canada by maintaining directed levels of readiness.
Informed by experience gained in multiple domestic and expeditionary operations, the Primary Reserve has proven to be an integral component of the CAF. The ongoing review and refinement of the roles, missions, and operational tasks within each of the services has ensured that Primary Reservists are well prepared, trained, developed, and equipped to work seamlessly alongside the Regular Force in providing the capabilities necessary to achieve operational success at home and abroad. Primary Reservists have an obligation to train a minimum of 14 days annually and to maintain their personal fitness and readiness. Individual training is normally conducted on a scheduled, part-time basis to meet trade or general specifications or to maintain skills (such as annual weapon qualification or first aid certification). A two week annual training is often utilized as an opportunity for collective training. Courses must be structured to accommodate demands of a civilian career/school and family and innovative methods of training delivery have been utilized to facilitate training and professional development. Courses have been modularized into shorter blocks whenever possible and distributed learning is used when feasible. Reserve personnel do not normally perform the same wide variety of tasks expected of a member of the Regular Force they are not trained to the same breadth, nor are Reservists expected to be at the same level of readiness as their Regular Force counterparts. However, many of the occupational specifications are now the same for both and P Res personnel are trained to the same standard. This integrated/common training has a positive impact on employment on operations, component transfers and has resulted in a more integrated CAF.
In international operations, the role of the P Res is to augment, sustain and support deployed forces. P Res personnel comprised up to 20% of deployed forces during recent international operations. With respect to domestic operations, the P Res provides the personnel for coastal, air, and arctic operations and the Territorial Battalion Groups. Reserve units are located in cities across Canada, and as residents of those communities, P Res members work with local first responders in the event of an emergency. P Res domestic operations response has included Disaster Relief Assistance, Search and Rescue, Security and Sovereignty Operations, Support to law-enforcement and Support to major events. There will continue to be significant opportunities for P Res to serve in current and future operations.
The Primary Reserve is now established at 28,500 and the average paid strength over the past year was 21,593. There are approximately 4,000 P Res members performing on-going duty in direct support to the control and administration of the Reserve Force at units, schools and headquarters across the country. On average a further 2,000 P Res members attend or deliver training courses, or provide short-term support to individual units throughout the year. The balance of employment positions has shifted to favour part-time service. Permanent full-time positions have been decreased and aligned to support the priorities of Reserve Force Generation, Support to operations, Reserve Professional Development and Support to the Institution.
Progress has been steady to improve care of Reserve ill and injured members and their families as well as access to a wide range of DND/CAF and Veterans Affairs Canada programs and services. Work continues on the integration of Reserve Force considerations to harmonize policies and programs across the CAF improving and updating internal management policies and directives pertaining to the Primary Reserve.
Reserve contributions to operations and connections with Canadians are critical to the nation and to the environments and communities in which they serve. We must ensure that we attract, develop, support and retain a ready, capable, motivated and relevant P Res force as both a strategic and operational resource for Canada and the CAF well into the future. The Primary Reserve will provide continued support to deployed operations and have demonstrated leadership and professionalism by continuing to respond when called upon for operations, emergencies and exercises at home and around the world.
Primary Reserve elements
The Naval Reserve
The Naval Reserve generates trained individuals for employment at sea and ashore in a wide range of roles. Implementation of a new Command and Control construct is now in place. Additionally, a study is underway to determine and implement the optimum occupation and organizational structures that will enable the Naval Reserve to evolve from supporting specific operational capabilities to becoming a general purpose force. This will facilitate the generation of personnel to augment Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) operational capabilities and supplement the Regular Force component of the RCN, thereby improving support to maritime readiness sustainment and force element production. As part of this process, emphasis will remain on a traditional model of part-time reserve service, thereby fostering close alignment with Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) direction on employment of the Primary Reserve.
The Naval Reserve, through its 24 nationally distributed Naval Reserve Divisions, provided RCN representation at numerous CAF appreciation events and conducted multiple attractions and local leadership engagement activities, supporting the CAF and RCN’ s strategic communications, recruitment and outreach efforts. The current strength of the Naval Reserve is 3,215.
The Army Reserve
Canada's Army Reserve is organized into 123 units, located in 117 cities and communities across the country. The Army Reserve, an integral component of the Canadian Army (CA), is a professional part-time force that provides local engagement and a responsive integrated capability, at home and abroad in sustainment of the Army mission.
After a period of very high operational tempo, the Army Reserve is focusing its efforts on regeneration and expanding to meet its funded strength target of 19,471 part-time soldiers and 1,999 full-time Reservists. The current strength of the Army Reserve is 18,936 part and full-time Reservists. It continues to provide formed capabilities at the unit, sub-unit and sub-sub-unit level as well as individual augmentation to the Regular Force, for domestic and international operations.
Domestically, the Army Reserve contributes to CAF mission sets through Territorial Battalion Groups and Arctic Response Company Groups. These capabilities represent the force employment framework through which the Army Reserve will leverage existing unit structures and capacities to conduct domestic operations as directed.
Internationally, the role of the Army Reserve has expanded to provide up to 20 % of required land force personnel to expeditionary operations through individual and formed capability augmentation on sustained operations.
The Air Reserve
The Air Reserve is employed in total force establishments throughout Canada, working side-by-side with members of the Regular Force and other departmental employees. Air Reservists receive the same training as their Regular Force counterparts and Air Reservists maintain their occupational skills through a combination of specialized training opportunities and routine support of daily Air Force operations. The close integration of the Air Reserve into total force establishments provides a surge capacity to ensure that the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) is able to deliver strategic effects for the CAF particularly during periods of high operational tempo. The Air Reserve continues to offer an operating model that beckons enquiries from foreign services.
Rigorous recruiting and retention marketing strategies were reviewed and further refined to help stem the continued high rate of attrition in the Air Reserve. The tracking of the Air Reserve Campaign plan continues through 2015-16. An analysis of future capability options was initiated for the Air Reserve that will be aligned with RCAF priorities and CAF requirements. This, along with a concerted effort to integrate Regular and Reserve Strategic manning, will endeavour to help achieve a total Air Reserve strength of approximately 2,300 personnel. The current strength of the RCAF is 2,068.
The CF Health Services Reserve
The CF Health Services Reserve (H Svcs Res), with a strength of 1,350 and an average paid strength of 1,025 is organized into two functional groups – 14 Reserve Field Ambulances (Res Fd Ambs), and the 1 Canadian Field Hospital Detachment Ottawa (1 Cdn Fd Hosp Det Ott). Res Fd Ambs force generate trained personnel to support, augment and sustain the CF Health Services Group (H Svcs Gp); provide health services support to affiliated Canadian Brigade Groups (CBGs); and conduct community outreach activities. 1 Cdn Fd Hosp Det Ott specialist clinicians provide depth and breadth to the H Svcs Gp clinical capability on international operations and in military clinics within Canada. In 2015 and in the future, the H Svcs Res remained focused on recruiting, training and retention, resolving Primary Reserve care issues, and performance measurement.
The clinical capability of the Res Fd Ambs and 1 Cdn Fd Hosp Det Ott continues to be enhanced through targeted recruiting and a harmonized recruiting and training plan. Participation in the H Svcs Annual Military Occupation Review (AMOR) ensures synchronization with the overall recruiting strategy of CF H Svcs Gp.
Total Force healthcare focused international collective training opportunities continue to build preparedness, interoperability, and the domestic and international operational response capability to meet Defence imperatives. Domestically, the CF H Svcs Res Primary Care Paramedic (PCP) training initiative continues, as well as partnerships with affiliated CBGs to prepare for Arctic Response Company Group (ARCG) and Territorial Battalion Group (TBG) tasks. A robust study of the resource bill to assess the overall health status of Class A Primary Reservists, undertaken in partnership the Ombudsman’s office, was completed and published. The H Svcs Gp is now working on the development of potential courses of action.
The H Svcs Res continues to focus on quantifying Reserve activities, for integration into the broader CF H Svcs Gp Performance Measurement Framework. Data collection and assessment seeks to convert H Svcs Res potential and capacity into operational capabilities and providing a comprehensive review of all aspects of the H Svcs Res.
The Legal Reserve
In FY 2015-16, the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) achieved a Primary Reserve List (PRL) fill rate of 89%, with Legal Reserve officers occupying 56 out of 63 positions. During the reporting period, reserve JAG officers provided legal support to CAF units as well as to domestic and international operations. Of the 56 occupied positions, 52 JAG PRL legal officers were employed on Class A and short term Class B. No Legal Officers were employed on full time class B.
In addition to the 63 legal officer reserve positions, the Office of the JAG also has 1 full time Class B Resource Management Support clerk who provides administrative support to the JAG PRL.
The Supplementary Reserve
The Supplementary Reserve (Supp Res) is a sub-component of the Reserve Force comprised of CAF members who have previously served in the Regular Force or a sub-component of the Reserve Force. The Supp Res provides a cadre of personnel who are not required for annual training, but who may choose to return to service voluntarily or, under specific conditions, may be placed on active service to augment the Regular or Reserve Force. This sub-component provides the CAF with additional capacity where and when needed.
The Supplementary Reserve consisted of 15,510 members. New Supplementary Reserve Instruction limits the period of service to 5 years.
The Canadian Rangers (CR) are Reservists, who provide a military presence in remote, isolated, and coastal communities of Canada, report unusual activities or sightings, and conduct surveillance or sovereignty patrols as required. Canadian Rangers contribute to the Government's sovereignty and security objectives in the North by providing a military presence in those sparsely settled northern, coastal and isolated areas of Canada which cannot conveniently or economically be covered by other elements of the Canadian Armed Forces. Canadian Rangers also support the Junior Canadian Ranger (JCR) youth program, sponsored by the CAF for youths 12 to 18 in remote and isolated communities. The CR has grown to 179 Patrols and their current strength is approximately 5,100 nationwide. Further growth will be explored over the next few years.
Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service
The Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service (COATS) is composed of Cadet Instructors Cadre (CIC) officers, General Service Officers and Non Commissioned Members whose primary duty is the supervision, administration and training of cadets 12 to 18 years of age.
The COATS mandate is to ensure the safety and welfare of cadets while developing in them the attributes of leadership and citizenship, promoting physical fitness and stimulating their interest in the sea, land and air activities of the CAF. COATS personnel are not subject to Universality of Service and have a unique training and career progression structure. They are not employed in any other CAF capacity beyond the Cadet Program and may serve until age 65.
Employer Support for the Reserve Force
Members of the Reserve Force must balance the demands of military service, family, and their civilian careers or studies. In concert with a network of volunteers from across Canadian businesses, academic institutions and industries, the CAF has developed a comprehensive set of employer support programs, information packages, policies and recognition for employers to ensure that Reserve personnel are available for military service without penalty to their civilian career or educational pursuits. Employer support is an important force enabler for the CAF and has proven critically important in the last two decades where there has been a high proportion of Reservists serving on domestic and international operations.
As the number of Reservists on domestic and international operations increases, employer support and engagement programs evolve to meet the new challenges. Employer Support Programs have expanded to include Canadian Rangers and COATS and our partners include academic institutions, small and large businesses and corporations, industry and organizations across Canada.
In the past ten years we have enhanced our employer support tools beyond programs and information to include federal and provincial job protection legislation for Reservists, employment programs and an employer compensation program.
In 2016, a new program entitled the Compensation for Employers of Reservists Program (CERP) will be introduced. This program provides compensation in the form of grants to eligible civilian employers and self-employed Reservists, in order to offset costs incurred to their businesses while a Reservist employee is deployed on a named operation. The CERP program is designed to augment and strengthen the suite of existing employer support and engagement programs that contribute in sustaining and enhancing a robust and effective CAF.
Canadian Forces Liaison Council
The Canadian Armed Forces Liaison Council (CFLC) is a Canada-wide network of more than 120 senior civilian business executives and educational leaders who volunteer their time and effort to promote the primary Reserve Force by highlighting the benefits of Reserve Force training and experience to the civilian workplace. Supported by a full-time secretariat and a national network of Reserve officers, CFLC assists individual Reservists as well as Reserve units in matters related to employer support.
The mandate of the CFLC is to enhance the availability of Reservists for their military duties by obtaining the support and co-operation of organization leaders in Canada. By increasing the pool of trained and available Reservists for operations, CFLC’s programs directly contribute to the operational readiness of the CAF, while fostering a culture of national support for the CAF as a whole. The CFLC National Council comprises 15 national, provincial and territorial chairs who coordinate and guide strategic programming of the organization in accordance with departmental objectives and initiatives.
The Council has encouraged civilian employers and educational institutions to grant Reservists military leave on a voluntary basis, without penalty, to participate in their military activities, duties and training. To achieve its mandate, CFLC facilitates visits of civilian employers and educators to bases and training establishments, in addition to organising targeted outreach with civic, business and industrial leaders across Canada. These longstanding programs have been refined over time, and are designed to provide participants a clear understanding of the requirements of Reservists, while also highlighting the many tangible benefits employers receive from their Reservist-employees. The CFLC also serves the entirety of the Reserve Force through a national network of liaison officers who directly support the Environmental Commands. This is done through reserve unit visits, providing employer support training to key unit personnel, and directly supporting individual Reservists on a case-by-case basis, through advice and guidance on employer support issues.
There are currently five core employer support and engagement programs. The ExecuTrek and the Outreach programs generate awareness and education of employers, academic leaders and other organizations of the value of Reserve service. The Reserve Assistance Program and Reserve Unit Support Program that support Reservists in engaging employers when there may be challenges regarding a Reservists request for military leave for operations or training. Finally, the Awards and Recognition Program recognizes Canadian businesses and academic institutions who demonstrate outstanding support to their Reservist-employees.
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